1        The Life of Hon. Alex. Del Mar, M.E.                                                         1070-1071


2        The Life of the Hon. Alex. Del Mar                                                            1072-1074


3        The Worship of Augustus Caesar                                                             1075-1107


4        The Middle Ages Revisited                                                                        1108-1116


5        A History of Money in Ancient Countries                                                1117-1117


6        The History of Money in America                                                             1118-1118


7        A History of the Precious Metals                                                              1119-1119


8        Ancient Britain                                                                                            1120-1124


Note: this Addition, is an appreciation of ALEXANDER DEL MAR 1836 - 1926.

Includes background and milieu, that stimulated the creation of the Fictional characterJesus—in Fictional literature (New Testament, etc.). [See: Article #1, 1].


Much complexity. Much instruction. Much suggestion. [See: 1074].


from: The Life of Hon. Alex. Del Mar [1836 - 1926], M.E. [apparently, Mining Engineer], Formerly Director of the Bureau of Statistics of the United States; Superintendent of Mining Commissioners; Mining Commissioner to the United States Monetary Commission; Member of the International Congress at Florence, the Hague and St. Petersburg; Member of the Economical Societies of Paris, New York,

San Francisco, etc.

By J. R. Robertson. Price One Shilling. London: E.F. Gooch & Son, Steam Printers, 55, King William Street, E.C. 1881. [32 pages].

          "In 1866, Mr. Del Mar's ability attracted the notice of the administration of President Johnson, and he was invited to assume the important office of Director of the Bureau of Statistics. At that time the war had closed, and the administration, in obedience to the demands of the country, had set about an attempt to reform the wretched condition of the finances. The revenues indeed, were more than sufficient for the purposes of the Government; but under the law as it then stood, they were levied without equality, justice, economy, or indeed, system of any kind. In a word, the revenues were literally plundered from the people, and plundered indiscriminately. The debt consisted of a great variety of obligations, the currency exhibited even greater heterogeneity and disorder, and the expenditures, as authorised and ordered by Congress, were colossal, extravagant and corrupt." [3-4].


"Opinions of the Press and Eminent Men."

          "Mr. Alexander Del Mar has recently completed his great work on the History of the Precious Metals. As the scope of this work and the manner of its composition are both somewhat remarkable, it will doubtless prove of general interest to describe them. This work was planned so long ago as the year 1854, the author of that date having been the financial editor of one of the New York morning papers. The interval from that year until 1876, when he examined the mines of Nevada and California, was occupied in the studies, travels and collection of books and materials which were deemed necessary for the purpose in view. A number of essays on financial topics, by Mr. Del Mar, which appeared variously in Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, the Social Science Review and the National Intelligencer, attest the industry of the author during this period. Other essays from his pen on similar topics appeared in the editorial columns of the New York Herald, New Nation, and other journals. During all this time his collection of books was constantly increasing, and by the year 1874 they amounted to a library of nearly ten thousand volumes, the collection being particularly rich in the commercial and economical works of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; such as Yarranton, Petty, Lowndes, Harris, Sully, Locke, Tucker, Young, Newton, Maddox, Sinclair, De Luzac, Turgot, Necker, D'Avenant, etc. The historical, politico-economical and statistical sections are also very complete.


Previous to his removal to California the author disposed of the main portion of this valuable library, having no further use for it; nevertheless he has with him about three thousand volumes, most of which are entirely unique in this State...." [29].

          'Alex. Del Mar is a remarkable writer. There is stuff in him. He is the sort of man you need in America. He knows what he is about. He is the sort of man to put things right in your country, or in any country.—John Stuart Mill, at Avignon.—Interview Published in Philadelphia Press, Aug. 16, 1874.' [31].

          'Of Mr. Del Mar, the present head of the Bureau of Statistics, the President spoke in terms of the highest respect and admiration.—Interview with President Andrew Johnson, Buffalo Courier, Sept. 8, 1868.' [31].

          'Mr. Del Mar has a national reputation. In administering the commercial, navigation, emigrant passenger and shipping acts, and supervising the work of the Mining Commissioners, Wm. Ross Browne, and others, he evinced executive talents of a high order and became distinguished as a careful thinker, mature in plan and purpose, and quick and energetic in execution.—New York Wall Street Journal, 1872.' [31].

          'The greatest political economist and statistician living.—Speech of Hon. John B. Storm, of Penn, on Salt Tax, in House of Representatives, Washington, March 22, 1871.' [32].

          'A man of liberal views, deep thought and scientific information.—Elizabeth Cady Stanton in the New York Revolution, April 15, 1868.' [32].

          'He takes facts for the foundations of his arguments and his conclusions are in the main, incontrovertible.—New York Herald, Sept. 29, 1868.' [32].

          'Mr. Del Mar is recognized everywhere as the best-posted and most accurate of statisticians.—Chicago Times, Aug. 1, 1875.' [32] [End of booklet].

_____ _____ _____


from: The Life of the Hon. Alex. Del Mar [1836 - 1826], Formerly Director of the Bureau of Statistics of the United States; Superintendent of Mining Commissioners; Mining Commissioner to the United States Monetary Commission; Clerk to the Committee on Naval Expenditures House of Representatives; Member of the International Congresses at Florence, the Hague, and St. Petersburgh; Member of the Economical Societies of Paris, New York, San Francisco, etc. By Hamilton Wilcox. New York [no publisher listed] 1898. [43 pages].

          "His [Alexander Del Mar] industry was a marvel to those with whom he labored; the breadth of his knowledge, the depth of his insight, the lightning quickness of his judgment, and the splendid business capacity shown by his action, were the wonder and admiration of those who co-operated with his toils; and even the drones of whom unavoidably there were many among his subordinates and colleagues, were shamed, stirred, or driven to unusual exertions." [11].

"Chapter III.

The Author.

          In 1886 Mr. Del Mar removed from San Francisco to London. His active pursuits were ended and he [ALEXANDER DEL MAR] DESIRED TO DEVOTE THE REMAINDER OF HIS LIFE TO STUDY. THIS NECESSITATED LIVING NEAR A GREAT LIBRARY AND THERE IS NO LIBRARY LIKE THAT OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM. In 1885 he published (beside the first edition of Science of Money) a History of Money in Ancient States. This last was a volume of about 400 pages containing the history of money in China, Japan, India, Bactria, Caubal, Afghanistan, Egypt, Persia, Assyria, Babylon, Palestine, Greece, Carthage, Etruria and Rome. In 1886 he published Money and Civilization, a still larger volume, containing the history of money in Arabia, Europe during the Middle Ages, Venice, Genoa, Milan, Spain, Portugal, Brazil, France, Russia, Austro-Hungary, and Turkey.

          In 1895, (beside the second edition of Science of Money) he published a volume of over 500 pages entitled a History of Monetary Systems, containing a history of money in India, Persia, Judea, Greece, Rome, Gotland, Arabia and Moslem Spain, Early England, the Heptarchy, Norman England, Plantagenet England, Saxony, Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Germany and Argentina. In 1898 was published in Paris a French translation of the last named work. A number of pamphlets and minor works were also published, a list of which will be found in the appendix. Mr. Del Mar also completed, but has not yet published, the following works: Ancient Britain by the light of modern archaeological researches; The Middle Ages Revisited, or Europe from Julius Caesar to Frederick Barbarosa; Barbara Villiers, a strange chapter on the monetary history of England; Story of the Gods, from Ies to Augustus; the Divine year, containing 500 chronological aeras and 150 astronomical and astrological cycles [were these two ever published? Incorporated in The Worship of Augustus Caesar?]; History of the Veneti; Ancient History of Iron; History of Feudalism; Agriculture and Productive Resources of France, Russia, Spain, Prussia, Egypt, Austro-Hongary, Bavaria, Portugal, Italy, etc., beside translations of the Life of Hadrian by Aelianus


Spartianus; The Law of Money by François Grimaudet; The Natal Day by Censorius; The Fluctuations of Gold by Baron Alexander von Humboldt; The Mahometan Conquest, by Lavoix, and numerous minor works, essays and studies.

          In 1895 Mr. Del Mar was appointed a delegate to represent the State of California in the great Silver Convention at Memphis at which he delivered the opening address and was elected to the Committee on Resolutions; in 1896 he delivered the opening address before the Silver party convened at the Cooper Union New-York and in the same year was appointed a delegate from New-York to the Silver Convention at St. Louis and Chairman of the Committee of the Silver party in the State of New-York, in which capacity he supported Hon. Wm. J. Bryan for the Presidency of the United States. This completed his twenty—first year of effort in behalf, not of silver metal, in which he never felt the slightest interest, but of silver money, a cause to which he has always contributed a hearty support." ["33"-34]. [End of Chapter III.].

Additional reference: for principal writings of Alexander Del Mar, see: The National Union Catalog, Volume 138, 250-254.

_____ _____ _____

from: "New York Times, Saturday, July 3, 1926."

'Alexander Del Mar, Economist, Is Dead, Mining Engineer, 90, Organized the U.S. Bureau of Commerce in 1865. Was a Financial Editor, Author of "History of Precious Metals" [Startling! Of all the publications of Alexander Del Mar, this is the only mention. Why?]—Gave Library of 15,000 Volumes to Bankers' Association.

          Alexander Del Mar, 90 years old, mining engineer, economist and historian, died on Thursday at the home of his daughter, Mrs. J.G. Lyne, Little Falls, N.J. Until recently he had lived at 262 West Ninety-fourth Street, New York City.

          He was born in New York in 1836, a son of Mr. and Mrs. Jacques Del Mar....

          He was one of the first to point out the cycle of business activity, which he traced in his "History of Money." He took part in the International Monetary Congress in Russia in 1872 at the invitation of the Czar.' [13] [End of obituary].

_____ _____ _____

from: A History of Monetary Crimes, A faithful copy of the edition of 1899 entitled Barbara Villiers or A History of Monetary Crimes, Alexander Del Mar, Published for The Del Mar Society, John Kasper, Publisher Box 552, G.P.O. N.Y. 1. N.Y. "[1952?]".

[Note: this is the only mention I have seen, of "The Del Mar Society"].

_____ _____ _____


from: the Internet:

"The National Poetry Foundation

History of Monetary Systems

Alexander Del Mar

A facsimile reprint of del Mar's book, which became a major source for Pound's [Ezra Pound 1885 - 1972 (controversial, complex, etc.)] later cantos. 1983 444 pages..."

Excepting the foregoing (1070-1074), I do not recall seeing one mention (somewhere, I did see at least one mention [see Article #9, 224-225]) of Alexander Del Mar.

Some of his books on money, have been republished by the Burt Franklin Press.

_____ _____ _____

Added 2/27/2005 (from the Internet (found 2/13/2005)):

'Academic exclusion: the case of Alexander Del Mar [1836 - 1926]

Joseph Aschheim a and George S. Tavlas b, c

aDepartment of Economics, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA

bEconomic Research Department, Bank of Greece, 21 El. Venizelos Avenue, 10250, Athens, Greece

cThe World Bank, Washington DC 20433, USA

Received 12 November 2001; Revised 10 December 2002; accepted 3 January 2003. Available online 20 February 2004.


Alexander Del Mar's prescient and profound contributions to monetary economics have been basically disregarded for the duration of a century. This paper sets out Del Mar's contributions to monetary economics and economic statistics and demonstrates the striking relevance of his contributions to modern monetary thought. The contemporary arbiters and judges of intellectual merit were aware of Del Mar's writings but Del Mar was excluded from contemporary reference and recognition. His exclusion had led to his having been denied his rightful place in the history of economic thought. One explanation for the silencing of Del Mar is that his intellectual position placed him in opposition to the views of the leaders of the profession. Del Mar was also forthright in his criticisms of his contemporaries' views and was open in his writings in commenting on prior anti-Semitism. We present evidence suggesting that prejudice and bigotry in high places in academia were involved in Del Mar's exclusion from the consolidating profession of academic economists in the late 19th century.

...Author Keywords: Alexander Del Mar; Academic exclusion; Prejudice in academia; History of monetary theory; Plagiarism'

_____ _____ _____


from: The Worship of Augustus Caesar [63 B.C.E. - 14 C.E. (First Roman Emperor 27 B.C.E. - 14 C.E.)], Derived from a Study of Coins, Monuments, Calendars, Aeras and Astronomical and Astrological Cycles, The Whole Establishing A New Chronology and Survey of History and Religion, by Alexander Del Mar [1836 - 1926], The Christian Book Club of America, 1976 (1899). [Bibliography: "xi"-xxiv]. [See: #2, 17-40].


'This bronze plaque of the city of Assos [Ancient Greek city on the (now) Northwestern coast of Turkey. The Island of Lesbos is "7" miles offshore] reports that the government of Assos by popular vote in A.D. 37 begs the favor of the Emperor Caligula [37 - 41 C.E. (12 - 41)], saying that "Every city and every nation is eager to behold the face of the God, feeling that the most delightful age for mankind is now begun....We swear by the Savior and God, Caesar Augustus, and by our holy local deity, Athena [Greek Goddess (identified with the Roman Minerva)], to be loyal to Gaius Caesar Augustus and all his house, to deem as friends those whom he favors and as enemies those whom he designates. With things to go well with us if we keep our oath, and the opposite if we break it"' [End papers].


Excursus: from: Article #3, 372.:


'The standard phrase "the beginning of the gospel" (archē tou euangeliou) of Caesar (or whomever) seems to have been widespread in the Graeco-Roman world. A stone from the marketplace of Priene in Asia Minor reads: "THE BIRTHDAY OF THE GOD (AUGUSTUS) WAS FOR THE WORLD THE BEGINNING OF EUANGELION BECAUSE OF HIM."4 Mark uses the same formula to open his book: "The beginning of the gospel [Archē tou euangeliou] of Jesus Christ the Son of god [theou hyios]." Even the Greek phrase "SON OF GOD" WAS COMMONLY USED FOR AUGUSTUS; on a marble pedestal from Pergamum is carved: "THE EMPEROR CAESAR, SON OF GOD (theou hyios), GOD AUGUSTUS."5 Mark begins his mythical biography of Jesus with ready-made language and concepts, intending perhaps a challenge: euangelion ["good news, gospel"] is not of Caesar but of Christ!'

[source(s) for footnotes 4, 5, above?]. End of Excursus.


"The employment of the Ecliptical Cycle ["Cycle of the Eclipses" (see 1076-1077, 1080, 1087, 1090)] for computing the lapse of time furnished a key to the history and progress of ancient astronomy, which it was hoped might unlock at least one door to the remote past. It proved to be capable of unlocking many. Meanwhile the author's attention was drawn to researches of a more practical nature. He brought the statistical method to bear upon a comparison of dates from ancient sources, of which he now made a more extensive collection. The result was the disclosure that


the Roman chronology had been altered, first, to the extent of 78 years (sunk) by Augustus, and afterwards to the extent of 15 years (restored) by the Latin Sacred College. It was also perceived that Augustus had changed the Olympiads from five-year to four-year intervals, and had thus altered many Greek and other dates to the extent of 108 years." ["vii"]. [Validity? Research to corroborate, etc.].

"RELIGION was never a special creation, but on the contrary, has been the PRODUCT OF EVOLUTION; an evolution which, beginning in India, still goes on and will go on forever." [viii].

          "The worship of Augustus has been admitted by so many eminent critics that there can be no longer any doubt about the fact. Its religious significance lies in the inferences that are to be drawn from it....his actual worship as...SON OF GODDIVUS FILIUS—was enjoined and enforced by the laws of the empire, accepted by the priesthood and practised by the people; and that both de jure ["by right or legal establishment"] and de facto ["existing...though not by legal establishment"] it constituted the fundamental article of the Roman imperial and ecclesiastical Constitution." [viii, ix]. [See: 1098-1099 (Divus Julius)].

"The Worship of Augustus Caesar;

A New Chronology and Survey

of History and Religion.


Chapter I.

The Cycle of the Eclipses [see 1080].

          Of all the nations of antiquity, the East Indians are the only ones whose chronology, albeit like the others fundamentally astrological, possesses any such astronomical harmony or such symphony of dates as, even with the greatest prudence, can be made to yield useful and reliable results...." ["1"].

          "It is a more or less commonly accepted belief, that astronomy is the offspring of astrology. The writer's reading and observation has led him to the opposite conclusion, namely that astrology is a development of astronomy; in other words, that nearly the entire mass of fancies, verbalisms, and conceits, known as astrology, owes its origin and its strength to previous discoveries in astronomy. Astronomy no sooner discovered a fact, than astrology at once turned it to practical account. The date of one is, therefore, an almost infallible guide to that of the other." [2].

          "The use of the Cycle of Eclipses can not only be traced in Miletus to the period of Thales [fl. 6th century B.C.E.], it belongs to an older period in Egypt and Chaldea, and to a still older period in India. Man has practised the arts of imposture from so remote an epoch, he has been so ingenious in perverting the truth, that no safe reliance can be placed upon anything that he has directly affirmed or written with reference to antiquity. History is not to be gleaned from the memorials which have


been preserved, but rather from those which have been lost, neglected, or forgotten. MAN, WHEN VIEWED GENERALLY, IS A CONSTITUTIONAL ROMANCER, one who is altogether too cunning to be convicted out of his own mouth. The progress of astronomical knowledge, which he can neither forge nor pervert, affords much more reliable testimony concerning the progress of astrology, and therefore, of religion and history, than anything which he has written on these subjects. Prominent in this range of knowledge was the Cycle of the Eclipses and the sinister use to which he put it." [3].

'The...alterations of 108 [years], including 78 years in the calendar, which were effected by Augustus Caesar, a subject yet to be treated herein, has thrown many ancient dates out of joint. Could they be re-established, it would probably be found that the adoption of the 12 months' year in Greece took place somewhat earlier than B.C. 508; most likely between that year and the date of the calendar reform of Solon [c. 630 - c. 560 B.C.E.]; in other words, about B.C. 550.

          However, it will be observed that in addition to several explicit accounts of the change from a ten to a twelve months' year, we have several accounts of changes in the zodiac. One says that "Musaeus" invented the sign of the Archer; another, that two zodions were made out of one, namely, the Balance and Scorpion out of the Scorpion); while still another asserts that Cleostratus first gave to the zodiac the Lamb and the Archer. The Rev. Dr. Greswell [Edward Greswell 1797 - 1869], without even suspecting that the zodiac previously had but ten signs, believes that the most recent zodions are the Waterman and the Fishes;9 but his evidence on this point has to be weighed against that of Pliny.

          If these conclusions concerning a ten months' year fail to agree with the appearance of a 12 months' year in the Hebrew Scriptures or with the opinions of those expositors who claim for the Hebrew Scriptures a greater antiquity than the time of Solon, it is because such a claim lacks the support of evidence. There is nothing whatever but conjecture in favour of the greater antiquity of the existing version of the Old Testament. There is no extant manuscript of the Bible older than the Christian aera, nor indeed is there one so old; whilst the Bible itself does not pretend to be older than the period when Hilkiah the priest found the Book of the Law and carried it to Shaphan, the scribe. This was about B.C. 454.10' ["10I Kings, xii."]. [14-15].

