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Subjects (abstracts): A Bibliography of Sex Rites and Customs; Sex Worship; The Sex Worship and Symbolism of Primitive Races; Sex in Religion

from: A Bibliography of Sex Rites and Customs, An Annotated Record of Books, Articles, and Illustrations in all Languages, Roger Goodland, George Routledge & Sons, 1931. [a Classic!].


When, between fifteen and twenty years ago, I first saw the list of works containing some reference to the phallic cultus which was printed at the end of the anonymously written Cultus Arborum, I was so struck by its entire inadequacy that then and there the germ of this present work came into being. The task of searching out further references developed into an undertaking of considerable magnitude, proof of which is to be found in the 9,000 items in this bibliography. That it is complete is, of course, not to be expected, but the writer trusts that the material presented may (by means of the index) be of use to anthropologists and others desirous of information concerning the sexual ideas and customs of savage and civilized peoples. THE PART PLAYED BY THE PHALLIC IDEA IN VARIOUS RELIGIONS HAS BEEN FOUND TO BE VERY CONSIDERABLE". [v].

[Index] "Jesus Christ, Ithyphallic representation of—Witkowski." [703].

"Witkowski, Dr. Joseph-Alphonse....

—L'Art profane à l'église: ses licences symboliques, satyriques et fantaisistes

[(2 vols.) 1908]....

vol. ii,...377 and fig. 392...[Mosaic in St. Mark's, Venice, representing Jesus at his circumcision as adult and ithyphallic]". [655-656].

["St. Mark's, Venice": "present basilica was completed in 1071" ("begun in its original form in 829") (Encyc. Brit.)].

Excursus: from: Triton II, December 1-2, 1998, New York, NY, Conducted by: Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.; Freeman & Sear; Numismatica Ars Classica. [Historical coins: mail bid auction:].

"348. Islands off Thrace, Thasos. Circa 525-463 BC. AR Stater (9.64 gm). Ithyphallic satyr carrying off protesting [?] nymph / Quadripartite incuse square. SNG Copenhagen 1008; Dewing 1313. Lightly toned, good VF. Nice metal quality, not porous like so many of these are. Fine archaic style. ($1500)"

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"350. Thasos. Circa 425 BC. AR Stater (9.06 gm). Ithyphallic satyr carrying off protesting [?] nymph / Quadripartite incuse square. Cf. SNG Copenhagen 1017 (dolphin in right field); cf. Traité pl. 322, 2 (A in right field). Lightly toned VF, a few edge splits. Nice metal quality. Fine classical style. Apparently an unpublished variety without a dolphin or a letter (an A or a S) at the nymph's shoulder. ($2000)"

["AR" = silver; "VF" = very fine; estimates are "a guide only"].
[Coins are illustrated (obverse, and reverse)]. [66].

Some entries from the Index [authors, listed after entries, are not included]
  • Ancestor-worship and phallicism
  • Anchovy as fecundity-giver
  • Animals' pudenda. See Pudenda.
  • Animals, Various rites of contact with, to ensure fecundity
  • Apes, Ithyphallic
  • Aphrodite
  • Chief's bathing water as fecundity-giver
  • Christian emblems, Phalli in combination with
  • Christianity, Phallic basis of
  • Circumcision a magical rite
  • Circumcision bonnets, Phallic figurines on
  • Circumcision ceremonies
  • Circumcision ceremony, Girls'
  • Circumcision houses, Phallic emblems or figures in
  • Circumcision instituted in opposition to prevailing phallicism
  • Circumcision, Phallic interpretation of
  • Circumcision stone, Phalloid
  • Ithyphalli
  • Ithyphallic figures
  • Ithyphallic statues clothed in feminine garments
  • "Ithyphallic" verse
  • Jesus Christ, Ithyphallic representation of
  • Lingam
  • Lingam, Alleged processional use of
  • Lingam, All gods finally absorbed into
  • Lingam altar on metal vessel
  • Lingam as apotropaion
  • Lingam as fecundity-giver
  • Lingam as mace head in wooden door frame
  • Lingam a symbol of mountain peak
  • Lingam at neck, Image of horseman with
  • Lingam at Sringeri, "Brazen mark"
  • (? mask) laid over
  • Lingam before image of Khande Rao
  • Lingam between serpents on sculptured slabs around tree
  • Lingam, Brass mask and head for
  • Lingam called "Father Adam" by Rajput chief
  • Lingam, Chrysoberyl and topaz
  • Lingam, Cloven, at Gokarna
  • Lingam crowning head of stone Buddha
  • Lingam, Derivation of
  • Lingam, Emerald, mentioned in inscription
  • Lingam enclosed in gold shell
  • Lingam, Figure of four-headed Shiva placed on
  • Lingam, Figure of goddess holding
  • Lingam = "the flame in the lotus"
  • Lingam, Garlanded
  • Lingam, Golden in stone box
  • Lingam, Greek phallus derived from
  • Lingam, "Growing"
  • Lingam, Heifer and steer branded with, for ceremony
  • Lingam, Ice
  • Lingam immersed to bring rain
  • Lingam in death rites
  • Lingam in legends

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  • Lingam, Inscribed, of 1st cent. B.C.
  • Lingam, Lingayat's, kissed by barren women
  • Lingam, Liquor sprinkled on
  • Lingam made from cremation ashes
  • Lingam not allowed to touch ground
  • Lingam not phallic
  • Lingam on coins
  • Lingam on grants.
  • Lingam on ladle used in marriages
  • Lingam on tomb in Buddhist shrine
  • Lingam on tortoise
  • Lingam, Original, divided into twelve parts
  • Lingam, Phallus of Osiris and Dionysus
  • Lingam placed at foot of banyan tree
  • Lingam, Pyramidal
  • Lingam represented on saints' tombs
  • Lingam represented on warriors' tombstones
  • Lingam, Sacrificial blood sprinkled on
  • Lingam tattooed on basivi's arm
  • Lingam, Watering of (and as rain- making rite)
  • Lingam with five heads
  • Lingam with mitred head
  • Lingam with projecting arm
  • Lingam with projecting head
  • Lingam with sculpture of Shiva issuing from side
  • Lingam with silver eyes
  • Lingam with thousand lingams carved thereon
  • Lingam without yoni in more ancient form
  • Lingam worn by rajahs of Kodaga
  • Lingam worn on head by Rajasimha II
  • Lingam-worship, Origin of
  • Lingam-yoni figured on ring found in Scotland
  • Lingam-yoni, Symbolism of
  • Lingam-yoni symbolized on Bali funeral "Ratiadana"
  • Lingams, "Air" or "etheric"
  • Lingams, Blue stone
  • Lingams, Brass
  • Lingams, Bronze
  • Lingams cannot be removed
  • Lingams, Celts placed around, or worshipped as. See Celts.
  • Lingams, Clay, made daily by Brahmins
  • Lingams, Copper
  • Lingams, Crystal
  • Lingams, Daily making of, a condition of tenure—Vavikar.
  • Lingams, "Elemental"
  • Lingams, "Fire"
  • Lingams, Fluted
  • Lingams in relief
  • Lingams in underground temple
  • Lingams, Marble
  • Lingams mentioned before Christ
  • Lingams, Meteoric stones worshipped as. See Meteorites.
  • Lingams, Natural stone
  • Lingams of special sanctity
  • Lingams on seals
  • Lingams on tablets
  • Lingams, Plantain sheaf
  • Lingams, Prismatic
  • Lingams, Realistic
  • Lingams, Self-producing
  • Lingams, Serpent-encircled
  • Lingams, Stone relics of Bornean tribe resembling
  • Lingams, Thread-bound stones described as
  • Lingams, The twelve great
  • Lingams, Two, not to be worshipped in same house
  • Lingams under canopy of snakes' hoods
  • Lingams, Very large
  • Lingams, "Water"
  • Lingams with brass cap
  • Lingams with carvings and masks
  • Lingams with inscription, Mediaeval
  • Lingams, Wooden
  • Penis, Ablation of, as sacrifice
  • Penis, Animal's, in Assyrian federation ceremony
  • Penis as group totem
  • Penis as "soul-bearer"
  • Penis bone as fecundity charm
  • Penis, Buck's, eaten by women desiring sons
  • Penis, Clay-wrapped, worn as love charm

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  • Penis, Grasping of, in dance
  • Penis, Kissing of fakir's
  • Penis of Apostle as relic
  • Penis of dead Bavumbu chief worn by son
  • Penis of deified Baganda king as relic
  • Penis of husband preserved by widows
  • Penis regarded as sacred
  • Penis, Sight of another man's, most dangerous
  • Penis, showing of, in argument
  • Penis, Songs to personified
  • Penis, Swearing on. See Oath.
  • Penis, Symbolism of
  • Penis, Touching of
  • Phalli, Amber
  • Phalli, Animal-headed
  • Phalli, Anthropoid, sawing an eye
  • Phalli, Blue enameled ware
  • Phalli, Bone
  • Phalli, Brick
  • Phalli, Bronze
  • Phalli, Carnelian
  • Phalli, Chalk
  • Phalli, Clay or earthenware
  • Phalli conjoined in animal form
  • Phalli, conventionalized, as puppet figures
  • Phalli, Coral
  • Phalli, Dough. See Cakes.
  • Phalli, Eared
  • Phalli, Flint
  • Phalli found in boy's grave at Rome
  • Phalli, Glass
  • Phalli, Gold
  • Phalli, Horn-shaped, in Japanese festivals
  • Phalli incised on playing board
  • Phalli in modern carnivals and festivals
  • Phalli in reindeer horn
  • Phalli, Ivory
  • Phalli, Kneeling stone figure with hands on two enormous
  • Phalli, Leaden
  • Phalli, Leontoid
  • Phalli, Legged
  • Phalli, Limestone
  • Phalli, Marble
  • Phalli, Matrices for moulding
  • Phalli on plaque
  • Phalli on stone vases
  • