from: Tertullian, A Historical and Literary Study, Timothy David Barnes, Assistant
Professor of Classics, University College, Toronto, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1971.
"THE ROMAN CHURCH WAS PRIMARILY GREEK-SPEAKING INTO THE THIRD
CENTURY [see #5, 157-158; etc.].3" .
"In both Rome and Gaul,...Christianity ["CHRISTIANITY" "IS NOT USED [does not
occur] IN THE BIBLE" [see #18, 365-366, 372; etc.]] first took root among the Greek
"In dissecting an opponent's position, Tertullian [ c. 160 - c. 220] shows a
consummate skill which can cause no small perplexity to the earnest and the
philosophically minded. MARCION [c. 100 - c. 165 C.E.] [see 1168, 1171; etc.] DENIED
THE HUMAN BIRTH OF THE CHRIST AS BEING RIDICULOUS AND ABSURD. On a
superficial level, one might retort that Marcion made it easier to believe that Jupiter
became a bull or a swan than that the Christ became truly man.2 More seriously, one could
seek and discover God's purpose: to challenge conventional beliefs. Of course there was
something shameful in Christ's passion. But which was the shameful element? Marcion
professed to accept that Christ was crucified, but denied that he was born of Mary. But
which was the greater indignity for God, to be born or to die? to be circumcised or
executed? to be nursed or buried? If Marcion cannot accept Christ's birth, how can he
accept that Christ endured insults and sufferings? Marcion wishes to destroy a shame
which is necessary to faith. Foolish the belief may be, but it brings salvation. The Son of
God was crucified: the Christian is not ashamed precisely because he ought to be. The
Son of God died: it is credible because it is improbable. He was buried and rose again:
that is certain because it is impossible.3
Tertullian's argument is often misunderstood and misinterpreted. He tends
to be credited with the assertion 'credo quia absurdum', which he never used.4 [see #12,
259-260] And the passage is frequently invoked to prove his irrationality, or that he viewed
religion as the realm of subjective and unreasoning emotion.5 If that was his true attitude,
why did he ever descend to apparently rational argument?" .
"None could quarrel with his [Tertullian] description of Justin as philosopher and martyr.
More significant is the phrase used of Irenaeus: 'omnium doctrinarum curiossimus
explorator'. Irenaeus would not have approved.2 Tertullian had used a very similar phrase
of the emperor Hadrian, in a brilliant and accurate epigram: 'omnium curiositatum
explorator'.3 That hit off an important facet of the emperor's character--and of Tertullian's.
With Justin and Irenaeus are yoked two other writers. Tertullian commends one Proculus
for a virgin old age and Christian eloquence, and Miltiades for being an ecclesiastical
sophist. The combination helps to define Tertullian. Proculus combined his
[Tertullian] own moral and literary aspirations, and he [Tertullian] accorded Miltiades a
designation which he [Tertullian] could more justly have claimed for himself:
'ecclesiarum sophista'."  [End of main text].
from: A Dictionary of Early Christian Beliefs, A Reference Guide to More
Than 700 Topics Discussed by the Early Church Fathers, David W. Bercot, Editor,
|'Acquiring a Foundational Understanding
To accurately grasp what the early Christian said about a given topic it
becomes important to have a basic understanding of three concepts:
(1) Marcion [c. 100 - c. 165 C.E.] and the Gnostics,
(2) the early Christian concept of the Logos, and
(3) the Scriptures of the early church.
Marcion and the Gnostics
Many early Christian writings were polemical works directed against the heretic
Marcion or against various Gnostics.5 Both Marcion and the Gnostics taught that the
earth and everything in it (including people) were created by a God they called the
Demiurge. They regarded the Demiurge not as the God of the New Testament; rather, the
Demiurge was thought to be more of a demigod, with certain imperfect traits. Gnostics
sometimes portrayed him as an unmerciful, unloving, and vengeful God. On occasion they
referred to him as the "just God" of the Old Testament in contrast with the "good God"
of the New Testament.
Marcion and the Gnostics also taught an exaggerated view of the fall of man.
They believed that all physical creation--including the physical body--was inherently flawed
and incapable of salvation. Accordingly, they denied the resurrection of the body, as well
as the efficacy of baptism and communion. Many taught that the Son of God did not
really become man and that he did not really die on the cross. In their teaching,
the Son only appeared to do so. These Gnostics (including a group called Docetists,
from the Greek word dokeo, "seem, appear") are the persons whom John spoke of as the
"antichrists," for they denied that Jesus had come in the flesh (2 John 7).
It would be quite difficult to understand most of the early Christian writings without
some appreciation of the meanings and significance of the Greek word logos, particularly
as a title of Christ. Since our English translations usually translate logos as "Word" when
this title is applied to the Son, English-speaking Christians usually fail to appreciate the
term logos and its significance. The Moffatt version of the New Testament, however, often
leaves logos untranslated when it is used as a title
for the Son. For example, it renders John 1:1: "The Logos existed in the
very beginning, the Logos was with God, the logos was divine." It
translates Revelation 19:13 as follows: "He is clad in a robe dipped in
blood (his name is called The Logos of God.)"
Moffat left the term logos untranslated because in Greek that term means far more
than simply "word." Its range of meaning could include "reason," "rational principle," and
even "mind." Early Christians use the term logos extensively when speaking about
the Son of God. When John refers to the Son as being the Logos of God, the early
Christians understood him to mean that the Son is the eternal Rational Principle of the
Father, the Father's Counselor before all ages.6
The Early Christian Scriptures
To comprehend and appreciate what the early Christians have to say, a thorough
knowledge and grasp of Scripture was indispensable. That is because the early
Christians grounded all of their fundamental beliefs on Scripture. Nonetheless, a
first reading of early Christian quotations from Scripture can be perplexing. Not
infrequently, their citations do not read the same as do our modern Bibles. There
are several reasons for this [always more, Christian apologies (excuses! (cover-ups!))].
First, when quoting from the Old Testament, the early Christians nearly always quoted
from the Septuagint [which version?] [other Greek versions?] [see 1172, 1179-1181]
(i.e., the Greek Old Testament, including the Apocrypha)--as did the apostles
[including, the "Apostle Paul"]. In contrast, modern Old Testament translations are usually
based on the Masoretic Text. Secondly, we must remember that the early Christians had
no concordances, topical Bibles, study aids, computer Bibles, or even handy personal
Bibles. As a result, the early Christians often had to quote Scriptures from memory, which
meant they sometimes misquoted a [sic!] verse or two [sic!]. Furthermore, particularly
in the case of the Latin writers, citations seem to have come from a version or text
that differed slightly [?] from later versions or editions.' [x-xi].
"...contending with Marcion and Basilides [fl. 117 - 138 C.E.] that [the body of
Christ] possessed no reality. Tertullian (c. 210, W), 3.546." .
[Example: "(c. 210, W), 3.546" = about the year 210, Western writer [E =
Ante-Nicene Fathers, volume 3, page 546].
"The doctrine taught by Cerinthus [fl. c. 100 C.E.] is this: that there will be an
earthly reign of Christ. Since Cerinthus was himself a man devoted to the pleasures of
the body, and completely carnal in his dispositions, he [Cerinthus (and since, millions
more)] imagined that the kingdom would consist in THOSE KINDS OF
GRATIFICATIONS ON WHICH HIS OWN HEART WAS SET [see #3, 57, 289.; etc.].
Dionysius of Alexandria (c. 262, E), 6.82." .
"Constantine [Emperor 306 (312) - 337 (280? - 337)] was directed in a dream
to cause the heavenly sign to be outlined on the shields of his soldiers and so to proceed
to battle. He did as he had been commanded. And he marked on their
shields the letter X, with a perpendicular line drawn through it and turned round at
the top--being the monogram of Christ. Lactantius (c. 320, W), 7.318." .
"They thought His discourse was harsh and intolerable, for they thought that He had
really and literally directed them to eat his flesh....His word is spirit and life. So He likewise
called His flesh by the same description. Since the Word has become flesh, we should
desire Him in order that we may have life. We should devour Him with the ear and feed on
Him with our understanding. We should digest Him by faith. Tertullian (c. 210, W)
"As you cannot deny that these deities of yours once were
men, you have taken it on yourselves to assert that they
were made gods after their deaths. Tertullian
(c. 197, W), 3.27."
. [compare: Euhemerism (Euhemerus fl. 300 B.C.E.)]. [See: The
Evolution of the Idea of God, Grant Allen, 1897].
"That those are no gods whom the common people worship, is known from this:
They were formerly kings. On account of their royal memory, they subsequently began to
be adored by their people even in death. Later, temples were founded to them. Next,
images were sculptured to retain the faces of the deceased by such likeness. Later, men
sacrificed victims and celebrated festal days to give them honor. Finally, those rites
became sacred to posterity--although at first they had been adopted as a
consolation. Cyprian (c. 250, W), 5.465." [316-317].
"We can show that all those whom you represent to us as gods, and whom you call
gods, were actually men. We can do this by quoting either Euhererus of Acragas
[?]...or Nicanor the Cyprian [?]. Arnobius (c. 305, E), 6.486." .
'A Jew, however, will not admit that any prophet used the expression that the "Son
of God" would come. For the term they use is that the "Christ of God" will come. Indeed,
many times they ["Jews"] directly question us about the "Son of God," saying that
no such Being exists or was ever the subject of prophecy. Origen (c. 248, E),
"Although [the pagan] Celsus will not admit it, the Jews are nevertheless
possessed of a wisdom superior not only to that of the multitude, but also to
those who have the appearance of philosophers. Origen (c. 248, E), 4.562." .
"[The Jews] kill and punish us whenever they have the power, as you can well
believe. For in the Jewish war that recently raged, Barchocheba, the leader of the Jewish
revolt, gave orders that Christians alone should be led to cruel punishments. Justin
Martyr (c. 160, E), 1.173."
"The Marcionites are those whom the apostle John designated as
antichrists, for they deny that Christ has come in the flesh....Now, the more firmly the
antichrist Marcion had seized this assumption, the more prepared was he, of course, to
reject the bodily substance of Christ. Tertullian (c. 207, W), 3.327." .
"In the scheme of Marcion,...the mystery of the Christian religion begins
from the discipleship of Luke....On finding the Epistle of Paul to the Galatians (wherein
Paul rebukes even apostles for not walking uprightly according to the truth of the gospel),
Marcion labors very hard to destroy the character of those Gospels that are
published as genuine. Tertullian (c. 207, W), 3.348." .
"This shows that at the very outset of Christ's ministry, Christ came not to destroy
the Law and the Prophets, but rather to fulfill them. But Marcion has erased that
passage as an interpolation. Tertullian (c. 207, W), 3.352, 353." .
[early reference to "interpolation" (commonly, forgery!)].
"One...should take his stand against HISTORICAL FICTIONS [(surprise, to me)
early reference, to the wording I used [see #1, 1; etc.]] and oppose them with the true and
lofty evangelical message in which the agreement of the doctrines found in both the so-called Old Testament and in the so-called New appears so clearly and completely.
Origen (c. 228, E), 9.348." .
"A full-term and regular birth takes place, as a general rule at the beginning
of the tenth month....For my own part, I prefer viewing this measure of time in reference
to God, as if implying that the ten months rather initiated man into the ten commandments.
For the numerical estimate of the time needed to consummate our natural birth
corresponds to the numerical classification of the rules of our regenerate life. But
inasmuch as birth can also take place at the seventh month, I more readily recognize in this
number...the honor of a numerical agreement with the sabbatical period. Tertullian (c.
210, W), 3.218." . [See: 1088-1089].
The human race has progressed with a gradual growth of population. Some occupy
different portions of the earth as natives....Others occupy certain regions through
emigration, which they call "colonies." These are established for the purpose of
throwing off excess population, disgorging into other places their overcrowded
masses....WHAT MOST FREQUENTLY MEETS OUR EYES IS OUR TEEMING
POPULATION. OUR NUMBERS ARE BURDENSOME TO THE WORLD, which can
hardly supply us from its natural elements [Tertullian! An early Malthus]. Our wants grow more and more
acute, and our complaints more bitter in all mouths, while Nature
fails in affording us her usual sustenance. In fact, pestilence, famine, wars, and
earthquakes have to be regarded as a remedy for nations, as the means of
pruning the abundance of the human race. Tertullian (c. 210, W), 3.210.' .
[Addressed to Pagans:] On the other hand, what kind are your pictures?
Diminutive, Pans, naked girls, drunken Satyrs, and phallic tokens--painted naked
in pictures disgraceful for filthiness! More than this, you are not ashamed before the
eyes of all to look at representations of all types of licentiousness that are portrayed in
public places. Rather, you set them up and guard them with scrupulous care. You
consecrate these pillars of shamelessness at home as though they were the images of
your gods. We denounce not only the use of them, but the very sight and mention
of them. Clement of Alexandria (c. 195, E), 2.189." .
"Further reasons for marriage that men allege for themselves arise from
anxiety for posterity, and the bitter, bitter pleasure of children. To us [who does
"us" represent?], this is idle. For why should we be eager to bear children, whom, when
we have them, we desire to send before us [to glory]. For we are desirous, too, to be
taken out of this most wicked world and to be received into the Lord's presence, which was
the desire even of an apostle....Are we secure enough of our own salvation that we
have leisure for children? Should we seek burdens for ourselves that are avoided
[how? see following] even by the majority of the Gentiles? Tertullian (c. 205, W)
'By enjoining continence and restraining sexual desire [again, how?],... God
has abolished the command, "Grow and multiply." ... For the extremity of the times
has restrained [that command] which He had sent out. It ["the extremity of the times"]
has taken back the indulgence that He ["God"] had granted. Tertullian (c. 212, W),
'The extremity of the times has canceled the command, "Grow and multiply
[superb recognition--and, action!]." For the apostle gives another command, "It remains
that those who have wives so be as if they did not," because the time is short. Tertullian
(c. 212, W), 4.64.' .
"That the understanding of their books might not be lacking, this also the Jews
supplied to Ptolemy. For they gave him seventy-two interpreters....The same account is
given by Aristeas. So the king left these works unlocked to all, in the Greek
language. To this day, at the temple of Serapis, the libraries of Ptolemy are to be
seen, with the identical Hebrew originals in them. The Jews, too, read them
[apparently, "their books"] publicly. Tertullian (c. 197, W), 3.32." .
from: An Understandable History of the Bible, by Rev. Samuel C. Gipp, Th.D., 1994
(1990) (1987). [Note: "Must See!" A combination of sectarian zeal, scholarship, and,
research. Fascinating! Amusing!]. [copy available from: www.chick.com].
'The Dreaded Happening
What the Roman Catholics had always dreaded had come to pass. The Word of
God was translated from the true text into the clearest form of the common language,
English. Protestants had long refuted and neutralized Roman Catholicism by the phrase,
"The Bible says so." THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH HAD BEEN BUILT ON
ABOUT 10% TWISTED SCRIPTURE AND 90% SUPERSTITION. Where men were
ignorant, it could rule by playing on their fears. But, when the "ignorant and unlearned"
people received Christ as personal Savior and clung faithfully to the King James Bible,
they were not only immovable but could easily refute any heresy, be it Catholic or
Another important step in subtlely removing the authority of the Authorized Version
is to exalt the unreliable MSS of the Local Text of Egypt. This will be commented on later.
Let it suffice for now to reveal the man who laid the groundwork for just such a move. His
name was J.J. Griesbach (1745-1812).
Griesbach divided the extant MSS [Manuscripts] into three groups. One was
called the "Constantinopolitan" family which is our Universal Text. The other two were
known as "Western" and "Alexandrian."
As can be expected, Griesbach was not a Bible believer. In fact, he stated, "THE
NEW TESTAMENT ABOUNDS IN MORE GLOSSES, ADDITIONS, AND
INTERPOLATIONS PURPOSELY INTRODUCED THAN ANY OTHER BOOK."78 He
was also antagonistic to any verse which taught the fundamental doctrines of the Christian
faith. Whenever possible he devised means to cast doubt on such passages. He said,
"the most suspicious reading of all, is the one that yields a sense favorable to the
nourishment of piety (especially monastic piety). When there are many varient
[variant] readings in one place, that reading which more than the others manifestly favors
the dogmas of the orthodox is deservedly regarded as suspicious."79
It is strange indeed that Dr. Griesbach should expect orthodox Christians to
manipulate the book which they truly believe to be from God, in order to teach Christianity
more fervently. He never mentioned any apprehension that heretics might delete and alter
doctrinal passages. What kind of scholarship is it that naturally suspects born-again
Christians of an act bordering on sacrilege, but never doubts the integrity of infidels? Is
this God's method? [An amusing paragraph!]
Whatever it was that possessed [sic] Griesbach to suspect Christians of
such criminal [sic] acts also possessed two of this followers. Hill explains:
"WESTCOTT AND HORT PROFESSED TO 'VENERATE' THE NAME
OF GRIESBACH ABOVE THAT OF EVERY OTHER TEXTUAL CRITIC OF
THE NEW TESTAMENT. Like Griesbach they believed that the orthodox
Christian scribes had altered the New Testament manuscripts in the interest of
orthodoxy [amusing sentence]...."' [109-111].
'Westcott and Hort
Brooke Foss Westcott (1825-1903) and Fenton John Anthony Hort (1828-1892) have been highly controversial figures in biblical history.
On one side, their supporters have heralded them as great men of God, having
greatly advanced the search for the original Greek text.
On the other side, their opponents have leveled charges of heresy, infidelity,
apostasy, and many others, claiming that they are guilty of wreaking great damage on the
true text of Scripture.
I have no desire to "sling mud" nor a desire to hide facts.
I believe it is essential at this time that we examine what we know about these men
and their theories concerning the text of the Bible.
I long sought for copies of the books about their lives. These are The Life
and Letters of Brooke Foss Westcott, by his son, Arthur, and The Life and Letters
of Fenton John Anthony Hort, written by his son.
After literally months of trying, I was able to acquire copies of them both for study.
Most of the material in this section will be directly from these sources so as to prevent it
from being secondhand.
We cannot blindly accept the finding of any scholar without investigating what his
beliefs are concerning the Bible and its doctrines. Scholarship alone makes for an
inadequate and dangerous authority [this clause, a sophistic entree], therefore we are
forced to scrutinize these men's lives [compare: Inquisitions].' [116-117].
Though unimpressed with the evangelicals of his day, Hort had great
admiration for Charles Darwin [1809 - 1882]! To his colleague, B.F. Westcott, he wrote excitedly: "...Have
you read Darwin? How I should like to talk with you about it! In spite of
difficulties, I am inclined to think it unanswerable. In any case it is a
treat to read such a book."' .
'Hort's Twisted Belief
Along with Hort's unregenerated misconceptions of basic Bible truths, there
were his quirkish and sometimes quackish personal beliefs.
One such example is his hatred for democracy, as he asserts in a letter to Rev.
Westcott dated April 28, 1865:
"...I dare not prophesy about America, but I cannot say that I see much as yet
to soften my deep hatred of democracy in all its forms."109
In fact, Hort's hope, during the years of the American Civil War, was that the South
would win. This desire was fostered by the hope that such a victory would destroy both
countries to eliminate America's threat to England's domination of the world. His own
words betray this in a letter which he wrote to Rev. John Ellerton in September of 1862:
| "I care more for England and for Europe than for America, how much more
than for all the niggers in the world! And I contend that the highest morality requires
me to do so. Some thirty years ago Niebuhr wrote to this effect: 'Whatever people
may say to the contrary, the American empire is standing menace to the whole
civilization of Europe and sooner or later one of the other must perish.' Every year
has, I think, brought fresh proof of the entire truth of these words. American doctrine
(only too well echoed from Europe itself, though felt to be at variance with the
institutions of Europe) destroys the root of everything vitally precious which man has
by painful growth been learning from the earliest times till now, and tends only to
reduce us to the gorilla state. The American empire seems to me mainly an
embodiment of American doctrine, its leading principle being lawless force. Surely,
if every Babylon or Rome were rightly cursed it cannot be wrong to desire
and pray from the bottom of one's heart that the American Union may be
shivered to pieces.
"I do not for a moment forget what slavery is, or the frightful effects which
Olmsted has shown it to be producing on white society in the South; but I hate it
much more for its influence on the whites than on the niggers themselves.
The refusal of education to them is abominable; how far they are capable of being
ennobled by it is not clear. As yet everywhere (not in slavery only) they have surely
shown themselves only as an immeasurably inferior race, just human and no more,
their religion frothy and sensuous, their highest virtues, those of a good
[126-128]. [See: 1142].
"Problems with Westcott"
'Westcott was also a doubter of the biblical account of miracles: "I never
read an account of a miracle but I seem instinctively to feel its improbability, and discover
somewhat of evidence in the account of it."122 If a great fundamental preacher of our day
were to make this statement, he would be called apostate....' .
"It can be safely said that if Westcott and Hort were not two Jesuit priests acting
on secret orders from the Vatican, that two Jesuit priests acting under such orders could
not have done a better job of overthrowing the authority of God's true Bible and
establishing the pro-Roman Catholic text of Alexandria, Egypt!" .
'The King James Apocrypha
Another one of the assaults on the Authorized Version is that the early editions
contained the Apocrypha between the Old and New Testaments. In defense, we shall list
the seven reasons why the Apocrypha was NOT considered inspired by the Authorized
"The reasons assigned for not admitting the Apocryphal books into the Canon, or
list, of inspired Scriptures are briefly the following:
| 1. Not one of them is in the Hebrew language, which was alone [?] used by the
inspired historians and poets of the Old Testament.
2. Not one of the writers lays any claim to inspiration.
3. These books were never acknowledged as sacred Scriptures by the Jewish
church and, therefore, never sanctioned by our Lord.
4. They were not allowed among the sacred books, during the first four centuries of
the Christian church.
5. They contain fabulous statements, and statements which contradict not only the
canonical Scriptures, but themselves; as when, in the two books of Maccabees,
Antiochus Epiphanes is made to die three different deaths in as many places.
6. It includes doctrines in variance with the Bible, such as prayers for the dead and
teaches immoral practices, such as lying, suicide, assassination,
and magical incarnation.
For these and other reasons the Apocryphal books, which are all in Greek,
except one which is extant only in Latin, are valuable only as "ancient documents,
illustrative of the manners, language, opinions, and history of the East [applies also, in part,
to the Old Testament, and, New Testament]."251
We see then that the King James translators did not accept the books of the
Apocrypha as inspired by God.' [203-204]. [More decisions, by men, for "God"
(themselves!) (see 1159)].
'We have taken a careful look at the true enemy of the Word of God, the
Roman Catholic Church. In so doing, we have examined Rome's efforts and goals
concerning the overthrow of the God-honored Universal Text. We have seen that in the
past, this organization ["Roman Catholic Church"] has been ruthless in her attempt
to exterminate both Christians and their Bible. We can be confident that her goals
have not changed.
'We have looked into the lives of the two men ["Westcott and Hort"] who were
primarily responsible for the successful overthrow of the universal Text in textual criticism,
and have discovered that they were not the "godly conservative scholars" which
many brethren claim they were.' [219-220].
'There is no Bible that exalts Jesus Christ any higher than the Authorized
Version. THERE IS NO BIBLE THAT HAS EVER BEEN MORE BLESSED BY GOD
THAN THE AUTHORIZED ["KING JAMES BIBLE" (see 1178)] VERSION. There is no
Bible which is more hated by Satan and the Roman Catholic Church than the
Authorized Version. There is no Bible which is more clearly translated nor is any easier
to read than the Authorized Version. There is no Bible which teaches doctrine more clearly
than the Authorised Version.
I love the Lord Jesus Christ. I love His Book. I am thankful for His
graciousness in giving me a perfect Bible in English. To show my appreciation, I
intend to read it, believe it, learn it, memorize it, promote it, defend it, love it, keep it, and
most of all, be in subjection to God's authority through it. In appreciation, I will not change
it--not a colon or a comma, not even an italicized word, not a chapter, nor a verse marking.
Nor will I condemn the parts I do not understand. I will not "correct" the parts I do not like. I
will exalt Jesus Christ and give His Book any benefit of the doubt. I will not worry about
"what the Greek says" but will accept the "English" God has given me. It is a spiritual
Book. God's Hand is on it. I need no more. No other version comes close to it nor ever
will. There is no reason that it should be replaced, for it is every word of God preserved in
English and placed in my hand. It is up to me to place it in my heart.
As the very great man of God, Lester Roloff, once said, "The Bible--we don't need
to rewrite it, we need to reread it!"
What more can be said about this grand Book than what it says about itself?
Psalms 12:6, 7 says, "The words of the LORD are pure words: as silver tried in a
furnace of earth, purified seven times.
Thou shalt keep them, O LORD, thou shalt preserve them from this generation for
THANK YOU, LORD, FOR YOUR PERFECT BIBLE, THE AUTHORIZED KING
JAMES BIBLE.' [221-222] [End of text]. [See (King James I): #24, 528-530; Appendix
"About the Author
Dr. Gipp, a former Pastor, is an Evangelist, teacher, author and Bible Conference
speaker. He has the unique ability to digest large amounts of information and then present
it in an analytical, understandable, format.
His humorous, informative and forceful preaching style make him popular with all
ages and keeps him in demand as a Revivalist and Bible Conference speaker." [back
cover]. [See: 1179-1181; etc.].
from: American Bible Society, New! 68Page Catalog, Over 100 Items Under $5.00,
Tools for Spiritual Growth, 19992000 Scripture and Ministry Resource Catalog.
"Contemporary English Version, Today's English Version, New King James Version,
New Revised Standard Version, New American Standard Bible, New International
Version and New Jerusalem Bible Editions of Testaments and Bibles are not available
for commercial resale. [Fiction! Updated!]
A Note to Our Roman Catholic Readers: Look for the Imprimatur symbol [symbol not
reproducible] throughout this catalog as your indication that these materials carry the
official Imprimatur for Catholic readers." ["3"].
"A Letter from the
With challenge comes change. In this 19992000 edition of the American Bible
Society's Annual Catalog, we offer many new selections. Particularly noteworthy are the
two new Jubilee Bibles. These special editions present the story of the African
American experience and the fulfillment of God's promise
[the "promise", in part--SLAVERY! (see 1142, 1143-1144; etc.)]...."
 [Eugene B. Habecker].
"3. King James Version
Leather Bound Jubilee Bible
The classic King James Version of the Bible is, historically, the Bible of the Black
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$44.95 in case of 12 ($539.40)". .
[Interesting! The book ("King James Version of the Bible") of their ["African American
culture"] enslavers! (see 1142, 1143-1144; etc.)].
[See (King James I): #24, 528-530; Appendix II, 698]. [See: 1142, 1175 (Hort)].
from: The Cairo Geniza, Paul E. Kahle, Second Edition, Praeger, 1960 (c1959).
"Earlier Texts of the Greek Bible
The different forms of earlier texts of the Greek Bible are of great interest to
us. Traces of them can be found mainly in four kinds of sources:
1. In the so-called 'recensions' of the Christian 'Septuagint' [see 1172, 1181],
indicated by Jerome [c. 340 - 420] and recognized as of importance by Paul de Lagarde
[1827 - 1891]. The chief value of these 'recensions' is that they give us some material for
the history of the Greek Bible in the various provinces of the Church and are of
great help in classifying the MSS [Manuscripts] of the Greek Bible....
2. In quotations from the Greek Old Testament which are found in the New
Testament and in other writings from the first two centuries B.C., in so far as they do not
conform with the Christian standard [?] text.
3. In older translations made from the Greek Bible....
4. In the remains of the Hexapla. This great work of Origen [c. 185 - c. 254] is
mostly valued only in so far as it gives an indication of alterations in the text of the
Greek Bible in accordance with the authoritative [?] Hebrew text. The different versions
collected here have, however, their own importance. We have seen that the version
adapted to the authoritative text by Theodotion ["prob. 2nd cent." (Ox. Dict. C.C.)] differed
from the version which became, as 'Septuagint', the standard [?] text of the Church. Some
earlier material may be preserved also in new translations, such as Aquila and
Symmachus. Translations of the Bible were hardly made without reference to already
Of greater importance are, however, the ANONYMOUS VERSIONS which
were discovered and registered by Origen. Here we have real [?] Jewish texts, not
influenced by the Christian standard [?] text.
It was difficult to value this material rightly on the basis of the scattered remains of
the Hexapla. The Milan palimpsest discovered by Giovanni Mercati has preserved nearly
150 complete verses of the Psalms in five columns: the Hebrew text written in Greek
characters, Aquila, Symmachus, Septuagint, and Quinta. The edition of these
valuable fragments, prepared by Cardinal Mercati, will make possible their careful
examination. It is certain that a new era in the study of the Hexapla will begin with the
publication of these texts.2 But the whole problem of the Septuagint will be greatly
affected. The task which the Septuagint presents to scholars is not the
'reconstruction' of an imaginary 'Urtext' [see 1181] nor the discovery of it, but a
careful collection and investigation of all the remains and traces of EARLIER
VERSIONS OF THE GREEK BIBLE which differed from the Christian standard [?]
text." [261, 262, 264].
from: The First Bible of the Church, A Plea for the
Septuagint, Mogens Müller, Journal
for the Study of the Old Testament, Supplement Series 206, Copenhagen International
Seminar 1, 1996.
In connection with the preparations for the new Danish Bible translation (authorized in
1992), my interest in the problems concerning the shape of the Jewish Bible in New
Testament times was awakened. The obvious difficulty is of course that MOST NEW
TESTAMENT AUTHORS SEEM TO HAVE BEEN UNABLE TO QUOTE THE OLD
TESTAMENT CORRECTLY, insofar as we identify the Old Testament with the Hebrew
Bible. However, USUALLY THEY USED THE OLD GREEK TRANSLATION, THE
SEPTUAGINT, WHICH WAS PRODUCED IN THE THIRD AND SECOND
CENTURIES BCE. What makes us so certain today that it is the Hebrew text that
represents the Old Testament in a Christian context? What caused the displacement of
the Septuagint? If it was that the Hebrew text was judged to be the Ur-text [see 1180], this
is no longer so certain as it used to be. TODAY IT IS AN OPEN QUESTION WHETHER
THE SEPTUAGINT SHOULD BE REINSTALLED AS THE OLD TESTAMENT OF
THE CHURCH." ["7"]. [See (Septuagint): 1169, 1172, 1180].
[Note: "The Greek of the Septuagint is essentially the Koine" (Encyc. of Religion, 1987,
vol. 2, 166) (as, reportedly, is the Greek of the New Testament)].
The Text of the Greek Bible, A Students Handbook, Frederic G. Kenyon, Late Director
and Principal Librarian of the British Museum, Duckworth, 1937.
The Septuagint and Modern Study, Sidney Jellicoe, Oxford, 1968.
The Text of the Septuagint, Its Corruptions and
Their Emendation, by the late Peter
Walters, Edited by D.W. Gooding, Cambridge, 1973.
Studies in the Septuagint: Origins, Recensions,
and Interpretations, Selected Essays with a Prolegomenon by Sidney Jellicoe, KTAV, c1974.
"Library of Biblical Studies
edited by Harry M. Orlinsky Professor of Bible
Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion
New York City"
Wolf in the Sheepfold The Bible as a Problem for Christianity, Robert P. Carroll,