'Chapter III.

The Ludi Saeculares, and Olympiads.

          The great festival of the Ludi Saeculares [Secular Games] which marked the sexagessimal subdivision of the Divine Year, was probably inherited by the Romans from the Etruscans. It is said to have been fully explained in the "Life and Customs of the Romans" by M. Terentius Varro [116 - 27 B.C.E.], a work written, as we learn from passages in Pliny, Nonius and Cicero [106 - 43 B.C.E.], in A.U. [A.U. = A.U.C. = ab urbe condita: "from the foundation of the city (of Rome)" (Dict. Foreign Words and Phrases)] 704 [50 B.C.], or 705 [49 B.C.]; but now lost.1 According to Censorinus [3rd century], Varro stated that the Etruscans had celebrated seven of these festivals at the following intervals of time: 105, 105, 105, 105, 123, 119 and


119 years; total 781 years. This information Varro said he got from the Annals of Etruria, written in the eighth cycle; octavum tum demum agi (Censorinus xviii); that is to say, the eighth cycle was then begun. If A.U. 704 [50 B.C.] means 50 years before our aera2 and Varro wrote directly after the beginning of the eighth cycle, it follows from the foregoing data that the Etruscan aera, from which the Cyclical Games took their periods, began before B.C. 831. On the other hand, if, as we shall presently furnish reasons to believe, the Varronian date, A.U. 704, means 35 years before our aera (a difference from the previous hypothesis of 15 years) then the Etruscan aera began on or before B.C. 816; thus, 35 plus 781=816. According to Dodwell, the Etruscan aera began with Procas, king of Alba, B.C. 816, the very same year to which the present calculation conducts us.3 ACCORDING TO SIR ISAAC NEWTON [1642 - 1727] THE ROMAN AERA WAS 120 YEARS WRONG. What we shall endeavor to prove is that it was formerly 78 years and is still 63 years wrong.' [17].

"IN THE FIXING OF MYTHOLOGICAL OR RELIGIOUS AERAS THE REMOTEST ONE IS USUALLY OF THE MOST RECENT MANUFACTURE; otherwise the myth to which it [the aera] is attached runs the risk of losing every advantage that is to be gained by the assumption of superior antiquity. Indeed this may be termed the very basic law of mythological chronology; and examples of its operation may be found in the histories of all the ancient states.10" [23].

          "Sixth. Evidences that the Augustan chronology was corrupted appear in every direction. The works of the earliest Roman historians have all disappeared. Of Quinctus Fabius Pictor, Lucius Cincius Alimentus, Marcus Portius Cato, Lucius Calpurnius Piso, Lucius Callius Antipater, Cnaeus Gellius, Caius Licinius Macer, Lucius Aelius Tubero, Quintus Valerius Antias, or Lucius Sissena, not a vestige remains, beyond the brief references to these authors which appear in the works of the Augustan writers. UNDER THE PRETENCE OF PIETY AUGUSTUS ORDERED THE COLLECTION AND DESTRUCTION OF NUMEROUS ANCIENT AND CONTEMPORARY WORKS. OF THESE, TWO THOUSAND PERISHED IN A SIMPLE AUTO DA FÉ. (SUET. AUG. 30.) OF THE FEW THAT WERE SPARED, ALL HAVE BEEN MUTILATED. Quintus Ennius is known to us by little more than his name. Polybius is hacked to pieces; the historical works of Cicero have all perished; Cornelius Nepos is in fragments and without dates; of 142 books in Livy's History of Rome, but 45 remain, and many of these are mutilated or corrupted; of Ovid's Fasti, out of 12 books, but six remain; Manilius has been largely tampered with; many others have been divested of dates; and Varro, the most voluminous of the Augustan writers, is known to us only by two detached and imperfect pieces. In all these works the chronology, when any chronology appears, is suspicious and bears the look of having been altered. Names, generations and dates fail to agree. The lives of men are thrown into one age, while their works furnish evidence that they lived in another; and the archaeological remains bear similar testimony.11" [23].

"By this addition of 15 years to the Roman reckoning they made the year of Romulus B.C. 753 and the Apotheosis ["deification", etc.] of Augustus B.C. 15; whereas in fact THE AERA OF AUGUSTUS (HIS APOTHEOSIS) AND THE AERA OF JESUS CHRIST WERE IDENTICALLY THE SAME down to the time of that later astrologer,


whoever he was, that made or completed the restoration of 15 years to the calendar.15" [28]. [validity?].

'To win the Romans from the degrading worship to which they had been forced by the impious decrees of the Caesars, the christian authorities were constrained to employ such devices as were suited to the opinions and prejudices of the times. Among these was that well established law of astrology, that incarnations would or must occur only at the period of a conjunction of the Sun and Moon. Hence the Latin papacy proclaimed that Jesus was born at Midnight, on the winter solstice and was conceived on the preceding vernal equinox, when "the Sun and Moon conjoined over Jerusalem." To connect the incarnation of Jesus with that of Romulus was an obviously indispensable condition to the firm establishment of the christian religion in Rome. This was done by fixing the year of Romulus in Olym. VI, 3, in which, according to Antimachus, such a conjunction had actually occurred. Olym. VI, 3 was the year B.C. 753, according to the present chronology. Consequently this year was indicated by the christian chronologers as that of Romulus; and thus the aera [beginning with the apotheosis ["deification", etc.] of Augustus] of Augustus was forced backward 15 years and MADE TO APPEAR 15 YEARS B.C.; whereas it was not and is not the fact.' [29-30].

          "The reader will bear in mind [note the following negation] that it is not the existence, nor the story, nor the heavenly mission, nor the divine attributes of Jesus that are herein questioned; it is simply asserted that the aera which we now use is in fact the aera of Augustus, altered by post-Augustan astrologers, under direction or with consent of the Latin Sacred College [definition? generic term?], to the extent of 15 years; and that, leaving out of present view the intermediate alteration made by Augustus, the year of Rome now used is 63 years out of harmony with the year of Rome, as reckoned at the time of Timaeus, Piso, Ennius, Sylla, Cicero and Tacitus.19" [33].

          "Under all the ancient hierarchical governments the aera was invariably reckoned from the Nativity, Apotheosis, or Ascension of an Incarnated god, or Deified Ruler; witness the aeras of Ies Chrishna, Buddha, Nebo-Nazaru, Romulus, Alexander the Great, the Seleucidae, the Ptolemies, Julius Caesar, etc. Under the ancient republics the aera was reckoned from the incumbencies of public officials, as the archons of Athens, or the consuls of Rome. Sometimes, though much more rarely than is represented by chronologists, the aera was reckoned from the foundation of cities. But under the hierarchies the aera was invariably reckoned from an Incarnation. In fact the practice continues to the present day, both in India, Thibet, China and Abyssinia. The fulsome and impious acclamations of Manilius, Virgil, Ovid, Horace and other poets of the Augustan court leave us no room to doubt that this practice was followed by Augustus; and that to bring the Ludi Saeculares [Secular Games] to the year of his own Apotheosis he sank 78 years from the calendar of the Commonwealth and destroyed or altered all the literary works that were supposed to clash with his pretension of superhuman origin and the theory it involved of synchronism with the sacred period of the Divine Year, the Incarnations and the Ludi Saeculares [validity?]." [33-34].


          'It should be added that most of the aeras of Troja Capta ["Capture of Troy" (from the index)] that still survive are worked backward from the Olympiads; so that when these were shifted, Troja Capta was shifted with them. For example, several of the Greek chronologers counted from the first Olympiad backward to the return of the Heraclidae 328 years; and to the Capture of Troy 80 years more. Many of the other dates of Troja Capta come from suspicious sources, as that imputed to Eratosthenes by Clement Alexandrinus, who is assigned to the third century of our aera, but who (or his work) may be later. The original of the canon of Eratosthenes is "lost;" the MSS. of Milan and Venice disagree; while both contain Hebrew dates.25 These circumstances indicate that it was composed or else altered (probably altered) during the medieval ages. Other aeras of Troja Capta, as that of the Parian marble, are anonymous; they lack authority; or, as in this case, they have been tampered with and altered.26 It is a suspicious circumstance that the canons of Eratosthenes and Callimachus vary by 56 years until they reach the date B.C. 776, when they at once harmonize. It is also suspicious that not a single chronological aera is left in Herodotus [c. 485 - c. 425 B.C.E.] or Thucydides [c. 460 - c. 400 B.C.E.]. As for the canon of Censorinus [3rd century C.E.], it has evidently been thoroughly "revised" and altered by the Latin Sacred College. In short, we have no reliable, no original date of Troja Capta; and if we had one, unless it was recorded in terms of the Brahminical or Hindu Divine Year, or of some other astronomical conjunction, there would remain no event by which it could be fixed in time.' [38].

"Chapter IV.

Astrology of the Divine Year.

          We now come to the most significant and important of the various influences that have governed the calendar; the key to the aeras, and the corner stone to astrology. This is the Divine Year, or Cycle of the Eclipses [see 1075], consisting of 223 lunar revolutions of 6586 2/3 days (approx.) or 18 years and 10 or 11 days (approx.) During this period there will usually be 41 eclipses of the sun and 29 of the moon. Familiarity with the cycle will enable anyone to foretell an eclipse with almost unerring certainty; so that in ages when ignorance and superstition were rife, the few possessors of this information were armed with almost supernal power over the human mind. Although there can be little doubt that Thales [c. 624 - c. 545 B.C.E.] was familiar with the Cycle of the Eclipses and therefore with the periods of lunar as well as solar eclipses, yet a century after this time, the Greek priests caused Anaxagoras [c. 500 - 428 B.C.E.] to be thrown into prison for daring to reveal these periods. One of the consequences of this ecclesiastical monopoly of science was the defeat of the Athenian army before Syracuse, an event which both Thucydides [c. 460 - c. 400 B.C.E.] and Plutarch [c. 46 - c. 120 C.E.] impute to an unexpected eclipse of the moon...." [39].

'Chapter VII.


In the following collection of Aeras (Table M) all the dates have been couched in the


Vulgar Aera beginning January 1st, A.D. I. This date coincides with the year 4004 of the World, according to Bishop Usher; 3760 of the modern Jewish Anno-Mundi; 3102 of the Brahminical Calijoga; 884 of the five-year Olympiads; 816 of Rome, according to Timaeus, Cicero and others; 776 of the four-year Olympiads; 753 of Rome, according to Varro [Marcus Terentius Varro 116 - 27 B.C.E.]; 747 of Nebo-Nazaru, or "Nabonassar" and 15 of Augustus. It should be observed that the Greek Olympiads, which were originally five-year periods or pentaeteris, whose epoch was in B.C. 884 were altered during the Augustan period to four-year periods of tetrateris, whose epoch was fixed in B.C. 776, thus making a difference in many deduced dates of 108 years. It should also be observed that the aera of Rome, from which many dates are commonly deduced by the equivalent A.U. [ab urbe condita (A.U.C. (see 1112))] 753 = A.D. 0 [sic], or A.U. 754 = A.D. I, has evidently been altered twice; that the antiquity of Rome was reduced by Augustus from B.C. 816 to B.C. 738 whilst it was afterwards augmented by the Latin Sacred College to B.C. 753, which has long been and is still its familiar aera. When these changes were made, the various manuscripts within reach of the college, whether Augustan or medieval, in which deductions from, or comparisons with the Greek Olympiads or other foreign aeras occurred, were altered to tally with such changes of the aera. But in such a vast undertaking some of the equivalent dates were overlooked; manuscripts then lost to view have since been recovered; and above all, immense collections of ancient coins and marbles have been brought into view in recent years; all of which evidences unite to restore the ancient dates and prove the age and extent of the alterations. In the present work, except where explicit notice is given to the reader, these alterations of the Sacred College have not been touched. No attempt has been made to reconstruct the accepted chronology. Nevertheless, it is but proper to advise the reader that the alterations of the Roman aera above alluded to were not made without introducing a host of conflicting dates into history, which hitherto the modern critic has sought in vain to reconcile with probability. A large proportion of these dislocations arise out of the 15 years of alteration which was made or completed by the Sacred College, probably during the pontificate of Gregory VII, A.D. 1073-85. Many dislocations which arose from the Augustan alterations of 108 and 78 years, are still to be observed in historical accounts....' [62-63].

          "B.C. 6984, Europe.—Dionysian Anno Mundi, computed by Alionso X, King of Castile and Leon and published under his patronage in A.D. 1488, in about which year the end of the world had been predicted. This collection of astronomical and astrological materials is known as the Alfonsine or Alphonsine tables. According to Muller, the Anno Mundi of the royal astrologer was B.C. 6984; while Strauchius says it was B.C. 6484. Assuming Muller's equivalent to be the more correct one, the Anno Mundi of Alfonso appears to have been constructed of 13 Dionysian divine years (each of 532 common years), dating backward from B.C. 78. This would carry it to B.C. 6994 instead of 6984. See Table D." [63]. [Earliest entry].

          'B.C. 6777, N. India.—Buddhic aera. Says Pliny, Nat. Hist. VI, xxxi, 5: "From Liber Pater (Buddha, or Bacchus, or Dion-Isus), to Alexander the Great, the Indians count 6451 years and three months."—"Annis VI, MCCCCLI adjiciunt et menses tres." This aera began on the autumnal equinox, or "menses tres" before the anniversary of the Apotheosis of Alexander the Great, which latter event was


celebrated in Egypt on the winter solstice. The 6451 years are reckoned backward from Alexander's Conquest of the Punjab, B.C. 326. The figure given by Pliny, namely 6451 years from Dionysius to Alexander, is supported by Solinus, who in ch. 64 (53) has the same figure for the same interval. Arrian's figure of 6042 years from Dionysius to Sandrocottus is substantially the same thing: It measures the interval from Buddha, B.C. 6384 (Table D) to Chandra Gupta, B.C. 342. Pliny and Solinus adopted the method of computation reported by Megasthenes, while Arrian preferred the Dionysian method which had become popular in the West.' [63-64].

          "B.C. 1426, India.—Year when the Equinoctial point V.E. was in Crittica (one of the Pleiads). Crittica now marks the third, whereas formerly it marked and gave its name to the first, nachshatra. Colebrooke [Henry T. Colebrooke 1765 - 1837]. This was a period of great activity in Hindu astronomy. It was also the period when Mercury, Venus, Mars and Jupiter were in occultation, B.C. 1424-6. Brennand [W. Brennand]. Laplace [Pierre Simon Marquis de Laplace 1749 - 1827] appears to prefer fixing the period of astronomical activity in B.C. 1491. At all events there is a substantial agreement between Jones [Sir William Jones 1746 - 1794], Bailly [Jean Sylvain Bailly 1736 - 1793. French astronomer; first mayor of Paris (1789); guillotined!], Laplace, Colebrooke, Bentley [John Bentley] and Burgess [Ebenezer Burgess 1805 - 1870] that in the 15th century B.C. the Hindus were acquainted with the equable year, the nodical cycle, the Precession of the Equinoxes and the period of Jupiter. These phenomena form the astronomical bases of the astrology of the Hindu Ies Chrishna, the Egyptian Hes-iris, the Greek Jasius and the Roman Janus." [84].

          "B.C. 1000, India.—Approximate aera of the original Hindu code of Manu. The variants, Manu, Manou, Mani, Muni, Manes, Manis, Mannus, Menes, Menu, Minas, Munnoo, etc., represent the name of an ancient oriental god, lawgiver, hero, or mythos, whose alleged institutes are still observed by the Brahmins of India and whose imaginary aera stands at the head of the false chronologies both of that country and of Egypt. The Hindu Code of Manu has been frequently altered, the last time apparently about A.D. 500. It was translated from Sanscrit into Persian and thence into English in 1775. An English translation was made direct from the Sanscrit in 1794. The work in its present form has evidently undergone many alterations, some of which are regarded by Buller (ed. 1884) to be as recent as the date above mentioned. But there can be little doubt that the bulk of the work belongs to a remoter antiquity. Colebrooke ascribes it to the 16th century B.C.; Vivien de Ste. Martin, 13th to 12th century B.C.; Sir Wm. Jones, to some period after the 10th century B.C.; and H.H. Wilson, to the 9th century B.C. For the more extreme views of Müller and of Cowell, consult Marsden's "Num. Orient," ed. 1874, p. 5. In the Greek mythology of the republican period Manes was multiplied and degraded into a plurality of gods, spirits or genii, whose common mother was Mania and whose beneficence is first invoked in the alleged poems of Orpheus. This would assign the Greek conception of Manes to a period prior to the Fall of Troy. But Aristotle's doubt concerning the reality of Orpheus and of the genuineness of his hymns deprives these dates of any certain historical basis. We can only conclude with safety that the Greek knowledge of Manes ascends to and probably beyond the age of Solon, and coincides with that of the second Buddha; while in the Orient, his code was in vogue several centuries earlier." [112-113].


          "B.C. 753, Rome.—Anno Urbis Conditae [ab urbe condita (A.U.C.): "from the foundation of the city (of Rome)" (Dict. Foreign Words and Phrases)], the Year of the Building of Rome, according to Varro [Marcus Terentius Varro 116 - 27 B.C.E.], hence called the Varronian date. A number of other determinations are mentioned in chapter III hereof. See also B.C. 816, 814 and 750. The epoch is universally fixed in Palalia, II Cal. May, translated April 21st. The date of the Building, or Foundation, also marks the incarnation of Romulus ["Son of God and Founder of the City" [Rome] (18)], or Quirinus, who was born of the god Mars and the vestal virgin, Rhea Silvia (sometimes Ilia, sometimes Romana, sometimes Roma). Romulus was a ten months' child [see 1088-1089] of florid complexion and auburn locks; who soon after his birth, which occurred in a lowly cottage in Rama or Rome, was condemned, together with his twin brother Remus, to be drowned. The water shrank back from the odious crime and the infants were saved by a she-wolf, who reared them on her milk until they were rescued by shepherds. During his active career he was guarded or accompanied by 300 Celeres or Selecti. Not only his birth, but his death was miraculous; for being condemned by the tyrant Amulius, he was torn to pieces, died, rose again and was seen by Proculus Julius walking after his demise, which occurred in his 33rd year. Cicero, de Legibus I, 2, 3; Ovid, Fasti, III. The Sun was eclipsed when Romulus expired." [118].

[note: more, pre "Jesus", background (above, below (passim))].

          'B.C. 552, Burma.—Death of Buddha in his 80th year. The 148th year of the Eetzana aera and commencement of the Religious aera. The world convulsed by earthquakes. Bishop Paul A. Bigandet [d. 1894], in his "Life or Legend of Gaudama," furnishes the following account from Burmese sources: Buddha was a ten months' child [see 1088-1089], miraculously born of the queen Maia, impregnated by the god Phralaong, his putative father being king Thoodandana. Immediately after his birth Buddha was recognised as of divine origin and was worshipped by the wise and powerful, among others by his putative father. He preached a Sermon on the Mount, converted the courtesan Apapalika, performed numerous miracles, partook of a Last Supper with his disciples and died in the "148th year of the Eetzana aera, in the full moon of Katson, on a Tuesday, a little before day-break." He was conceived in the year 67 of the Eetzana; born in 68, on a Friday; retired to meditate in solitude in 96, on a Monday; and became a Buddha in 103, on a Wednesday. After his ascension king Adzatathat abolished the Eetzana aera and substituted the Religious aera beginning in the 148th year thereof, or that of the Buddha's death.' [142].

          "B.C. 533, Persia.—Persian aera. Deification of Cyrus the Elder. He was the son of god, miraculously born of the virgin Mandane, the daughter of Astyges, his putative father being Cambyses. (Herod. Clio., 107, 204). Owing to the prediction of the Magi, his grandfather issued orders for his destruction while he was yet an infant. In pursuance of this cruel decree Cyrus was given out to be put to death, but was providentially saved by a shepherd. After some years of service as pastor, Cyrus was recognised as the predicted heaven-born prince of the world, and as such was invited to ascend the throne of Persia. The name of his mother, as it appears in the extant MSS. of Herodotus [c. 485 - c. 425 B.C.E.], may be a corruption of Mania, Mariana, etc. This name appears in Mariandynia, a province and people of Asia Minor


under the sway of Cyrus, probably named after Maryamma or else her namesake, the Pescenuntian mother. See B.C. 205 Rome. The Mariandynians were apparently the same people alluded to in Polymnia 76, whose name is effaced in the MSS., and who, like the Carians, or Leleges, wore peculiar crests upon their horned helmets. Herod. Clio, 171; Strabo, voc. Leleges. Cf. Abbé Halma, on Ptolemy, p. 208. Cyrus was born about B.C. 594, ascended the throne 569, was deified and worshipped in 543 or 533, and died in 529. According to Mirkhond, Cyrus did not die at all; he disappeared supernaturally. Diodorus [Diodorus Siculus fl. 1st century B.C.E.] says that he was crucified." [144].

          "B.C. 63, India.—....Like the other oriental incarnations Salivahana's advent ["coming or arrival"] was foretold by the astrologers and it appears in the Cumarica C'handra; his celestial father was Ies-nu; his putative father Taishaca, the carpenter; his virgin mother, Maia; his star, the Messianic. Originally the nativity of Salivahana was fixed at Easter B.C. I; it now stands, owing to the alteration of the Roman calendar, at the winter solstice, B.C. 63. Salivahana was born in a cottage, among shepherds, but was immediately recognized by seers as the Expected One. His head was rayed; his complexion black; his hair wooly. He performed numerous miracles, fasted 40 days, had 12 disciples, was persecuted by Vicramaditya and overcame him. At length he was condemned for his doctrines and died upon the cross, (Higgins' [Godfrey Higgins 1773 - 1833] Anacal., I, 662) at the vernal equinox, upon which, the sun was eclipsed. He descended to hell, released the condemned, remained three days and nights, rose again and ascended to heaven, an event which is celebrated by the Indian Houli. His principal sacrament was baptism, his symbol the † and his zodion [reportedly, Greek: little animal; here, apparently used for a sign ("Fishes") of the Zodiac], the Fishes." [169].

          'B.C. 40, Judea.—After the assassination of Caesar several provincial rulers impiously set themselves up as gods on earth and demanded to be worshipped as such. Among these were Herod, Marc Antony, Sextus Pompeius and Augustus; the last one destroying or subduing all the rest. Herod was born in B.C. 73, (Hole), or B.C. 66, (Hales). He assumed the godship in Olym. clxxxv, B.C. 40), when Cn. Domitius Calvinus II, and C. Asinius Pollio were consuls. Upon his [Herod] coins appeared the sacred symbol of the cross, in several forms, mostly with "Year III." His employment of the cross on his coins was probably interdicted [forbidden, etc.] by Augustus and Antony, who, however, subsequently confirmed him in his kingdom, but not in his godship. After the battle of Actium he paid a relief of 800 talents to Augustus. Herod rebuilt the Jewish temple to Yaova, but erected a larger one to Augustus, called the Caesareum. The City of Samaria he renamed Sebastos, and throughout his life he erected numerous temples to Augustus, which he named after him and in which the worship of Augustus, as god upon earth, was enjoined and conducted. Herod reigned 37 years and died B.C. 4. Josephus [c. 37 - c. 100], Ant. XIV, xiv, 5; XIV, xiv, 15; XIV, xvi, 4; XVII, viii, 1; Wars, I, xxxiii, 8.' [179-180].

          "B.C. 40, Rome.—....The word aera itself is derived from...A, meaning anno; E R, erat; A, Augusti." [180].

[Note: Alexander Del Mar uses the word "aera", anachronistically].


           'B.C. 15, Rome.—Apotheosis ["deification", etc.] of Augustus Caesar, as Lord of the World and Prince of Peace, and the official date of his aera, viz., A.U. 738 [16 B.C.]. Augustus was the Son of Maia, (Horace, lib. I, ode ii, line 43,) by the god Apollo. (Suet. in Aug. 94.) This year marks the permanent closure of the temple of Janus and an epoch of universal peace. By assuming that the aera of Romulus Quirinus began 738 years before, that it was that of his Apotheosis ["deification", etc.], and that his Apotheosis occurred when Romulus Quirinus was 33 years old, the Augustan astrologers brought the beginning of the eighth cycle of 110 years, celebrated by the Ludi Saeculares, precisely to this year, and the Ludi were actually celebrated in accordance with that reckoning. Thus, seven cycles=770 years, less 33=A.U. 737 [17 B.C.]. This ended the seventh cycle. The eighth began with A.U. 738, or B.C. 15 [16]. Suetonius, Aug. 100; Censorinus, De Die Natale, XVII; "Middle Ages Revisited," App. S. From this time forward the worship of Augustus as the Son of God became the official religion of Rome. Aera I, or ANNO DOMINI, I, MEANT THE FIRST YEAR OF OUR LORD AUGUSTUS. All these dates were afterwards altered to the extent of 15 years. (For the word "aera," see B.C. 40. [see 1084]) From the chronological evidence furnished by coins [can be problematic], some of the most important institutes of the empire have been traced to this date....' [183].

          'A.D. 1, Rome.—The Christian aera, which, as now used, began at midnight between December 31, B.C. I, and January 1, A.D. I. The year (not the day) of this aera is attributed to Dionysius Exiguus [see #3, 43, 207.], a Scythian monk and astrologer, who, it is claimed, flourished during the reign of Justinian I., and computed this year from the paschal cycle which began B.C. 8 and ended A.D. 524, but who is much more likely to have flourished during the reign of Justinian II., A.D. 705, because no evidence has been adduced to prove that the aera was employed before December 1, A.D. 781, during the pontificate of Hadrian I. Bury's "Later Roman Empire," II, 504.' [187].

"The Christian aera is based on the Nativity of Jesus Christ at Bethlehem in Judea, which, according to the gospels, occurred during the procuratorship of Cyrenius ["Cyrenius" = Quirinius], or Quirinus [A.D. 6], and the reign of Herod [died B.C. 4], while the Roman tax levy of Augustus was in progress and at a period of the year when the flocks were feeding in the fields." [187].

"Numerous attempts have been made to sychronise these dates, but with so little success that Scaliger [Joseph Justus Scaliger 1540 - 1609] regarded the determination of the Nativity as beyond the skill of man. The Natal Day has been celebrated in various ages on Martinmas, Whitsuntide, Jesus Day, Palalia, Easter, the Vernal Equinox, Caesar's Day, the Feast of Tabernacles, and Brumalia, or Christmas; the last one now superceding all the others." [187-188].

"Greswell, F.C., I, 536, says the Nativity occurred April 5th, but he does not say that it was ever celebrated on that day. In order to bring the Nativity within the reign of Herod, Archbishop Usher computed that it occurred in B.C. 4, that being the year in which Herod died." [188]. [compare: Article #4, 111, 458.].


          'A.D. 14, Rome.—August 29th ["Aug. 19" (Rolfe)]. Death and bodily Ascension [? days after death] to heaven of Augustus [63 B.C. - 14 A.D. (First Roman Emperor 27 B.C. - 14 A.D.)] Divus Filius (Son of God), this having been his official title, which is stamped on his coins and is employed by Horace, Ovid, Virgil, Manilius, Suetonius, Pliny, Tacitus, Censorinus, and indeed all the writers of the Augustan period. The Ascension was sworn to as having been actually witnessed in effigy [Augustus was cremated] by Numericus Atticus, a senator and noble of the Praetorian order. Suetonius [c. 69 - after 122], Aug., 100.

Following are the principal dates relating to Augustus:


63 B.C.—   Nativity, 9 cal. [Calendae (Calends)] October. [see 1090, 1113 (Calends)]


40 B.C.—   Advent ["coming or arrival"]. Virgil; Fourth Eclogue. Premature closure of temple of Janus. Title "Son of God" stamped on coins of this year.


30 B.C.—   January 1. First regnal year in Egypt. Censorinus.


28 B.C.—   January 1. First regnal year in Rome. Censorinus. "Middle Ages Revisited" says B.C. 27; other authorities say B.C. 25, 24, etc. Augustus acknowledged by the Senate as the Sebastos, or Sacro-sanct. Mon. Ancyr.


25 B.C.—   Imperial accession. Second closure of Janus.


15 B.C.—   Apotheosis ["deification", etc.] in Rome. Ludi Saeculares. "Middle Ages Revisited" says B.C. 16. Third and permanent closure of Janus.


  8 B.C.—   January 1, afterwards August 29. Apotheosis in Egypt. "Reform" of the Egyptian calendar.


  8 A.D.—   So-called Anno Christo of Abyssinia; really the apotheosis of Augustus in Egypt of B.C. 8, shifted to A.D. 8, as ex-explained under B.C. 15. Epoch, August 29 [?].


14 A.D.—   August 29. Death and Ascension to heaven of Augustus. An ampler chronology appears in "Middle Ages Revisited," App. T [371: "T Chronology of Augustus", "in a Supplementary volume" [not seen]].'

[188-189]. [See: Article #2, 30, 177., 178.; #3, 70, 372.].

          'A.D. 524, Rome.—Year when it is pretended that the Canon of Dionysius Exiguus was constructed. Greswell, F.C. [F.C. = Fasti Temporis Catholici, Oxford, 4 vols., 1852] Intro., 192, reluctantly admits that this canon might not be earlier than "the end of the seventh century." It really belongs to a period later than the Restoration of Justinian II. The year A.D. 524 completes one Dionysian divine year commencing with the Egyptian apotheosis of Divus Augustus, B.C. 8. It is therefore astrological, and as such is open to the suspicion of having been connected with the


name of Dionysius Exiguus in after times and for theoretical purposes. Bury [John Bagnell Bury 1861 - 1927] says that the Christian aera was not used anywhere until 781, q.v.' [198].

          'A.D. 781, Rome.—In this year, 1st December, Pope Hadrian "ceased to use the years of the Emperors as dates and adopted the formula, 'Under the reign of the Lord Jesus Christ, our God and Redeemer!'" Bury, "Later Rom. Emp.," II, 504. THIS DATE CONTROVERTS THE REPUTED ADOPTION OF THE DATES ASCRIBED TO DIONYSIUS EXIGUUS. Cf. also Massey, "Genesis," I, 443.' [206].

          'A.D. 1517, Europe.—On the eve of All Saints Day, the 31st of October, 1517, Martin Luther [1483 - 1546], a Saxon monk of the Augustine order, nailed to the door of the Schlosskirche in Wittenberg on the Elbe, his "Ninety-five Theses" denouncing the sale of indulgences by the See of Rome. This action is commonly taken to mark the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. But, in fact, the protest and movement against Papal simony ["the making of profit out of sacred things."; etc.] began long before [see 941]. It is much more convincingly condemned in the pages of Matthew Paris [1200 - 1259] than in those of Martin Luther. However, in Matthew's time (13th century) the movement received no popular support. The people were so poor and miserable that they could only suffer. In the early part of the 15th century, when John Huss [1369 - 1415 ("burned as a heretic")] dared to brave the resentment of Rome, by denouncing its encouragement of religious imposture and its simoniacal practices, the populace, though in sympathy with its champion, shrank from his support and saw him burned at the stake without an attempt at rescue. But in Luther's time the case was different. A new world had been discovered, the cosmogony of the Church had proved to be false and its authority was much shaken. America had yielded during the first 25 years of its despoilment more gold and silver than Europe had possessed in coin and plate previous to the Discovery. This metal had been hastily coined and thrown into the circulation, first of Spain and afterwards of France, England and Germany. The resulting Rise of Prices threw all Europe into a ferment; a condition of affairs which afforded very substantial support to Luther's stand against the Church. ("Halcyon Age," p. 14).' [223-224].

          '6585 2-3 days.—The Ecliptical Cycle, or Cycle of the Eclipses [see 1075], of exactly 6585⋅78 days. This is the most significant of all the cycles, and was well known to the Hindus at a very early [how early?] date, "says Brennand [W. Brennand]." The Chinese called this number of days a Ven, Fen, or Phen, (which means ten), the Chaldeans, "The Period," and the Greeks, as many authors assert, a "saros," the root of the word being sar, meaning ten. However, the terms sossos, neuros and saros have been explained by Polyhistor, Syncellus, Abydenus, Suidas, Vallancy, Dupuis, Greswell and other commentators, so variously, that in order to avoid a verbal dispute, they have not been used in the present work at all. The Ecliptical cycle embraces the entire series of eclipses, of which there are usually 29 lunar and 41 solar. The priests employed it to awe the multitude and the commanders of armies to terrify the enemy[.] Moreover, there was built upon it an astrology and a messianic theory which pervades all the religions of antiquity and which therefore renders a knowledge of this cycle and of its origin and the uses to which it was put, of essential importance to the study of religion and history.


          Bailly fixes the discovery of this cycle in India and Tartary to the period when the vernal equinox was well within the constellation Taurus, in other words, over four thousand years ago. This date for the vernal equinox in Taurus is based upon the erroneous assumption that the number of the zodions [apparently, "zodions" = signs of the Zodiac] has always been twelve. It must therefore share the fate of the erroneous assumption. Other writers have discerned evidences of this cycle in India so early as the Mahabharata wars, although it may not have been determined accurately until a later period. IT WAS ONLY AFTER THE 12TH CENTURY B.C. THAT WHAT APPEARS TO BE DISTINCT MARKS MAY BE SEEN OF THE MESSIANIC THEORY TO WHICH THE CYCLE GAVE RISE, OR WITH WHICH IT WAS CONNECTED. This theory was that the Creator would appear upon earth to rectify the deranged affairs of mankind every 6585 months, or in as many months as there were whole days in the cycle. As the year then consisted of ten months, the incarnations or avatars fell every 658th year. Continuing upon the same line of thought, the messianic theory foretold the destruction of the world in the same number of years 6585, from the Creation. Grotesque as this theory may seem to us when set forth in sober terms, it actually forms the basis and it may be added the only basis, for some of the holiest and most tender beliefs in which humanity has found consolation for the wounds and havoc of injustice, misfortune and death. The philosopher may allude to it with coldness and contempt: the worshipper can only remember the maternal sanctuary at which he learnt those exquisite allegories behind which lurks this skeleton of an astronomical truth. As the cycle is really not a diurnal, but a lunar one, it is treated more at length under 223 lunations and 6585 lunations q.v. [I have not found an entry for "6585 lunations"]' [247-248].

          "10 months.—The ancient year consisted of ten civil months each of 36 days, with five intercalaries. On this subject we have the testimony of Ovid, Livy, Censorinus, Aulus Gellius and other ancient writers. This testimony is corroborated by proofs from extraneous sources. There cannot be any reasonable doubt that previous to the period ascribed to the second Buddha, Bacchus, or Hermes, that is to say, between the eighth and sixth centuries B.C., the year, among all civilised peoples, was divided into ten months each of 36 days and that in Rome, the day of rest, of worship and of fairs, was the ninth and not the seventh, as it became at a later period.

          It is a curious circumstance, which has not yet been satisfactorily explained, that in the mythos of the Brahminical or Brahmo-Buddhic avatars the incarnated god is often described as a ten months' child [see 1088-1089], and that in such respect, as well as in others, it differed wondrously from other children. Ten months of 30 days each would not differ so much from the ordinary period of gestation as to render it at all wonderful; whilst ten months of 36 days would. It is therefore suggested that the true explanation of this detail of the mythos is connected with the superior length of the ancient month [see following Excursus]." [248-249]. [See: 1077, 1096].


Excursus: from: An Historical Survey of the Astronomy of the Ancients, by the Right Hon. Sir George Cornewall Lewis, London, 1862.


[Note: this reference, is from the Bibliography of Alexander Del Mar. The statement: "a ten month's child" (see 1088-1089), may have referred to an


ordinary child. See following].


"The period of child-bearing in women, which is 280 days, is usually spoken of by the ancient writers as consisting of TEN MONTHS [see 1088-1089]. This seems to assume a month of twenty-eight days. The moderns, who reckon by calendar months of thirty and thirty-one days, commonly designate this period by nine months.(81)....


[footnote] (81) Aristot. Hist. An. vii. 4, states that children are born at the 7th, 8th, and 9th month, but that most are born at the 10th, some even at the eleventh.

In Hippocrat. Endem. ii, 3, 17, it seems to be assumed that the period of gestation is 9 months, or 270 days. But in the Hippocratean Treatises...[2 Greek words], 7, and...[2 Greek words], 13, it is laid down that the period is seven quarantines, or 280 days, and that the children born at this time are called ten months' children. Nevertheless, the month is here taken at 30 days. See vol. vii. p. 443, 460, ed. Littré Compare Galen, vol. xvii. part i. p. 450, Kühn.

Menander ap. Meineke, Fragm. Com. Gr. vol. iv. p. 192...[3 Greek words], followed by Terent. Adelph. iii. 4, 29, iv. 5, 57; Hec. v. 3, 24. The fabulous story respecting the generation and birth of Orion in Schol. Il. xviii. 486, alludes to ten months as the period of pregnancy. Ten months is given as the ordinary period of pregnancy in Iamblich. vit. Pythag. 192.

The Decemvirs stated this period at ten months, Gell. iii. 16; Dirksen, Zwölf-Tafel-Fragmente, p. 283. Ten months is treated as the time of pregnancy in Dig. xxviii. 2, 29; Cod. vi. 29, 4. See likewise Varro ap. Non. in spissum, p. 266, ed. Gerlach et Roth (vol. i. p. 293, ed. Bipont); Virgil, Ecl. iv. 61; Ovid, Heroid. xi. 45; Fast. i. 33; ii. 175, 445: iii. 124; v. 534; Met. ii. 453; viii. 500; ix. 286; x. 296, 479, 512.

Tertullian, de Animâ, c. 37: Legitima nativitas ferme decimi mensis ingressus est, who discovers in this number a connexion with the Decalogue. He likewise states, ibid., that the Roman goddesses Nona and Decima derived their names from the months in which the birth usually occurred. Ausonius, Eclog. de Ratione Puerperii, v. 39, speaks of nine months as the period of pregnancy. Macrobius, Comm. Somn. Scip. i. 6, § 66, gives the same period." [21-22].


"....Ideler [probably, Ludwig Ideler 1766 - 1846], though he abstains from dogmatizing upon details, holds that there is no valid ground for doubting of the existence of a decimestrial ["Consisting of ten months"] year in early Rome; (182) and Mommsen [Theodor Mommsen 1817 - 1903], whose authority upon a subject of Roman antiquity is of much weight, considers the primitive Roman year of ten months and 304 days as a reality and no fiction, though he admits that the accounts of it may have descended to us in an inaccurate and imperfect form.(183)...." [51]. [See (for discussion): pages 34-57].


Excursus: from: A Rationalist Encyclopaedia, Joseph McCabe, 1948.


'Mommsen, Prof. Theodore (1817–1903), German historian and Nobel Prize winner. The famous historian was a professor of law at Leipzig University when he took part in the Revolution of 1848, and was deposed. In 1858 he was appointed Professor of ancient history at Berlin University, and came to be regarded as the greatest authority on ancient Rome and one of the foremost scholars of Germany. His biographer, L.M. Hartmann (Theodor Mommsen, 1908), says that he "left Christianity for Deism, then Deism for Atheism" (p. 64). In later years he used a vague Theistic language, but hated what he called Kaplanocracy (the rule of priests), and he left his superb History of Rome (5 vols., 1854–85) unfinished because "he found no pleasure in describing the substitution of the Nazarene ["Jesus"] for the ancient spirit."' [397-398].

End of Excursus.


"....The Romans, as is well known, reckoned the days of the last half of the month by counting back from the calends, or first day, of the succeeding month. The 24th day of February was, according to their method of reckoning inclusively, the 6th day before the Calends of March...." [238]. [See: 1086].


"But although the Romans of the Imperial period possessed a calendar which was practically perfect as a measure of annual time, and which gradually passed into universal use, (110) their measures of diurnal time were unimproved and imperfect. they still measured the day by the sundial, and the night by the water-clock.

The use of the sun's shadow as the ordinary measure of time led to a singular consequence in the habits of common life. Instead of making the hour a constant quantity, and of making the number of hours vary with the length of the day, the ancients (as we have explained in a previous chapter) (111) made the number of hours constant, and made the length of the hour vary with the length of the day. Whatever might be the time of sunrise, and whatever the time of sunset, the illuminated interval was divided into twelve equal parts.(112)" [241]. End of Excursus.

          "223 lunations.—The great Ecliptical Cycle [see 1075], already introduced under the heading of 6585 2/3 days [see 1087]. As there stated, this significant cycle is not a diurnal, but a lunar one. To couch it in days or years is apt to be misleading. It has sometimes been called the Nodical cycle. According to Lockyer [Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer 1836 - 1920] [see: Appendix IV, 748-749] this also is wrong: the Nodical cycle consisting of 230 lunations, or 6793 1/2 days, q.v. The Ecliptical cycle begins with a conjunction of the sun and moon (new moon) and continues until the sun and moon (some say also the node) return to the same positions as at the outset. This occurs in 223 lunations, or 18 years and ten (or 11) days and seven, (or eight), hours. Brennand says "and eighteen hours." During this period there will usually occur 41 solar and 29 lunar eclipses. At the end of the period the same routine of eclipses will begin to recur, and they will happen on or about the same days of the equable solar year. A cycle composed of three Ecliptical cycles, or 669 lunations, will bring the eclipses to the day and almost to the hour


required by the rule. See 6585 2/3 days and 658 years [see 1092]." [251].

          '532 years.—The Dionysian cycle, or Divine year of the Dionysians, at the end of which Dionysius would return to earth and inaugurate a new aera of peace and happiness to mankind. As this cycle was afterwards adopted by the church of Rome, called the Paschal cycle and employed to calculate the return of the moon, from which Easter is dated, its history may repay some research.

          I.   The Dionysian cycle consists of 532 equable years and 140 days over; or of 532 Julian years and seven days over; or of 194,320 days; or of 28 Metonic cycles; or of 6580 lunar revolutions; or of 28 by 19, the multiplication of a solar and lunar cycle of years.

         II.   It is a compound of the Metonic [Metonic cycle: "A period of 19 years (tropical)". Meton fl. 432 B.C.E.] and solar cycles; so that it not only gives the moon on the day of the 30-day month; it also gives the day of the septuary week of such moon.

        III.   It was not used by the Greeks in their achme [now, acme]. They had no septuary week. It was not used by the Romans of the republic; nor by the Romans of the empire, until after the revival of the Dionysian cult.

        IV.   IT IS PRETENDED BY THE CHURCH OF ROME and repeated by Blair and other chronologists that this cycle was employed by Victorius, a Christian monk, in A.D. 463. It is not disputed that Victorius employed it; but no valid evidence has been offered to prove that he was a Christian and not a Dionysian monk.

         V.   IT IS PRETENDED BY THE CHURCH OF ROME that this cycle was employed by Dionysius Exiguus, a Scythian Christian monk, in A.D. 524, to calculate the nativity of Christ. To this pretension it is to be objected that DIONYSIUS EXIGUUS, AS A CHRISTIAN MONK, IN OR ABOUT A.D. 524, IS UNKNOWN TO HISTORY [significance of the name: Dionysius Exiguus?]; and that the chronological canon which goes by his name really measures a Dionysian Divine year from the Egyptian Apotheosis of Augustus B.C. 8,—who was worshipped as the incarnation of Dionysius—to the year imputed to Dionysius Exiguus, namely, A.D. 524; a circumstance that throws suspicion on its Roman and rather betrays its Alexandrian origin. Indeed some chronologists call it the Alexandrian cycle. An engraving of Augustus as Dionysius, taken from an antique statue, will be found in Duruy's [Victor Duruy 1811 - 1894] History of Rome. Besides this one, there are innumerable ancient monuments in bronze and marble which attest the long and widespread existence of the Augustan cult.

        VI.   The Dionysian cycle, or divine year, is mentioned by Albiruni [al-Biruni], a Moslem writer, A.D. 973-1048, who says that "the Jews had a cycle of 532 years, called the Major Cycle, consisting of 6580 months." (Albiruni, 4to. ed., 1879, p. 63.) This is unquestionably the same cycle. It is the degenerate descendant of the Buddhic divine year of 552 years. This Buddhic interval was a solar divine year; whilst its progeny was lunar.


       VII.   The fact that the Dionysian divine year contains almost the same number of lunar months, (6580), as the Hindu divine year contains of astrological months, (6585 2/3), may be merely a coincidence; yet such coincidence could hardly have been without its influence in persuading the Dionysians to accept this cycle as their divine year in place of the Oriental one.

      VIII.   The first valid mention of the Dionysian divine year as a Christian paschal cycle occurs in Argyrus, who wrote A.D. 1372; but there is reason to believe that its adoption as such is really due to Pope Gregory VII., A.D. 1080, in whose pontificate had occurred the reform of the Persian calendar by Omar Kayyam [commonly: Khayyam], A.D. 1079. It is also to be noticed that within a year or two of this date, the Armenians changed their divine year from 552 to 532 years, that is to say, from the ancient or Buddhic-Dionysian to the Augusto-Dionysian standard. This last mentioned change may be attributed to the influence of Rome.

        IX.   Dr. Greswell reluctantly admits that the canon imputed to Theophilus of Alexandria was "set back purposely" from A.D. 385 to A.D. 380, and that the canon of Dionysius Exiguus "was set back a paschal period of 532 years, from A.D. 524 to B.C. 9." (Read B.C. 8.) If it was really "set back" it must have been set back from the end of, at least, the second Augusto-Dionysian divine year, A.D. 1056; because, merely to set it back from the end of the first one, A.D. 524, was in fact not to set it back at all. Dr. Greswell might have admitted much more and still have kept safely within the lines of historical candor and ecclesiastical prudence.' [268-269].

          '658 years.—Divine year of India, Persia, Chaldea, Egypt, Greece and Rome. This year is based on the CYCLE OF THE ECLIPSES ["Ecliptical Cycle" (see 1075)], which CONSISTS OF 223 LUNATIONS [see 1090-1091], OR 6585 2/3 DAYS [see 1087-1088]. Upon this astronomical fact was built the astrological fancy that the period of Days must be complemented by one of Months and by another one of Years. Hence a system of 6585 2/3 days called "The Period"; of 6585 2/3 months, (ten to the year, or 658 solar years), called the manvantara, or else the Divine, or Messianic year; and of 6585 2/3 years, which was regarded as the total Lifetime of the Earth, or of Mankind, when the World was to come to an End. Although the mischievous zeal of the Hindu priests has furnished us with a series of avatars and manvantaras running back to the 68th Century B.C., THERE IS NO RELIABLE PROOF THAT THE DIVINE YEAR, OR ANY DIVINE YEAR, WAS USED BEFORE THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY B.C. IN INDIA, (aera of Chrishna,) OR BEFORE THE 12TH CENTURY B.C. IN THE GREEK STATES. All incarnations, or Divine years, relating to those countries before these dates, and many perhaps of later dates, are apparently of long subsequent invention.' [271-272].

          '666 years.—The Apocalyptic cycle, so called from its mention in the 13th chapter of Revelations. This is apparently an Egypto-Buddhic, or Osirian, form of the Divine year, employed in Egypt and in the Egyptian dependency of Syria. It was also used for a brief period in Etruria. See chapter III. This cycle results from dividing the Earth's Life of 240 million years by the ancient Hindu cycle of the Solar Precession, which was 36,000 years. The PUERILE ["immature, childish", etc.] practice of spelling names from any Greek letters which, when added together, are sufficient to


compose the whole number 666, is alluded to in Eadie's "Biblical Encyclopedia," art. "Numbers." It appears that the names of Nero, Mahomet, Martin Luther, Napolean Buonaparte, and other "enemies" of the Church, have thus been spelled out.' [272].

          '12,000 years.—"The modern Parsee books" say that "12,000 years is to be the term of the human race." Bunsen's "Egypt," ed. 1859, III, 519. According to the Aitareya Brahmana, VII, 15, the terms Kali, Dvapara, Treta and Krta are derived from the ace, deuce, tré, and quart of the dice. From these elements the priests manufactured the 1200, 2400, 3600 and 4800 years, which make up the 12,000 years of these four ages. Gustav Oppert, "Bharatavarsa, or India," 1893, p. 328. All this is post-Buddhic [dates? (see pages 51-56)].' [277].

          "4,320,000 years.—Hindu astrological cycle, representing the Lifetime of the World. Dupuis, I, 164, believed that this was gained by adding together the first, second, third and fourth powers of 432,000 years." [280].

          "240,000,000 years.—Astrological Lifetime of the World, consisting of 6666 precessions of 36,000 years each; a Hindu concert ["agreement in a design or plan"; etc.], probably ancient." [280] [End of Chapter VIII.].

'Chapter IX.

Chronological Problems and Solutions.

          The chief sources of error in chronology and of confusion in ancient history are, FIRST, the employment of lunar calendars; SECOND, the alterations in the year of Rome and the Olympiads which were made by Augustus as afterwards modified by the Latin Sacred College: and THIRD, the employment of "A.D." and "B.C." dates. The confusion produced by lunar, or luni-solar, calendars has been of so varied a character that it is difficult to convey an adequate appreciation of it to persons not especially skilled in chronology. Suffice it to say that such calendars have been used as artifices to shuffle out of view the most significant customs and important events: with the object to substitute in their places the MYTHS AND FABLES OF SUPERSTITION. The ancient priests made such liberal use of these artifices that it may be asserted with little fear of contradiction that history only begins with the establishment of solar calendars; and that previous to the first charter of human progress, for such it is, there is nothing recorded which possesses any historical value. The confusion occasioned by alterations of the calendar will be illustrated by some examples further on. The inconvenience of "A.D." and "B.C." dates was realised three centuries ago by Scaliger [Joseph Justus Scaliger 1540 - 1609], who sought to remedy it by offering to the world the so-called Julian Aera. Although but little use has hitherto been made of his suggestion, it can easily be shown that this is a reform which, shirk it as we may, must nevertheless precede any attempt to establish upon a sure foundation such literary fragments and archaeological monuments of the past as time and proscription have spared to the modern world....' [281].


"the reader will discover that the aeras of Ies Chrishna [?], Buddha [?], Augustus and Jesus are all one and the same; and that they have only been made to seem different through the misleading media of altered calendars and aeras.

          In the foregoing Chronology numerous examples have been given of calendrical alterations; it is now proposed to add some others from extraneous sources." [282].

          "Tacitus [c. 55 - 120], in his Annals, XV, 41, says that the interval of time between the Foundation of Rome and the Burning by the Gauls was precisely the same as that between the Burning by the Gauls and the conflagration in the reign of Nero. According to our present chronology the Foundation was in B.C. 753 and the burning by the Gauls in B.C. 384. This is an interval of 369 years. From the burning by the Gauls to the conflagration in the reign of Nero, July, A.D. 64, is 447 full years and a fraction. Deduct 369 from 447 and the quotient is 78 years, which is the measure of the excess of the later period over the earlier one. Tacitus says that in fact the two periods were exactly equal: our chronology makes one of them longer than the other by 78 years. It is impossible that 78 years of chronology and history could have been fabricated and stuffed into the most recent and best known annals of Rome. The calendar of the later Republican and early Imperial periods of Rome may have been altered to the extent of ten or 15 years without attracting attention; but not to the extent of 78 years. The alteration, whenever it was made, must therefore have been attached to a period long past, that is to say, to the earlier period, before B.C. 384. The nature of the alteration was therefore to sink 78 years from the calendar. Who made this alteration; when was it made; what was its object? Remember that Tacitus was a priest and a member of the Sacred College of Rome, and therefore one whose statement on this subject possesses the full force of official authority. The subject has thus far been blinked by historians and churchmen, but it should be blinked no longer. Where are those 78 years of Roman experience and of Roman history? Is mankind to be perpetually robbed of that valuable, that inestimable portion of its inheritance which is to be found in the history of the greatest state of antiquity?" [282].

          "The Ludi Saeculares ["Secular Games"] were required to be celebrated once in 110 years. Augustus celebrated them in B.C. 15. They were next due in A.D. 94 or 95. But "Claudius," (says Suetonius,) "assuming that Augustus had wrongfully anticipated the Ludi Saeculares, and that he had celebrated them out of their true season, caused them to be re-celebrated," after an interval of 78 years.1 Suetonius says that several persons took part in both of these Ludi, which could hardly have been the case had they been 78 years apart. Pliny [apparently, Pliny the Elder 23 - 79 C.E.] even names one of these persons. The interval between the Ludi Saeculares of Augustus and Claudius, which was really 78 years, is stated in modern editions of Pliny, N.H., VII, 49, at only 63 years. This must be the work of the Latin Sacred College, which gave us our present mutilated MSS. of the Roman encyclopedist [Pliny the Elder]...." [283].

          '"The laws relating to religious matters were kept secret by the Pontifs that they might hold the minds of the multitude in bondage," said Livy (VI, i). "The chronology of Augustus differed from that of Claudius," said Tacitus. "Roman history has been falsified and its monuments destroyed," said Plutarch [c. 46 - c. 120 C.E.]


(on the Future of the Romans). From these deliberate verdicts of antiquity there can be no appeal, except to archaeology and a scientific arrangement of dates.' [284].

          'Mionnet's [Théodore Edme Mionnet 1770 - 1842] voluminous work on Ancient Coins, Paris ed. 1806-37, describes a number of Roman imperial coins, commencing with Nerva [Nerva Caesar Augustus, Roman Emperor 96 - 98 C.E. (c. 30 - 98)] and ending with Alexander Severus [Emperor 222 - 235 C.E. (c. 208 - 235)], the dates upon which are evidently in the regnal year of Augustus, B.C. 28. These dates should therefore be 28 years older than the Christian regnal years of the sovereigns whose effigies and names are associated with them. But in fact they are all, without exception, just 43 years older; proving that 15 years have since been sunk from the Christian aera, A.D., by adding that number of years to the Augustan aera, B.C. For example, the coins of Geta are dated "255." According to the received chronology this sovereign began to reign and died A.D. 211-12. The difference between 212 and 255 is 43 years, making it appear that his coins were dated in the aera which began B.C. 43; whereas no such aera is known and it is evident from other circumstances that the aera intended was that of Augustus and the Foundation of the Empire.

          Diadumenianus is another sovereign who reigned but a single year, which, according to the received chronology was A.D. 217-18. Yet his coins, also evidently dated from the regnal year of Augustus, bear the figure "261." Deduct 218 from 261 and the remainder is 43; whereas, if the Christian chronology were correct, there should only be a difference of 28 years, that being the number of years B.C. when by such chronology, the Empire was founded by Augustus.' [286].

          "These evidences concerning the dislocation of Roman chronology could be continued almost indefinitely. Enough has been shown to prove to the most unwilling reader that THE CALENDAR HAS BEEN ALTERED and that, in this respect and the important consequences that flow from it, the Christian world has been grossly deceived." [286].

'Chapter X.

Manetho's False Chronology.

          Manetho [fl. c. 300 B.C.E.], an Egyptian priest, in the service of Ptolemy [Ptolemy 1 Soter (Greek: Saviour) c. 367 - c. 282 B.C.E. (ruler of Egypt 323 - 285)], surnamed the "Saviour," one of the minor "incarnations," to whom fell a portion of the vast empire established by that greater incarnation, Alexander of Macedon [King of Macedonia 336 - 323 B.C.E. (356 - 323)], has left us, in fragments preserved and perhaps altered by Berosus, Josephus and Syncellus, a list of Egyptian dynasties and kings, which, if correct and successive, and if to each were allowed twice or thrice the ordinary regnal period of earthly potentates, would carry the government of Egypt back to a remote antiquity. Manetho's list gives us 30 dynasties, which for convenience have been divided by modern commentators into the Old, the Middle and the New empires. The Egyptologists accept all this as authentic and fancy they see a confirmation of it in the monuments.


          If there is any truth at all in Manetho, such truth is limited to the regnal ["pertaining to a sovereign"] names of the New Empire; for his kings of the Old Empire, as such, never existed at all; and those of the Middle Empire are largely apocryphal....' ["287"].

"Josephus himself, in another place, calls this same Manetho [see 976], his own witness, an arrant liar. (Contra Apion I, 27.)" [289].

          "All the ancient peoples believed themselves to be autochthonous ["sprung from the land itself"; etc.] and each affected to trace their origin from the gods. The Chinese, the Indians, the Assyrians, the Chaldeans, the Jews, the Egyptians, the Greeks, and even the Romans, all followed the same practice. Consequently they carried their chronologies back to the remotest periods, when, according to their several beliefs, man first lived in civilised communities. The Chinese annals begin with Fo-hi—a Buddho-Solar divinity—and their cycles of time, with the accession of Yao, an impersonation of the planet Jove, whom they called a Son of God...." [289].

'Chapter XI.

Forgeries in Stone.

          JUST AS THERE IS SCARCELY A WRITING OF THE PAST THAT HAS NOT BEEN CORRUPTED, SO THERE IS SCARCELY A PIECE OF ANCIENT SCULPTURE IN OUR MUSEUMS THAT HAS NOT BEEN MUTILATED. The eminent antiquarian Feuardent accused Gen. Cesnola, or the professors and artists who worked under his directions, or upon his advice, of "building up" his collection of Cypriote antiquities, or at least a part of it, with fragments belonging to originally unconnected figures. The curators of the Roman museums did all this and much more. They altered the attributes of the marble deities and effaced the names of the artists who sculptured them; they forged names and dates; they mutilated zodiacs and planispheres; they obliterated some inscriptions, interpolated others, and deliberately destroyed those which they did not choose to alter or efface. Dr. Clarke alleges that such has been fate of all the antiquities of the Crimea. In 1893 I had occasion to examine some ancient coins in the Paris Collection and while doing so I alluded, in hearing of the Assistant Curator, M. Cazenove, to the ancient year of ten months. To this M. Cazenove, albeit in many respects an accomplished numismatist, replied that there was no ancient year of ten months. It was in vain that I cited Livy, Ovid, Virgil, Censorinus, the numerical names of our months, and other evidences. He would not have it. Even when one of the other Curators came to my support, M. Cazenove continued to deny the ancient division of the year into ten months, [sic] On this subject there exists such an ample accumulation of evidences that only he who does not wish to believe, can fail to be convinced on the subject. To this evidence I propose to add, by way of example, the testimony of two stone monuments now in the Louvre. One of these is a Roman sundial and calendar, which has been altered from ten to twelve months, the other is an Egypto-Grecian planisphere similarly altered, but containing more convincing evidences of the forgery....' [295].


"Chapter XII.

The Messiah.

          Historians of the Roman republic have too commonly betrayed a tendency to find the cause of its decline in the working of some one or other defective institute of that great state, SOME INSTITUTE THAT WAS ESPECIALLY INIMICAL TO THE WRITER, as the establishment of colonies, the unequal distribution of opportunity, wealth, lands, or political power, or the growth of slavery, or the evils of the monetary system. But a broader survey of the subject rather leads to the conclusion that no single cause is sufficient to account for the devolution of events which followed the Punic wars [First: 264 - 241 B.C.E.; Second: 218 - 201; Third: 149 - 146]. The downfall of the republic and the erection of the empire appear to have been due in part to all of these circumstances and perhaps also to others, among not the least of which were religion and the various branches of knowledge and belief upon which religion was founded. After striving in vain to uphold the tottering republic, Cicero lived long enough to perceive that the catastrophe was inevitable and that neither could he retard it, nor Caesar accelerate it.1 [see footnote, below] Rome was no longer a small commonwealth of free citizens, rendered more or less equal in rank by a substantial equality of fortune, attainments and political power. It had become a populous and unwieldy empire, composed of many conquered nations and tribes, differing in race, religion, language, history and degrees of social development...." [302].

          [footnote] '1"Caesar is no less under the control of circumstances than we are under the control of Caesar." Letter of Cicero to Papirius Paetus, dated A.U. 707 [47 B.C.E.]?' [302].

          'Caesar [Julius Caesar 100 - 44 B.C.E. (dictator 46 - 44 B.C.E.)] has left us in no doubt with regard to his design. The conquest of India by Alexander [King of Macedonia 336 - 323 B.C.E. (356 - 323)] had brought anew to the western world the entire flood of Brahminical myths.5 The eleventh, a supplementary incarnation of Vishnu (zodion of Pisces) was at hand, and Caesar, (who, among his many gifts, was an accomplished master of astrology,) had evidently determined to become its hero, for he publicly and ostentatiously proclaimed his descent from the goddess Maria or Venus, and attested his official acts with a seal which bore her effigy. Marcus Coelius, writing to Cicero in A.U. 704 [50 B.C.E.], alluded to Caesar as "our heavenly-descended chief," a proof that such was the character of his pretensions.6 But there are many more proofs to come. Caesar's further plans were cut short by the dagger of his friend Brutus....' [304].

          'The first and most important article in the constitution of this empire was the extraordinary one of the Emperor's deification. Both in Spain and Gaul Caesar must have heard of Hesus, the Messiah, whose effigy stood at every cross-road, whose crosses were worn upon the breast of every warrior, and whose second coming, which had been long predicted by the Druid astrologers, coincided very closely with the period of his own invasion of those countries. Indeed, it is not at all improbable that, like Musa, Pizarro and Cortes, of later ages, he made use of this superstition to


represent himself or permit himself to be regarded as the Expected One, in order to render his march of conquest the more easy and rapid. However this may be, it was probably less the imaginary incarnation of Hesus than the actual example of Alexander which afforded to Julius Caesar the precedent which he followed in his own deification. "When he was in Spain he bestowed his leisure hours in reading the history of Alexander, and was so much affected by it that he sat pensive a long time, and being asked the reason, he said, 'Is it not sufficient cause for concern to reflect that Alexander at my age reigned over numerous conquered countries, whilst I, as yet, have not one glorious achievement to boast?'"7 Not only the example of Alexander, but the similarity of circumstances, helped to make a divinity of Caesar. After the battle of Pharsalia the world was at his feet; and among the numerous potentates who were swayed by his nod were many who were themselves gods, and, as such, were worshiped by their degraded subjects.8

          From Pharsalia Caesar went to Egypt. He arrived in Alexandria October 6th, B.C. 48, and remained there until the month of March.9 It was during this interval that, following in the footsteps of the Macedonian conqueror [Alexander], he permitted himself, on Brumalia ["December 25th" (Del Mar, The Middle Ages Revisited, 155)], or the winter solstice, A.U. 706 [48 B.C.E.], to be deified in the temple of Jupiter Ammon and hailed by its subservient priests as the Son of God,10....' [305].



from: Divus Julius, Stefan Weinstock, Oxford, 1971.



What I had planned as an introductory chapter to a work on the religion of the age of Augustus has become a book in its own right. I had to change course when I realized the identity of the reformer about whom I wished to write: it was not Augustus but Caesar...." ["vii"].

          "In the age of Caesar, Sol with his radiate crown is found on coins...." [382].


" of the portents reported after Caesar's death [March 15 (Ides (Latin, Idus)), 44 B.C.E.] was that the Sun had a pale light all through the year, so that the people feared eternal night.1 It will be remembered that this pale light was also observed after Scipio's death when with him the second Sun was extinguished.2 THE DARKNESS AT THE DEATH OF JESUS WAS CAUSED BY AN ECLIPSE OF THE SUN;3 HIS RESURRECTION WAS THE RISE OF A NEW SUN,4 and he then wore a radiate crown which could be one of twelve rays.5" [382-383].

"3. The Cult in Rome


It is probable that nothing further was undertaken until the battle of Philippi. Antony then remained in the East, Octavian [to become: Augustus Caesar] returned to Rome, and both began to organize the cult in their


territories.7 But the concord was shattered by the Perusine War, of which two incidents are relevant here. Octavian fought in the name of the new god: during the siege of Perusia the missiles of his eleventh legion bore the inscription 'Divom Iulium'.8 After the surrender he slaughtered many senators and knights,9 but certainly not [?] as many as three hundred,10 [see footnote, below] at the altar of Divus Iulius on 15 March 40. This slaughter becomes credible1 when one reads Valerius Maximus' chapter De crudelitate:2 how, for instance, after the victory of Sulla in 82 M. Marius Gratidianus was slaughtered at the tomb of Q. Lutatius Catulus by the son of the latter.3 Later Cicero claimed that the Catilinarians would have slaughtered him at the tomb of Catilina had they been successful.4 After Caesar's triumph in 46 two rioting soldiers were executed and their heads set up at the Regia.5 The heads of Helvius and Cornelius Cinna fixed on a spear were carried round Caesar's pyre;6 Brutus' head was sent to Rome to be cast at the feet of Caesar's statue,7 and this was done by Dolabella with Trebonius' head at Caesar's statue at Smyrna.8 Thus the incident at Perusia was not isolated. It was the survival of a human sacrifice in honour of the dead. Achilles killed twelve Trojans at the pyre of Patroclus,9 Aeneas eight captives at the pyre of Pallas.10 It ["human sacrifice in honour of the dead"] was a practice which the Romans learnt from the Etruscans but soon replaced with gladiatorial combats at the funeral games.11" [398-399].


[footnote] "10This figure is given by Suetonius and Dio. In fact 'trecenti' can mean, like 'sescenti' or 'mille', an indefinite large number. Exaenetus was followed by 300 youths into Acragas (Diod. 13.82.7), Romulus left a guard of 300 men at Fidenae (Dion. Hal. 2.53.4), Catullus speaks of 300 adulterers and of 300 verses (11.18; 12. 10, with Kroll's notes), Horace of 300 persons on a ship (sat. 1.5.12), Vergil of 300 temples dedicated by Augustus after Actium (Aen. 8. 716); cf. Georg. I. 15; Aen. 4. 510; 7.275; 9. 370; 10. 182; Wölfflin, Arch. Lat. Lex. 9 (1896), 188 ff." [398-399]. End of Excursus.

'....The god Julius had shrines, an image, a steeple, priests, and so on.14 The steeple of the Regia probably also contained a chime of bells like the temple of Jupiter.16 Speaking of the omens that, it was believed, preceded the assassination of Julius, Plutarch, in his life of that divinity, says, "Calphurnia dreamed that the steeple fell down, which, according to Livy, the Senate ordered to be erected upon Caesar's residence, by way of distinction."16 The temples of Julius Caesar bore the appellation of Heroum Juleum, or Julian chapels, and contained his effigy and that of Venus, Mother of God.17 "On certain occasions, in the exercise of his ["god Julius"] high pontifical office he appeared in all the pomp of the Babylonian costume, in robes of scarlet, with the Crosier in his hand, wearing the Mitre and BEARING THE KEYS [see Appendix VI, 766-767]."18 ....

          When the tremendous commotion caused by the death of Julius Caesar had spent itself in civil wars, and in the firm establishment of the Messianic religion and ritual, AUGUSTUS ASCENDED THE SACRED THRONE OF HIS MARTYRED SIRE AND WAS IN TURN ADDRESSED AS THE SON OF GOD, WHILST JULIUS WAS WORSHIPPED AS THE FATHER.19 The flamens [priests] of the Sacred college


["collegium pontificum ("college of pontiffs")'? Dict. Roman Religion, 1996] erected and consecrated to the worship of Julius Caesar a magnificent temple in Rome, and for its services, as well as for those of the provincial temples which might be consecrated to the same god, they organized a body of priests called the Julii, or Juliani.20 These priests were selected from the most ancient order, the Luperci, of whom Ovid says that they were instituted by Evander,21 and to which order none could belong but the members of noble families. This priesthood was not abolished until the time of Anastasius Silentiarius in the sixth century;22....' [307].

"No person who fled to a temple of Julius for sanctuary could be taken from it for punishment, a privilege which had never been granted before, not even to the temples and sanctuaries of Jupiter. Except when Augustus caused the son of Marc Antony to be dragged from one and slain,24 the shrines of Julius were always regarded as inviolable.25 Under the Triumvirate and during the early portion of the reign of Augustus, the worship of Julius Caesar and the erection of temples, sanctuaries, shrines and altars consecrated to this worship was carried to all parts of the empire and enforced by precept, example and military power. Upon these altars costly offerings and bloody sacrifices were made. One of the latter consisted of 300 [see 1099] senators and equites, who were coldly slaughtered by order of Augustus upon the ides of March, A.U. 713 [41 B.C.], on a Julian altar at Perugia, to propitiate the god Divus Julius.26 Official oaths were formulated in the name of Julius Caesar, and to violate them was deemed a more heinous crime and punished with greater severity than any other perjury.27" [308].

          'The naming of one of the months [July] of the year after the god Julius, which was done during the consulship [44, and 34, B.C.E.] of Marc Antony [c. 83 - 30 B.C.E.], is, by itself, no evidence of his deification; but the practice of other nations, the precedent afforded by the Athenian god Demetrius, the subsequent naming of a month after the deified Augustus, and the fact that the Romans never adopted any names in place of the ancient numerical names of the months, except the names of gods, lends it great significance. Many attempts were made to name the months after various emperors who followed Augustus, but they all failed. April was for a brief time called Neronius; May, Claudius; and June, Germanicus.28 Tiberius, who refused to be deified, or worshipped as a god, also refused to permit his name to be substituted for November.29

          In remote times the Roman year was divided into ten months, named Primus, Secundus, Tertius, Quartus, Quintilis, Sextilis, Septembris, Octobris, Novembris and Decembris, the year beginning with the vernal equinox, which was made to fall on the first day of March and the months containing 36 days each. After the adoption of the gods Mars, Aphrodite, Maia and Juno into the Roman pantheon their names were conferred upon the first four-months of the year, instead of Primus, Secundus, Tertius and Quartus. This calendar was reformed by the Decemvirs, in the sacred name of "Numa." They divided the year into 12 months with intercalary days and conferred upon the supplementary months the names of the gods Janus and Februus.30 When Julius Caesar was deified his name was given to what was originally the fifth month of the year, or Quintilis. WHEN OCTAVIUS AUGUSTUS CAESAR WAS DEIFIED [15 B.C.E.] HIS SACERDOTAL NAME WAS GIVEN TO THE ORIGINAL SIXTH MONTH, OR SEXTILIS.31


The remaining months [Septembris, Octobris, Novembris, Decembris] still bear their ancient ordinal names.' [308-309].

          "The Roman dominion was no longer Italy, no longer Europe, but the earth. At the feet of Pompey [106 - 48 B.C.E.] 12 tributary kings had laid their crowns; at the tread of the Julian legions the earth seemed to tremble and empires fell to pieces. Love, admiration, respect, veneration, are feelings which failed to express the idolatry of a sensuous and embruted [imbruted] population, toward a being so exalted, so gifted, so brilliant, so god-like, above all, so powerful, as Julius Caesar [100 - 44 B.C.E. (dictator 46 - 44 B.C.E.)], whose slightest word sufficed to condemn a kingdom to destruction, whose merest glance of favour meant fortune, preferment, power, opportunity, livings, endowments, license, satiety, all that men, that hierophants, that nations, coveted. Adoration was alone sufficient to ex-express the feelings of the Roman populace toward him who reigned over the vast empire which they had acquired and the innumerable kingdoms they had enslaved. But a few years later Tiberius [42 B.C.E. - 37 C.E. (Emperor 14 - 37 C.E.)] was actually upbraided because he refused to be deified and because he persisted in reminding the Romans that he was but a mortal.41 We may be certain that Julius had little need to command deification; his crime was that he permitted and accepted it." [311].

          "It is not necessary to account for such a worship ["of the reigning sovereign"] by recalling the depravity of the age. A country could be named where similar depravity exists to-day, yet where there is no worship of the reigning sovereign. It was due to faith, habit, custom, example, in short, to the fact that Romans lived nearly two thousand years nearer to the Brahminical myth of the Incarnation than we do. Our task is to relate the historical fact; we leave to others the less invidious burden of its explanation; only let them take heed, in such explanation, of other phases of religion; of the Hanging Fakirs, the Stylites, the Chainwearers and Grasseaters of the imperial aera; of the Agapemonae of England, the Shakers and Mormons of America, and the other strange rites or beliefs that mankind have practised or endured.49" [312].

          "The worship of Augustus was not, as the ecclesiastical schools have insinuated, a mere lip-service, a meaningless mode of saluting the sovereign-pontiff, an effusive form of adulation or flattery to the emperor of Rome; it was the worship of a personage who was believed to be supernatural, omniscient, all-powerful and beneficent, the reincarnation of Quirinus, the Son of the god Apollo and of the wife-virgin Maia;45 the god whose coming was foretold by the Cumaean Sibyl; whose sway was to extend over the whole earth; whose Conception and Birth were both miraculous; and whose Advent ["coming or arrival"] was to usher in the Golden Age of Peace and Plenty and to banish Sin forever. Such was his character in Rome. In Greece he was worshipped as Dionysos; in Egypt as Thurinus; in Iberia and Gaul as Aesar, or Hesus; and in Germany as Baldir; for all of these titles and many others will be found on his monuments, or have been preserved by his biographers." [314].

          'The most effective reply that can be made to those historians who have ignored the worship of Augustus—and who, when they have not concealed its evidences, have passed them over, or sought to belittle them—is to read a letter from


one of the worshippers of this god, written from Tomis, a Roman outpost, near the mouths of the Danube46 addressed to Graecinus, in Rome, and dated, according to our chronology, A.D. 15, or shortly after the death and Ascension of Augustus. The writer of this letter was no less a person than the poet Ovid [43 B.C.E. - c. 17 C.E.], or Publius Ovidius Naso, a nobleman of the equestrian order, then 58 years of age and, as his other writings testify, in the full possession of his faculties.


[Ovid] "Nor is my piety unknown: this distant land sees a shrine of our Lord Augustus erected in my house. Together with him stand his son and wife (his priestess), deities scarcely less than our Lord himself...As oft as the day arises, so often do I address my prayers to them, together with offerings of frankincense. Shouldst thou enquire the whole of Pontus will confirm my words, and attest my sincerity; nor is my religion less known to strangers...Though fortune is not equal to my inclination in such duties, I willingly devote to this worship such means as I command...

Caesar! Thou, who art summoned to the gods above, thou too, from whom nothing can be concealed, thou knowest this to be true! In they place among the stars, fixed in the arch of the skies, thou hearest my prayers, which I utter with anxious lips!"

          This evidence does not stand alone. Throughout all of Ovid's Letters, of which 36 remain to us, throughout all of his Elegies, of which 50 remain, throughout all his Fasti, of which six entire books remain, he repeatedly addresses the then living Augustus as God, or the Son of God, the Great Deity, the Heaven-born, the Divine, the Omniscient, the Beneficent, the Just, the Long-suffering, the Merciful God. It may serve the purposes of perversion to explain this away, it may afford a refuge for obstinacy or delusion to dismiss it with affectations of incredulity or contempt; but this is no answer to the fact; for fact it unquestionably is, not alone upon the testimony of Ovid, but upon that also of numerous other intelligent, respectable and even illustrious witnesses, that is to say, the testimony of Virgil, Horace, Manilius, Pliny, Suetonius and others. WHAT IS INSISTED UPON IS THAT, AUGUSTUS CAESAR, BY HIS CONTEMPORARIES, WAS BELIEVED TO BE, AND WAS ACTUALLY WORSHIPPED AS A GOD; with bell, book, candle, steeple, frankincense, rosary, cross, mitre, temples, priesthood, benefices and ritual; in short, with all the outward marks of superstition, credulity, piety and devotion. There is nothing impossible about this; and the evidence of this worship is so valid, circumstantial and overwhelming, that to refuse assent to it, is to put reason out of court altogether. The witnesses are not phantoms, the wild creations of credulous minds; their writings are not anonymous patchworks, undated, unlocated and unsigned; they do not stand unsupported by archaeology, inscriptions, coins, calendars, or popular customs; on the contrary, they are corroborated and buttressed by all three classes of evidence. The witnesses are men of reputation, their writings are among the masterpieces of the world, which it would be impossible to imitate and difficult to alter without detection, whilst the monuments which support them are numbered by myriads and found in every conceivable locality, from the Roman slabs in the mosque of Ancyra, to the coins rescued from buried Pompeii; both of which, as well as a vast number of other inscriptions and coins, proclaim the divinity and universal worship of Augustus throughout the Roman world.' [314-315].


          "When the tremendous commotion caused by the assassination of Julius Caesar had spent itself in civil wars and in the firm establishment of the Messianic religion and ritual, when Actium was won, and Egypt and Asia were reconquered, AUGUSTUS ascended the throne of his martyred Sire and WAS in turn annointed [apparently, an old spelling], addressed and WORSHIPPED AS THE SON OF GOD; whilst JULIUS WAS TACITLY WORSHIPPED AS THE FATHER. MOST OF THE ANCIENT BOOKS WERE NOW DESTROYED; the writers of the old school were executed or banished; the republican calendar was altered; and a conclave of historians and mythological poets was encouraged and rewarded, who re-wrote the history of Rome and erected for posterity a body of elegant fiction and imposture, which nineteen centuries of time have not yet sufficed to wholly overthrow or eradicate." [316].

'When Caesar was assassinated, Augustus was still in his teens. When, in accordance with the Treaty of Brundusium, Augustus divided the world with Marc Antony, giving to the latter the Eastern, and retaining for himself Rome and the Western Empire, he had but barely attained the age of manhood. After the departure of Marc Antony, one of the first acts of Augustus was the destruction of Perugia, a city which refused to acknowledge his authority. The fall of this place was followed by the sacrificial Placation of Julius the Father. In this atrocious rite, some authors allege that the consul, Lucius Antony, (brother of Marc) besides Cannutius C. Flavius, Clodius Bithynicus, and the principal magistrates and council of Perugia, together with 300 [possible exaggeration (see 1099)] senators and knights, were immolated as human sacrifices, upon an altar of Julius, erected for the occasion.48 The greater part of the abominable auto da fé [this phrase, apparently, is used anachronistically] was executed in the presence of Augustus himself, whose only reply to those who implored and shrieked for mercy, was: "You must die."

          Let those who contend that the worship of Julius and Augustus was merely a form, ponder over this horrible event. So soon as the gruesome business was over, Augustus prepared for his own elevation to the godship. Such of the ancient literature as was not destroyed, was perverted, the Sibylline books49 being among those preserved, because they were found to contain the prophecy of his Advent ["coming or arrival"], which, according to the subservient interpretation of Virgil, was to occur this same year, that is to say, in the consulate of Pollio, A.U. 713 [41 B.C.E.], when the world would be at peace, the temple of Janus closed, and the Golden Age would begin. Unfortunately for this pretty scheme, Marc Antony, grown jealous of Augustus, made war upon him; and the temple of Janus had to be re-opened; so that the god of the Western world was fain to postpone his intended elevation until the god of the East was subdued. The memorable victory of Actium was won in A.U. 723 [31 B.C.E.]. It was in this year that Herod is said to have paid a relief of 800 talents to Augustus, who confirmed him, for the second time, in his vassal kingdom of Judea; an act, which the Romans called "the Grace of God," but which the Jews attributed to bribery at court. In the following year Augustus entered Asia and Egypt at the head of an immense army; when Antony and Cleopatra, in despair, committed suicide....' [318-319].

          'In A.U. 730 [24 B.C.E.] Herod is said to have rebuilt the temple of Jerusalem and dedicated it to Jehovah. In the upper city he erected another edifice of greater magnitude, which he called the Caesarium, and dedicated it to Augustus. He also


built a temple to Augustus in Strato's Tower, "which," says Josephus, "was excellent, both for beauty and size; and therein was a colossal image of Augustus, not less than that of Jupiter Olympus, which it was made to resemble." Herod rebuilt Samaria, renamed it Sebastos, the Greek form of Augustus, and erected therein a temple to the worship of that god. Indeed he repaired many places and erected temples and statues of Augustus in them, and called them Caesarea, Augustus and the like. In the 192nd four-year Olympiad, answering to A.U. 745 [9 B.C.E.], Herod even went so far in his homage of Augustus, as to revive the panageia of Jasius, or the fifty-months each of 36 days, or five-year Olympian games and to call them "Caesar's games." For the expenses of their observance he devoted certain revenues in perpetuity. (Josephus, Wars, xxi.) His [Herod] coins were stamped with the Buddhic or Osirian sacred monogram P [(cannot reproduce) approximate: P with X on the stem of the P (Chi-Rho)] which was afterwards appropriated by the medieval historians of Christianity.' [319-320].

          'To prepare for the Apotheosis of A.U. 738 [16 B.C.E.], the Augustan historians and poets—bearing in mind the slaughter of Perugia; the ungrateful murders of Cicero and Lucius Antony; the tragic death of Marc Antony and Cleopatra; the mysterious banishment of Ovid; the condemnation of Afidius Memla, and many other similar circumstances—now tuned and struck anew their mendacious lyres. Let us listen to some of their strains, first disposing of the too premature paeans of Virgil

[70 - 19 B.C.E.], which he sang in his Fourth Eclogue [40 B.C. (see 1086)]:


"The last Great Aera foretold by the Cumaean Sibyl is now arrived; the Cycles begin anew. Now returns the Golden Age of Saturn, now appears the Immaculate Virgin. (This was Maia, the virgin mother of Augustus). Now descends from Heaven a divine Nativity. O! chaste Lucina, (this was the goddess of maternity), speed the Mother's pains, haste the glorious Birth, and usher in the reign of thy Apollo. In thy consulship, O! Pollio, shall happen this glorious Advent ["coming or arrival"], and the great months shall then begin to roll. Thenceforth whatever vestige of Original Sin remains, shall be swept away from earth forever, and the Son of God shall be the Prince of Peace!"

          As before intimated, this strain was sung too prematurely, and the battle of Actium had yet to be fought and won before the Messianic and Apotheosis project could be realised. Meanwhile no glorious Advent ["coming or arrival"] is recorded, no great months began to roll, no Great Aera was commenced, no Cycles were renewed, the peace was postponed, the temple of Janus was reopened, AND ORIGINAL SIN HAS RETAINED ITS PLACE IN THE LITURGY OF THE ROMAN CHURCH TO THE PRESENT DAY.' [321-322].

'The birth of Augustus was foretold not only by the Cumaean Sibyl, it was predicted by a divine oracle delivered in Velitre and by a prodigy that had happened publicly in Rome five or six months before the Nativity and was the occasion of the intended Slaughter of Innocents....

            When, before the Nativity, the divine oracle at Velitre predicted that "Nature was about to bring forth a Prince over the Roman people," the Senate passed an Act, A.U. 692 [62 B.C.E.], ordering that "No male child born that year should be reared or


brought up." Thus, every boy born within the Roman pale was devoted to destruction, and a frightful Slaughter of Innocents would have ensued, had not those who expected children, removed the tablets of the law from the walls of the aerarium ["treasury of ancient Rome, housed in the Temple of Saturn and the adjacent tabularium (record office) in the Forum." (Encyc. Brit.)]; and thus defeated the atrocious edict.' [323].

          "Coveting deification, Augustus neither commanded himself to be deified, nor to be worshipped; but with the prudence and deviousness that characterized all his measures, he munificently rewarded those who set the example of addressing and worshipping him as the Supreme Being; whilst he heavily and cruelly punished those who neglected this impious homage. Arminius complained to his soldiers that the Romans had made Augustus a god. This was not strictly correct: Augustus had made himself a god; as Scipio and Sylla had attempted to do, and as Titus Flamininus, Sertorius and Julius Caesar had actually done, before him." [325-326].

'....For changing one's clothes in the presence of an image of Augustus the penalty was death. For whipping a slave near the shrine of Augustus the punishment was death. For defacing a coin which bore the effigy of Augustus the penalty was death, not because it was a coin, but because it bore the image of god. This is proved by the next instance. For defacing the effigy of Augustus on a ring the penalty was death. For accepting honours in a colony on the same day that somewhat similar honours had been decreed to Augustus the penalty was death. It has been insinuated that the worship of Augustus was an idle form, an empty, meaningless ceremony, a mode of flattery, like that alleged to be still rendered to some eastern potentates. To complete this assurance it will be necessary to prove that the thumbscrew, the rack, the headsman's block, the axe, and the bloody remains of Roman citizens stuck upon lances at the city gates, the remains of men who had been executed for sacrilege to the god Augustus, were also illusions; that Suetonius, Tacitus, Josephus, Pliny and the other post-Augustan writers on this subject have transmitted to us a mass of falsehoods without the extenuating motive of either religion, interest, or ambition; that the myriads of Roman coins, found in the most distant places, stamped with the rayed image of Augustus and proclaiming him in explicit words the Theos, or living god, the Sebastos, or Holy One, or else the Son of God, are forgeries; and that the temples erected in his honour and in which worship and sacrifices to him were conducted by a hired priesthood and enforced upon the people, were so many figments of the imagination.58

          Costly temples, altars and images were erected to Augustus in Rome, Nola, Pompeii, Athens, Piscennus, Proconnesus, Tomis, Byzantium, Cyzicus, Antioch, Ancyra, Samaria, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Lyons and Vienne, (in Gaul,) Leon and Terracona, (in Spain,) and numerous other cities, the remains, in some cases almost complete remains, of which are still extant; the worship of Augustus was regularly conducted in all these places; and all classes of men were compelled to bow to his images and to worship them, upon the penalty of death.59 In Italy no such compulsion was necessary. Indeed, this worship stood in such high estimation that petty images of Augustus were used as charms, which were suspended or won upon the person; and the larger images of his incarnation, which were erected in highways


and public places, were, inthe [sic] absence of a temple, resorted to for sanctuary and respected as such.

          On the numerous votive tablets and other monuments erected to the worship of Augustus he is variously addressed as Liber Pater Augustus, with the thyrsus ["staff tipped with a pine cone", etc.] of Bacchus (3046), Jupiter Optimus Maximus Augustus (6423), Apollo Augustus (534), Serapis Augustus (4044), Saturnus Augustus (1796), Savus Augustus (3896), Savus Adsalluta (5134), Sedatus Augustus (3922), Salus Augustus (4162), Mercurius Augustus (1434), Aesus, Baldir, etc., the numbers being those of the inscriptions in Mommsen's "Corpus Inscriptionum Latinorum."

          Lanciani [Rodolfo Lanciani 1847 - 1929] informs us that of the vast number of structures on the Palantine Hill which comprised the palaces of he [the] Caesars "but one section alone remained unaltered throughout all the ages."60 This was the section built by Augustus; the one in which he dwelt. It was destroyed in 1549. To this may be added the fact that of all the memorials of the distant past which the Vatican preserves with the most jealous care is the marble image of Divus Augustus. Like reverence, however, has not been extended by the Italian government to his sepulchre, which, it is stated, has recently been subjected to indignity.61 ....'


          "After the death of the Augustus, which occurred, according to the received chronology, in A.D. 14, the army of office-holders, priests, sycophants and panders, who filled the capital, hastened to transfer their scandalous homage to Tiberius, his successor. For this they were at once rebuked by Tiberius, who reminded them that he was no god, but like themselves a mere human being; and he forbade them to address him by any sacred title, or even to swear by his name. Yet such an impetus had this worship received that his edict was evaded, and the courtiers swore by the emperor's Genius. It was perhaps to avoid a homage which he was powerless to prevent that Tiberius removed to Capri, where he resided until he died. In Rome he sternly enforced the worship of Augustus, although in the provinces he added or permitted that of himself. He must have reduced the number, or else the emoluments, which Augustus had awarded to the Roman ecclesiastics,66 for, without any other assignable cause of offense, the works written after his death, most of which were the product of their busy pens, sought to blacken his memory with hints of crimes which it was impossible for a man of his venerable age to commit.

          After the death of Tiberius the superstition of Rome attached itself to Caligula [Emperor 37 - 41 C.E. (12 - 41)], made him a god. Philo of Alexandria [c. 30 B.C.E. - c. 50 C.E.] affords us a glimpse of this impious worship in his account of an embassy which he headed on behalf of the Jews...." [229-330].

          'Water will not rise above its own level. Man will not worship a god who is either above or below the poise of his own comprehension. THE GODS have therefore this useful function: they FURNISH AN INFALLIBLE BAROMETER OF THE HUMAN INTELLECT. Measured by this scale, the worship of Augustus was not at the period of his advent ["coming or arrival"] below the comprehension of the West, for, with the exception of the stubborn Northmen, we hear of no dissatisfaction with it. Rural Italy, Gaul, Spain, Pannonia and Southern Germany, all accepted or endured it; Britain, Saxony and Scandinavia alone rejected it. Nor was it below the


comprehension of Egypt and Asia Minor, for only in Judea do any serious revolts against it appear in the chronicles of the times. But if, with the heroic exceptions mentioned, the rural populations endured it without repugnance, the great cities of the empire, such as Antioch, Alexandria, Athens and Rome, found it too degrading for continued acceptance. It was these centres of intellectual activity that gave effect to the revolts which emperor-worship had provoked in Britain, Frisia, Saxony and Judea; and it was out of this combination of popular resistance and intellectual disgust that arose a long and deadly struggle against the worship of Augustus and the wide-spread and firmly-rooted superstitions upon which it was founded; a struggle which finally ended in the adoption of Christianity.69

          69The coins of Augustus commonly have the rayed image of that personage, with the legend DIVVS AVGVSTVS; or AVGVSTVS DIVVS FILIVS. This style was afterwards followed on the coins stamped with the effigy of Christ, the first one of which was issued by Justinian II., Rhinotmetus, about the year A.D. 705, with the legend d.N. IhS. CPS REX REGNANTIVM. There were several issues of these coins and some slight variations in the spelling. The small "h" is really a Greek "e," while the capital "P" is really a Greek "R." Sabatier's Byzantine Coins, Justinian II., No. 2. For Divos and Divus on Coins of Julius and Augustus, see Humphreys' "Coin Collector's Manual," plate 8.

Finis.' [333] [End of text]. [See: 1116].

_____ _____ _____


from: The Middle Ages Revisited, or The Roman Government and Religion and Their Relations to Britain, Alex. Del Mar, New York, Cambridge Encyclopedia Co., 1900.

          "When civil strife had so much exhausted the Romans that they were unable to prevent the overthrow of their republican institutes or resist the erection of the Hierarchy, they accepted from their tyrants a form of religion so impious and degrading as to speedily disgust the better classes of citizens and turn them against a government in whose establishment they had formerly taken an active and patriotic part. This feeling found popular echo in distant provinces, like Judea and Britain, and it led to those frequent insurrections which distinguished the first century of our aera. The religion which led to these insurrections was the worship of Caesar as the Creator. This is the pivot upon which turned the history of the Roman world for many centuries; yet only the faintest allusions to it will be found in our standard works of reference. In the present treatise the subject will be brought into relief. It will then be perceived that the true grandeur of christianity and the moral lessons of its conquest over paganism, have been hid from sight by a false history of the Roman religion and its development. No greater struggle has ever been fought, and none so belittled by petty conceits and fables. Not only this, but if the edifice by which the aims of civilization are supported continues to be poised upon the flimsy [?] foundations which the medieval monks constructed, it is exposed to the risk of falling beneath the blows that criticism and satire may reserve for its more vulnerable elements...

          Even after these subjects are rightly determined the HIERARCHICAL ["controlled by a religious hierarchy", etc.] VERSION OF ROMAN HISTORY will be found protected by formidable defences. Not merely literature, but the fine arts have been largely employed in its support. Painting, sculpture, the drama, music, and architecture, all sprang up within the sacerdotal enclosure and in a certain sense they all belong to it still. THE MEDIEVAL AND MODERN WORKS OF ART WHICH PERPETUATE THE ECCLESIASTICAL MYTHS OF ANTIQUITY ARE TO BE NUMBERED BY THE MILLION and are scattered broadcast; those which refute them are few and but little known. A wholesome and purer catholicity demands that the employment of these methods in religious systems should be discouraged; and that the arts shall be left free to enjoy the advantages of secular encouragement and development." ["ix"-x].

'The Middle Ages Revisited.

Chapter I.

Ancient Astronomy, Astrology and Religion.

          The key to the Middle Ages is the history of the Ancient EmpireThe cornerstone of the Empire was the Worship of Augustus as Divus Filius—Oriental origin of the Messianic Theory—The Ecliptical Cycle—Ten Months' Year—Incarnations of Vishu—Movement of this Mythos westward to Babylonia, Egypt, Greece and Rome—Use made of it by the Romans—Pretensions of Titus, Sertorius, Pompey, Caesar and Octavius.


          THE HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE AGES WAS EVOLVED FROM THAT OF THE EMPIRE. THE CORNER-STONE OF THE EMPIRE WAS THE WORSHIP OF OCTAVIUS CAESAR AS THE SON OF GOD, DIVUS FILIUS. Augustus was worshipped not as a hero or demi-god, but as a Messiah, an incarnation of the Deity, born of the Heavenly Father and an earthly mother; sent on earth in a miraculous manner, at a sacred period, and in pursuance of a heavenly design; which was to bring peace on earth, heal the wounds and inequities of the past, restore the Golden Age to Latium and fulfill the prophecies of the Cumaean Sibyl. These tokens identified him with all the Messiahs who descended from the Indian incarnation mythos and who consequently were due to appear on earth according to our present chronology in the year B.C. 63, which was the year of Ies Chrishna, Salivahana, Ptolemy IX., Woden, Hesus and numerous other Sons of God, whether impersonated by living men or not.

          Said Tacitus, himself a priest and member of the Quindecemviral [quindecimviri] College [complex: "college of 15 priests who were in charge of the Sibylline Books", etc. (Dict. Roman Religion, 1996)]: "The reverence due to the gods was no longer exclusive. Augustus claimed equal worship. Temples were built and statues were erected to him; a mortal man was adorned; and priests and pontiffs were appointed to pay him impious homage."' ["1"].

          "The extent to which the Latin Sacred College has antedated, misattributed, altered, or perverted the literary remains of Rome, was not commonly suspected, or if suspected, as it was by many eminent persons, the suspicion could not be substantiated, for ant of positive and convincing evidences. Such evidences are now supplied by the epigraphic monuments and coins which have been dug up chiefly within the last thirty or forty years. These evidences not only convict the College of innumerable forgeries, they prove that even the Calendar has been altered and a vast number of dates thrown into confusion, merely to make room for false dates and imaginary events.

          This charge is not made lightly. In the chronological work cited below [I have not located this reference], (p. 3,) are contained the proofs that Augustus, in order to support his claims to divinity and make good his pretence of being that Son of God whose advent ["coming or arrival"] had been predicted in the sacred books both of the Orient and Occident, sank 78 years from the aera of Rome, which he reduced from 816 to 738 years before what is now known as the Christian aera. The same work also contains the proofs that in a long subsequent age the Latin Sacred College, following the evil example of Augustus, and with a like deceptive object, added 15 years to the ancient calendar of Rome, thus removing the Foundation, or Year of the City, to B.C. 753, where it now falsely stands. This double alteration has rendered the chronology of Rome 63 years wrong; moreover, it is precisely to this extent that it differs from the chronology of the Orient. The proofs referred to are so valid, so numerous, so mutually corroborative and so convincing, that to refuse assent to them would be to defy the laws of evidence and degrade the science of history to the level of medieval hagiology [also, hagiography: writing(s) "about the lives of saints"] [validity?]." [2].

          "In searching for the origin of an Idea, the explorer must be trebly equipped; he should start with an arsenal of information; he should be prepared to find that, like a River which is fed by numerous streams, THE OBJECT OF HIS ["EXPLORER"


(RESEARCHER)] SEARCH HAS NOT ONE ORIGIN BUT MANY ORIGINS; he should be satisfied if he is able to discover that a single one of these streams is navigable. In the author's work on "The Messiah" he has fixed the aeras of more than TWO HUNDRED SO-CALLED INCARNATIONS OF THE DEITY, of which about ONE-HALF were assumptions of divine origin on the part of real historical personages, while the remainder were MYTHICAL INCARNATIONS OF IDEAL PERSONAGES; the latter being of course always the inventions of ages long subsequent to the aeras assigned to them, and therefore anachronical. An attentive examination of the details, real or fabulous, relating to these personages, will hardly fail to leave the impression that one class of them were the offspring of the other; in other words, that THE MYTHICAL INCARNATIONS WERE IN MOST CASES REACTIONS AGAINST THE HISTORICAL PRETENDERS; in short, that man has ever sought a refuge from the tyranny and exactions of earthly deities in the creation of imaginary beings, whose attributes fitted what was at the time his measure of Perfection. This is a mental process which we begin in childhood; it is one which we shall always practice; the only change that will ever occur in its operation will be the shifting of its centre; our Ideal will not always be the same." [3].

          'The astronomical basis of the Earth's Journey was the 6585 2/3 days of the ecliptical cycle. This cycle not only comprised the whole round of eclipses; it also renewed all the lunar festivals on the same days of the 36-day month. It was therefore the Metonic cycle, so to speak, of the ten months' year. The astrological extension of the ecliptical cycle consisted in assuming that when the cycle has recurred as often as there were days in the civil month, the celestial system would be renewed; and moreover that after ten such renewals, the system would come to an end. THE BASIS OF ASTROLOGY IS ALWAYS THE TRUTH; IT IS ONLY THE SUPERSTRUCTURE THAT IS FALSE; UNFORTUNATELY, THE SUPERSTRUCTURE FORMS THE GREATEST PART OF IT. At each renewal of the celestial system, according to this theory, a new incarnation of the Deity, a new Messiah, would visit the earth and bring to it love, peace and happiness. Said Iesnu, or Ies Chrishna: "Whenever there is decline of righteousness and uprising of unrighteousness, then I project myself into Creation. For the protection of the righteous and the destruction of the evil-doer and for the proper establishment of the law of righteousness, I appear from Age to Age....At the end of a kalpa all things return into my nature and then at the beginning of kalpa, I again project them." Bhagavad Vita [Gita], IV, 7, 8; IX, 7.

          The remotest period to which knowledge of the kalpa or ecliptical cycle can be traced is the Mahabharata wars ["B.C. 3102" (page 76) (complex. dates vary by centuries, and millennia) (see: Encyclopaedia of Indian Culture, vol. I, 1981, 208-209; vol. III, 1983, 863)]. The messianic theory, which is based upon it, is of course later, though how much later cannot at present be determined with assurance. It is certainly earlier than the aera of Gotama, for it was at that period when the year, previously of ten months, was first sub-divided into twelve months and when the other tens were changed to twelves.' [4-5].


          "Monuments, letters, languages, names, dates, popular customs, religious rites and festivals, calendars, zodiacs, and numerous other evidences still extant, combine to prove the INDIAN ORIGIN OF THE MESSIANIC THEORY, the Divine Year of 658 [see 1092] common years, the Earth's Journey, and the various doctrines that grew


out of these conceptions. That they flowed out of India westward into Persia, Babylonia, Egypt, Greece and Rome, can be demonstrated so overwhelmingly that the cosmogonies which refuse to recognize this great fact will either have to suffer revision or fall into contempt. The Babylonians and Assyrians imported almost all their religious materials from India; their heaven and hell are both Indian; the Babylonian messiah, Nara-Sin, is the fourth incarnation of the Indian Vishnu; the Man-lion of the Assyrian seals and cylinders is his Indian zodion [used by Alexander Del Mar, for signs of the Zodiac];1 the Babylonian cross and svastica are Indian; the Syrian gods, patriarchs, religious cycles, year of the Creation and names of the months are all Indian; the Egyptian worship of Mother and Child, the cup and sacred heart, the steeple, cross, bell, rosaries, altars, censors, holy water, rite of baptism, soul's journey to purgatory, etc., are all Indian, the Greek messiahs down to the period of Alexander are all Indian; the Gaulish Hesus, Virgo Paritura and cross quarter-days are Indian; the Gothic Woden and Fricca, and Yule-tide are Indian; while many of the Roman festivals, ceremonies, rites, symbols and mysteries, both before and after the inception of Christianity, are also Indian. On the contrary, there is no evidence that the Indians ever imported any religious beliefs, customs, rites or tokens from the West. Religious light from the West would provoke a smile not only in India but in any country. THE COURSE OF RELIGION AS WELL AS OF EMPIRE HAS ALMOST INVARIABLY BEEN FROM EAST TO WEST; not from west to east.2" [5].

          [footnote] '2In 1497, when Vasco De Gama [Vasco da Gama 1460 - 1524] and his party first beheld a Hindu temple and observed its ceremonies and ritual, they mistook it for a Christian church and piously worshipped at the altar. R.S. Whiteway's "Rise of the Portuguese Power in India," London, 1899. When, during the present century the British sepoys landed in Egypt they, in like manner, mistook the Christian churches for Hindu temples and there knelt in prayer. Higgins' [Godfrey Higgins 1773 - 1833] "Anacalypsis."' [5-6].

          "The doors through which these heterogeneous materials entered the pantheon of Rome were opened by Roman arms. Quirinus, the Indian Quichena, came from conquered Etruria; Ischenou, Chres, Jasius and Dionysius from conquered Greece; Osiris, Isis and Horus from conquered Egypt; Serapis from conquered Pontus; and Nebo-Nazaru, Thammuz, and Bel from conquered Babylon. It was not that the Romans were prone to worship the gods of their enemies; on the contrary, we shall presently see that one of the first acts of their victorious commanders was to impose a Roman god upon the nations they subjugated; it was that their captives were so numerous that all of these foreign religions secured a footing in those parts of the empire to which their votaries were consigned as colonists or slaves. Thus while the Greek Bacchus was secretly worshipped in Italy, Titus Quinctius Flamininus was openly worshipped in Chalcis and Apollonia; and while the rites of the Celtic Hesus were smuggled into Rome, Quintus Sertorius set himself up for the Messiah in Celtic Spain. There is also reason to suspect that Caesar practiced a similar imposture in Gaul, just as Columbus [c. 1451 - 1506], Cortes [Hernan Cortes 1485 - 1547] and Pizarro [Francisco Pizarro 1474 - 1541] afterwards did in America. It is not without significance that the pre-Roman Hesus of the Cluny Museum [Paris] is dressed in a Roman toga. Caesar's contemporaries, Sylla, Pompey, Sextus, Marc Antony and Octavius, the moment they were entrusted with consular office, set themselves up for


gods. It is difficult to believe that Caesar waited until after the conquest of Egypt before adopting a similar means of acquiring authority, or of attaining supreme power." [6].

          "To preface an account of the Augustan worship with a history of all the pretended incarnations of the Deity that preceded and led up to it, would fatigue the reader at the onset. The student who is curious in this respect will find a very complete account of them in the author's work on "The Messiah." It will be going sufficiently far afield if in the present work we begin our account of Eastern and Western incarnations with those of Alexander, the Seleucidae and the Ptolemies. It can scarcely be doubted that the worship of these personages as deities, throughout the extensive provinces over which they reigned and which afterwards passed under the yoke of Rome, had fully prepared and accustomed their inhabitants to the kind of worship which Augustus deemed it essential to demand of them." [7].

          "Were it necessary, these testimonies [of "contemporary witnesses" (Ovid, Virgil, Suetonius, Horace, Manilus, Tacitus, et al.)] could be greatly multiplied; but they would fatigue the reader. The temples at Ancyra and Ephesus, besides myriads of coins and inscriptions, still extant, hail Augustus as Divus Filius, or the Son of God; the medal published by Father Hardouin [Jean Hardouin 1646 - 1729 (see Appendix III, 717-732)] in his work on Ancient Coins, pourtrays the pontifical hat of Augustus surmounted by a Latin cross; whilst Horace [65 - 8 B.C.E.] and some of the inscriptions allude to the god [Augustus] as the Son of Maia, who as we know, was universally recognized as the Mother of God.57" [49].

"....IT CAN BE SHOWN BEYOND A DOUBT THAT THE ASCENSION OF AUGUSTUS AND THE NATIVITY OF JESUS RELATED TO THE SAME YEAR and that after THE DATE OF THE FORMER ["ASCENSION OF AUGUSTUS"] WAS BESTOWED ON THE LATTER ["NATIVITY OF JESUS"], it (the Ascension of Augustus) was pushed out of place fifteen years to destroy its identity. By our calendar the date of the death and pretended Ascension of Augustus was August 29th, AD. 14. On the winter solstice or Brumalia following this notable event a new aera was begun and the first year was called the year I, Anno Domini, of our Lord, meaning Tiberius, but as that prince refused to be worshipped or addressed as a god, Anno Domini was finally assigned to Augustus, whose aera, so far as the year is concerned, was thus shifted from that of his Advent ["coming or arrival"] to that of his pretended Ascension into heaven, as mentioned by Suetonius [c. 69 - c. 140 C.E.] and other writers of the period. Subtract the fifteen years corruption of the calendar last named from A.D. 14 makes ONE YEAR BEFORE A.D.I. THIS WAS THE YEAR BOTH OF THE ASCENSION OF AUGUSTUS AND THE NATIVITY OF JESUS." [149].

          'It is claimed by the Latin Sacred College that in A.D. 528 a monk named Dionysius Exiguus calculated and fixed the aera of Jesus Christ, which he commenced on December 25th, A.U. [A.U. = A.U.C. = ab urbe condita: "from the foundations of the city (of Rome)" (Dict. Foreign Words and Phrases)] 753 [A.U.C. 753 = A.D. 0 (see 1081)], BUT THIS CLAIM IS NOT SUPPORTED BY THE FACTS IN THE CASE. What is known to have occurred is that either in the eighth century or later, but certainly not in the sixth century, somebody, whether Dionysius Exiguus or not, is


immaterial, altered the Augustan aera to the extent of fifteen years by adding that number of years to the Roman calendar; and, CALLING THE AUGUSTAN AERA THAT OF JESUS CHRIST,16 [see footnote, below] he [probably anonymous] procured its acceptance in the city of Rome, beyond whose precincts, however, it quite failed to take root; for the provinces continued to employ either the Julian or the Augustan aera.17 [see footnote, below]

          Several attempts are alleged of the fourth and fifth centuries to get rid of the Julian and Augustan aeras, because they were a continual reminder of the impious religion of imperial deifications. Thus it is claimed that the general ecclesiastical council, (which assembled at Nicea, in Galatia, Anno Julio 373, or A.D. 325) ordered that the aera among "Christians" should celebrate the victory of Constantine over Maxentius, 8 cal. [Calendae (Calends [see 1086, 1090]): first day of the month] October [September 24 (recent sources state October 28)], in the year now called A.D. 312, and that every period of fifteen years from the first day of the following year should be marked by an Indiction.18 [see footnote, below] It is claimed that the Constantinian aera was adopted by the Latin church in 342, and attempted to be made general throughout Christendom; but, if so, which is very doubtful, the attempt completely failed....' [149-150].

          [footnote] '16The Christian aera, attributed to Dionysius, is said to have been carried into Gaul by the monks, toward the end of the sixth century. It is also said to have been mentioned at the Council of Chelsea, 816, and used by Charles the Bald in 877 as "the year of our Lord;" but in fact it was not publicly nor commonly employed as the "Christian" aera in either France or England until some centuries later. Indeed, it did not supercede the "Augustan" aera in Italy until the Renaissance, nor the Julian aera in Spain or Portugal until shortly before the discovery of America. Therefore its use in the text of Charles the Bald does not imply either its recognition as the "Christian" aera or its general adoption in France. That prince was the king of Italy and a vassal of Pope John VIII.' [149].

          [footnote] "17The determination attributed to Dionysius Exiguus has not even met with the approval of modern MYTHOCHRONOLOGISTS, among whom there are no less than eleven different years assigned to the incarnation [birth] of Jesus Christ." [150].

          [footnote] "18A tribute was levied every fifteen years and called an indiction; a term which was afterwards applied to the period itself. Indictions are mentioned in the Theodosian code; but the Nicean story is probably anachronical [anachronistic], for the custom of dating by indictions appears on coins of a date earlier than Constantine. Indictions are mentioned by Pliny the younger [62 - 113 C.E.]. They probably began B.C. 30." [150].

"the reader must be on his guard in accepting as a certain guide any brief explanation of the changes which the Romans made in their calendar, because these were so numerous and intricate as to defy accurate condensation. In describing the calendars of Greece and Rome, the Rev. Edward Greswell [1797 - 1869] found it necessary to fill no less than sixteen thick octavo volumes. The substance of these books cannot be compressed into a few lines." [154].


          'The last alteration of the calendar known to have been made by any of the "pagan" emperors of Rome was effected by Diocletian [Emperor 284 - 305 C.E. (245 - 313)]. By dividing the imperial government into four departments, two to be ruled by Augusti and two by Caesars; by removing the seat of government from Rome—his own capital being established at Nicomedia in Galatia,37 and that of Maximin, the other Augustus, at Milan; by practically extinguishing what remained of the Roman senate; by disbanding the praetorian guards and substituting bands of Jovians and Herculians; by taking his [Diocletian] oath of office on the Sun; by solemnizing his treaty with the Nubians in the name of the same deity; and by numerous other public acts, he plainly evinced an intention to essentially and permanently alter the Roman religion as well as its system of government. But a national religion is not so amenable to alteration as some enthusiasts pretend. Although Diocletian's attempt to revive the solar worship was preceded by that of Elagabalus, it completely failed. Religion, in common with all the other institutes of the Creator, has to obey the laws of evolution [?]. Among other innovations Diocletian abolished the custom of dating the aera from Julius Caesar or Augustus, and ordered it to commence with his own reign, the first day of which was September 17th, A.D. 284.38 This was afterwards shifted to September 29th, the day we now call Michaelmas. The aera of Diocletian was long in use throughout some portions of the Roman world, and it is still used by the Christians of Nubia and Abyssinia. The Church of Rome endeavoured to bury the Ascension day of Augustus under an IMAGINARY PERSECUTION OF CHRISTIAN MARTYRS BY DIOCLETIAN [see 322, 323, 914-918], to which it has given the date of August 29th, A.D. 284. This was the Augustan Ascension day, and had nothing to do with Diocletian's persecution of "MARTYRS," which was precipitated by the demolition of the church of Nicomedia, on Terminalia, 23rd February, A.D. 303, and authorized for the first time by an imperial edict against all non-conformists issued on the following day.39 In like manner the Church buried the aera of Diocletian under the legend of Saint Michael.'


          'The alleged reformation of the calendar, by which it was intended to begin a new aera from the day [27 October, 312 C.E.] that Constantine saw the Cross in the sky and the prophetic words, "In hoc signo vinces," has been mentioned. The speedy failure and extinction of this aera, if, indeed, it was ever instituted at all, proves that the miraculous vision, whether seeming or pretended, which it was designed to commemorate, found no lodgment in the popular mind. Even the churchmen seem to have doubted Constantine's story; for they too have avoided the use of his aera.' [157].

          [a footnote] "48Jean Hardouin [1646 - 1729], the Jesuit Father, who compiled the proceedings of the church councils, warns us not to rely upon their truth or correctness. He regarded many of them as having been composed or greatly altered in modern times." [160]. [See: Appendix III, 717-732 (Hardouin)].

"....It could be shown that monogamy, baptism, naming, churchings, the white linen garments of priests, the eagles, doves, lambs, fishes, and nearly all, if not indeed all of the ritual, symbols, festivals and observances of papal Rome were borrowed through Pagan Rome from the Orient. But as our object in touching the subject is


merely to remove certain untruths from the pages of history, and not to rudely shake anybody's faith in the origin of these venerable forms, we are content for the present to disturb them no further.59" [163].

          [footnote] '59Gibbon, Dupuis, Herbert, Higgins, Brady and Hislop amply prove the Oriental origin of relic-worship, incense, images, pictures, candles, and other ecclesiastical "properties" and "personae."' [163].

"When, about 376, the MYTH OR DOCTRINE OF THE NATIVITY, proposed by the Roman See, was communicated to the Sacred College at Constantinople by one of its bishops, Gregory Nazianzen, it was objected to as a strange and unwelcome INNOVATION, which might lead the faithful back into idolatry.4" [169].

          [footnote] '4Smith's Dic. Bible, word "Christmas." The date is not entirely convincing.' [169]. [See: Article #3, 282].

"The superior attainments of the Romans lent them great advantages in missionary work. They monopolized the arts of reading and writing, then but little known to the Goths....

          But for all this, the barbarians did not receive Christianity as a gift from on high. To them it was a phase of the IMPERIAL POWER, and they never accepted it peacefully, nor without a valuable consideration. They had to be lured into it, coaxed or cajoled into it, tempted into it, married into it, bribed into it, or else forced into it. In all these efforts the Church had to yield something of principle in return. The Christianity, as well as the IMPERIALISM, of this period, wore many coats, and underwent many mutations. Ignorance and idolatry are weeds which need a variety of tools to ensure their extermination. The new name of the church was Catholic, or universal, and its motto was semper ubique et pro omnibus. In a previous chapter allusion was made to certain Gothic customs which are still preserved in the ceremonials or festivals of the Church. St. Augustine [354 - 430], the pioneer missionary to semi-Gothic Britain, was expressly commanded by Pope Gregory [Pope 590 - 604 (c. 540 - 604)] to make concessions to the pagan islanders. Accommodate your ceremonies to theirs, wrote the zealous evangelist, and permit them to eat as much flesh to the glory of God, as formerly the did to the devil.7 These concessions were carried so far that the Ten Commandments were reduced to six or or [sic] seven, by omitting the interdictions [prohibitions, etc.] against the making and worshipping of images,8 and by winking at piracy, polygamy and other well known tendencies of the Northmen. It was in this manner that, reciprocally, the Goths were Christianized, and the western church Gothicised." [170].


[footnote 27] '....THE EFFIGY OF CHRIST did not appear on the coins of Justin II. It FIRST APPEARED ON A GOLD SOLIDUS OF JUSTINIAN II., (Rhinotmetus,) who reigned 685-95, and again, 704 [705]-11 [see #2, 21, 121.]. Sabatier, Monnais Byzantines, II, 22. The coin is shown in Plate XXXVII, No. 2 OBVERSE: d N. JuSTINIANVS. SERV. ChPSTI. (Our Lord Justinian, Servant of Christ.) Full-faced bust of Justinian, showing him to be a young man, with a light beard and flowing locks. His coat is ornamented with squares. In his right hand a "potency" cross, poised on three steps; in his left, a globe, surmounted by a Greek cross; on the globe, the word PAX (peace). REVERSE: d N. Ihs. Chs. REX. REGNAnTIVM. (Our Lord, Jesus Christ, King of Kings.) Full-faced bust of Christ, showing him to be a middle-aged, bearded man, with closely curled, almost woolly hair and close robe. On each side of the head, where the ears ought to be, appear two small projections, which form the extremity of a small cross, that is supposed to be behind the head; in his left hand, a book. Both the effigies are very rude and neither of them are rayed. On a silver miliaresion of Justinian II. (Sabatier, No. II,) appears the effigy of Christ, showing him to be an old man, with long beard and loose robe. This effigy is not rayed. The effigy of Christ did not appear on the coins of all the Roman emperors, but only on those of the following ones: Justinian II., Michael I, Alexander, A.D. 886-912, Romanus I., A.D. 918, Christopher, A.D. 918, Constantine X., Nicephorus II., John Zimisces, John Comnenus, Andromicus I., Michael Paleologos, Andromicus II., and his son Michael, A.D. 1295-1320.' [280-281]. [See: 1107].

_____ _____ _____


from: A History of Money in Ancient Countries, From the Earliest Times to The Present, Alexander Del Mar, Burt Franklin, 1968 (1885).

"Chapter IV. ["57"-82]

India, Prior to Alexander The Great."

          "The antiquity of money in India appears to be as great as in China, and is susceptible of being traced backward to about thirty centuries before Christ. The proofs of this great antiquity are derived from various sources, each of which will be examined in due order. These sources are: (1) The most ancient accounts of the population and condition of society in India; (2) The Code of Manou; (3) The Vedic writings; (4) The Buddhic writings; (5) Numismatic and other archaeological remains; (6) Comparative philology." [58].

_____ _____ _____


from: The History of Money in America, From the Earliest Times to the Establishment of the Constitution, Alexander Del Mar, Burt Franklin Press, 1968 (1899).

'....The voyage of Columbus [1451 - 1506] was not to discover Cathay [China], but to plunder it; to plunder it of those precious metals, to the use of which the Roman empire had committed all Europe and from the absence of which its various states were now suffering the throes of social decay and dissolution.

          The terms which Columbus demanded and the Crown conceded in its contract with him, is a proof of this position. He demanded one-eighth of all the profits of the voyage. To this the Crown consented, after making a better provision for itself, by requiring that in the first place one-fifth of all the treasure found or captured in the lands approached should be reserved for the king. The terms of this contract are given more fully in the author's "History of the Precious Metals," and therefore they need not be repeated here. From beginning to end it ["voyage of Columbus"] was essentially a business bargain; its object was not geographical discovery, but gold and silver; ITS AIM WAS NOT THE DISSEMINATION OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, BUT THE ACQUISITION OF PLUNDER and especially that kind of plunder of which the Spanish states at that period stood in the sorest need.

          Said the illustrious Von Humboldt [Alexander von Humboldt 1769 - 1859]: "America was discovered, not as has been so long falsely pretended, because Columbus predicted another Continent, but because he sought by the west a nearer way to the gold mines of Japan and the spice countries in the southeast of Asia."2 The expeditions of Cortes [Hernan Cortes 1485 - 1547] and Pizarro [Francisco Pizarro 1474 - 1541] had precisely the same objects: to discover and acquire the precious metals ["gold and silver"], without permitting any considerations of religion or humanity to stand in the way of these objects....' [3-4].

_____ _____ _____


from: A History of The Precious Metals, from the Earliest Times to the Present, Alex. Del Mar, Second Edition—Revised, Burt Franklin Press, 1968 (1902 (2nd ed. rev.)) (1880).

[Note: emphasis, on Gold, and Silver. Apparent order of historical usage: Gold, Copper, Silver, Iron].

"Publishers' Advertisement"

          "While, as the author [Alexander Del Mar] shows, the search for gold has carried the torch of civilization and the CLAIMS OF CHRISTIANITY to the remotest regions, it has also extended the area and prolonged the establishment of slavery. Of the twenty thousand million dollars worth of the precious metals produced since the Discovery of America, fully one-half has been wrung from the blood and tears of conquered and enslaved races...." [v-vi].

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from: Ancient Britain, In the Light of Modern Archaeological Discoveries, Alex. Del Mar, Formerly Director of the U.S. Bureau of Statistics, Author of "A History of the Precious Metals," "A History of Monetary Systems," "The Middle Ages Revisited," "The Worship of Augustus Caesar," Etc., Etc. New York, The Cambridge Encyclopedia Co., 1900.

[My copy (from New York): bookplate: "Ex Libris: Walter Del Mar."; second bookplate: "Metropolitan Club Library Presented by Walter Del Mar" ("Walter Del Mar" is a signature). Walter Del Mar was a son of Alexander Del Mar, and, an author].


Excursus: from: History of Monetary Systems, A History of Actual Experiments in Money made by Various States of the Ancient and Modern World, by Alexander Del Mar, [1895], Reprints of Economic Classics, Augustus M. Kelley ⋅ Publishers, New York 1969.


[Title page: reproduced inscription of Alexander Del Mar, to his son, Walter Del Mar]

"To Walter Del Mar

from his affectionate

London father

May 8/95 Alex Del Mar"

[End of Excursus].

          "The pitiless mendacity of bigots [CHRISTIANS, et al.] has almost deprived the Romans of moral character. Whether of Italy or Britain, they have rendered the name of Roman pagan, synonymous with everything that is vile. The bitter invectives of Juvenal, unmistakingly aimed at the abominations of the capital, these bigots have applied to distant London and York, which probably barely heard of them. In this manner they have blurred and falsified all the lines of history. But no unprejudiced person can read the fond and affecting inscriptions upon the ancient tombs and altars of Britain, without giving the provincial Romans credit for as much truth, love, and piety, as are to be gleaned from similar evidences of our own times. Mr. Wright publishes a great number of these inscriptions, and the student who wishes to derive from original proofs a just estimate of Romano-British character, must read them for himself. Whatever may have been its rites, customs, or ceremonies, the monuments of Britain indicate that, in practice, the Roman religions promoted the observance of as much tenderness, filial affection, benevolence, pity, charity, decency, and sobriety, as are known to prevail in the same places at the present day. There, indeed, came a time when all these moral traits grew fainter, and the social bond itself was dissolved; but this appears to have been no more caused by the ancient beliefs, than the brutality and depravity of the middle ages were caused by christianity." [30].

          "Notwithstanding the many volumes that have been written on the subject, and in which the prevalence or practice of christianity during the occupation of Britain by the Roman legions is assumed, no valid evidences have been adduced in its support. No temple, no altar, no tombstone, no inscription, no book, no mark, no symbol of


any kind, has yet been found which contains any certain evidence of, or allusion to, christianity. The Romans entered Britain both before and after the beginning of our aera. They came not only from Rome and Byzantium, but also from numerous other parts of the empire. The temples and tombstones of the Romans, their altars, graves, personal relics, coins, furniture, decorations, all prove that christianity was unknown. Down to the moment when the troops departed from Britain, the people offered sacrifices and inscribed their last pious wishes to Jupiter, Bacchus, Serapis, or Mithra, gods who had been worshipped from very ancient times. The degrading worship of emperors had fallen into disuetude [desuetude ("discontinuance", etc.)]. Sir Francis Palgrave [1788 - 1861], after a careful examination of all the literary materials bearing upon the subject, finds no valid evidence that the British tribes ever heard of christianity. The earliest evidences of christianity in Britain relate to the romanized Britons, chiefly of the higher ranks, and (he might have added) therefore those to whom the official religion of emperor-worship was most repugnant.9" [31].

          'The Rev. Dr. Bruce sums up the case in a few words.10 After admitting the absence of any Christian memorials in the Roman remains he says: "We meet the cross in several of its forms, but it is admitted on all hands that the cross and even the famed cipher P [(cannot reproduce) P with * below stem of P] or X P [Chi-Rho?] are emblems older than christianity. Their appearance on monuments prior to the time of Constantine cannot be regarded as emblems of the Christian profession. Neither do we meet with any other indication of the adoption of the verities of revelation by the romanized Britons."' [31-32].

          'The substance of all the antiquarian evidence and of all the valid literary evidence on the subject is that CHRISTIANITY DID NOT MAKE ITS APPEARANCE IN BRITAIN UNTIL THE PERIOD OF POPE GREGORY'S MISSIONARIES IN THE SIXTH CENTURY, and that it did not obtain a general footing in the Island before the aera of Charlemagne [King of the Franks 768 - 814; Emperor of the West 800 - 814 (742 - 814)]. When it did appear, it made its mark upon every institution of society. The distinguishing trait of the Christian religion—one that some doctors of divinity seem to have strangely overlooked—is its capacity of improvement, its adaptability to the ever changing conditions of society, and to the varied wants and aspirations of man. This is the Roman part of it, the legendary part is Buddhic, Gallic and Jewish; the ceremonies are drawn from many sources. All other religions are fixed, christianity [?] alone [?] moves with the times. Brahminism, Brahma-Buddhism, Judaism, Mahometanism, ALL ARE FIXED [see 1039, 1122]. The Brahmin cannot change his caste, nor the Brahmo-Buddhist his "vehicle." The Judean dare not alter the law of Moses, nor the Moslem the Koran. But christianity has changed an hundred times and will change an hundred more, a characteristic that is alone sufficient to ensure its survival when all codified religions shall be dead and forgotten [?].11'

[See: footnote 11, 1122] [32-33].

          'While it is denied that christianity existed in Britain previous to the pontificate of Gregory, it is not meant that none of the symbols, nor ceremonies, now employed in religious worship existed before that time. On the contrary, many of these exoteric ["popular", etc.] marks of religion were thus employed, but they are of extremely ancient date, they were employed long before the Christian aera and they were


continued to be employed afterwards; so that their employment by one sect or another has been continuous for twenty or thirty centuries. Therefore they cannot with propriety be adduced to prove either the introduction or the establishment of christianity.12

          [footnote] 11Contrasting the rules for burnt offerings and sacrifices in Leviticus with their rejection in Psalms, LI, 16, Prof. Max Müller [1823 - 1900] says: "There is growth [revealed growth?] here, as evident as can be, however difficult it may be to some students of religion to reconcile the idea of growth with the character of a revealed religion." Origin and Growth of Religion, p. 134. As with language, so "religion also has been shown to exhibit a constant growth and development, its very life consisting in a discarding of decayed elements, which is necessary in order the better to maintain whatever is still sound and vigorous....A religion that cannot swept away violently in the end." p. 263.... "A religion which is not able to grow and live with us as we grow and live, is dead already." p. 380. It is to be regretted that after opening this great subject, so talented and influential a writer should have trifled with its conclusions, in the manner shown a little further on in the same work.

          [footnote] 12For crucifixes deposited in the ancient temples of Benares and Mathura and other temples on the Ganges, see Maurice's Indian Antiquities, II, 361; for allusion to ancient crosses in the Serapion and other temples on the Nile, see the works of Godfrey Higgins, Rev. R. Taylor, Rev. A. Hislop, Rev. Dr. Reeves, and Sir Wm. Hamilton. Nearly every Egyptian representation of a god (there are hundreds of them in the British Museum) holds a crucifix, or crook, and often both of these sacred symbols, in his hand. These works of art are ascribed to aeras many centuries B.C. There are Gallo-Greek coins in the same collection, with large crosses conspicuously displayed upon them, belonging to the fourth and fifth centuries B.C. The Ptolemaic Egyptian coins are also stamped with crosses as sacred symbols. There are Roman coins older than the Christian aera which display the cross surmounting the sacred hat of the pontifex maximus. Indeed, it is well known now that crosses, in common with the various sacred symbols, not only of christianity, but also of other religions, were used very anciently in the same way, and often with the same meanings that they still retain. The sacerdotal ["priestly", etc.] punishment of crucifixion is mentioned in Greek and Roman laws enacted long previous to the Christian aera, and it is evident that there could have been no crucifixion without a cross, Astyges crucified the magi. Herodotus [c. 485 - c. 425 B.C.E.], Clio, 128. "Inarus, king of the Libyans, was betrayed by treachery and fastened to a cross." Thucydides [c. 460 - c. 400 B.C.E.], (Smith's ed.,) p. 85. The use of the cross as a symbol of immortality is as ancient as the belief in the incarnation of Iesnu or Vishnu, that is to say, from twelve to fifteen centuries B.C.' [33]. [End of Chapter III].

          'In the religious wars of Britain during the fourth century, to which period we have ventured to assign many of the relics of devastation which have rewarded archaeological research, the destructive acts were not confined to the insurgents; similar acts were also committed by the troops. As the former had neither stone altars to be defaced, nor temples to be overthrown, the troops satiated their animosity in blood, violence, and the sale of captives. The insurgent towns, whether betrayed


or surprised, were always ruined. The people who were not cut down were enthralled and sold in the slave marts of the Continent, the women were foully treated, the aged and infants were left to perish. Many a Gothic settlement between the Walls was destroyed in these forays. Smoking ruins, pools of blood, disfigured corpses, the agonized cries of the wounded, and a troop of horse retreating in the distance, driving before them a herd of cattle laden with young women, boys and other spoil, told the piteous story. Indeed it was the sight of some Northumbrian Goths captured probably in a sally from one of the several Roman towns which still held out at this period, that excited the pity [?] of Pope Gregory [Pope Gregory the Great c. 540 - 604 (Pope 590 - 604)] and put him upon the design of introducing christianity into Gothic Britain. These slaves were children, who about the year 580 [apparently, between 590 and 604], were exposed for sale in the public mart of Rome. Being told they were Angles, Gregory is reported to have exclaimed: "Non Angli sed Angeli si forent christiani." "If they were Christians they would be angels, not Angles."' [70].

          'Upon a review of the various evidences which relate to Britain from the fourth to the sixth or seventh century, it appears that the practical sovereignty of the Island passed, almost without a struggle, from the hands of the imperial government, or its agents, or vassals, into those of a number of petty Gothic chieftains, who occupied the places of the departed Romans and ruled in the names of their emperors; that some of the Roman cities remained independent of either Gothic or imperial government and continued to practise the ancient religion of Rome until the seventh century; and that the so-called Anglo-Saxon invasion is essentially mythical.6

          The account of this invasion as given by Gildas [also, Gildus. d. 570? "British historian of the 6th century". "A monk, he founded a monastery in Brittany...." (Encyc. Brit.)] says nothing about the Anglo-Saxons and other Goths who had inhabited Caledonia and Britain from the most ancient times; nor of the subdivision and feudal government of Britain; nor of the Count of the Saxon shore; nor of the insurrections under Carausius and other Gothic chieftains; nor of the Augustan religion, which provoked them; nor of the Gothic conquest or occupation of Iestland, Saxony, Frisia, and Normandy; nor of Theodosius Saxonicus; nor whence he derived his name; nor of the revolt of Maximus; nor, in short, of any other circumstances which modern research has rescued from the ashes in which the false chronicles of the monks were planted. The work attributed to Gildas contains 102 printed pages, of which six are devoted to the preface, seventeen to "history," and seventy-nine to rhapsody ["a highly emotional literary work", etc.]. The preface and rhapsody do not contain any information, true or false, that is of the slightest value. The seventeen pages of "history" begin with the introduction of the Sun into Britain during the reign of Tiberius, that is to say, before the island was conquered by the Romans. THIS SUN IS EXPLAINED TO MEAN JESUS CHRIST. Then follows an account of the apocryphal martyrs of St. Albans and Carlisle, the first of whom crossed the Thames dryshod whilst the "waters stood abrupt on either side." Pursuing this feeble romance....' [70-71].


"Chapter XV.

Destruction of the Gothic Power.

          Evangelization of Gaul and Britain—Of Saxony—Altered policy of the Church—Extermination of the Saxons—Of the Avars—The plunder sent to Rome—Papal instruments—Charles Martel—Pepin—Charlemagne—Henry the Fowler—Edward—Otto—The Teutonic Knights of St. Mary—The Gothic Hansa of the dark ages—The ruined cities of Julin, Winet, Bardewick, Luneburg, Old Novgorod, etc.—They are destroyed by order of the Medieval popes and emperors, and their inhabitants slaughtered, or else enslaved and transported—Creation of a christian Hansa in the thirteenth century—This is planted upon the ruins of the other.

          The evangelization of Gaul appears to have preceded that of Britain by more than a century. The first christian chieftain of Gaul is said to have been Clovis [c. 466 - 511 ("King of the Franks" 481)], whilst the first christian chieftain of Britain was Ethelbert of Kent, fully a century later. The reason for this difference in time was probably the preponderance of druidical worshippers in Gaul and of Gothic polytheists in Britain. THE CHURCH OF ROME, AS WELL WHEN IT WAS PAGAN, AS AFTERWARDS WHEN IT BECAME CHRISTIAN [NEWER PAGANISM (CHRISTIANISM)], had been in the habit of making concessions to druidism; but it had not yet learnt how to conciliate the fierce worshippers of Woden and Thor. The Gauls were accustomed to hierarchical rule; the Goths refused to be forced or urged, and had to be lured into it; and, as this process was interrupted by frequent recantations on their part, the good work went on but slowly.

          By the eighth century the church had conquered in Gaul, not merely, as in Britain, a number of separate chieftains, whose fealty might be lost at any time, it had utilized the ancient priests of Hesus to evangelize (as it was deemed) an entire people.1 The druids were not difficult to conciliate. The restoration of their livings, the prospect of ecclesiastical promotion, and the retention and liberal adoption of their sacred myths, symbols, ceremonies, and festivals, such were evidently the means employed to convert these formidable enemies of christianity into tractable followers. We do not continue to set up Christmas-trees and mistletoe-boughs for nothing; they mark some of the numerous concessions which our forefathers, struggling against a world filled with low forms of religion, were obliged to make to druidism. Nor was the evangelization of Gaul itself effected in a day. Between the conversion [possible dates, mentioned: 496, 503, 506, 508 (Oxford Dict. C.C.)] of Clovis [c. 466 - 511 ("King of the Franks" 481)] and the evangelization of Gaul, two centuries elapsed...." [146-147].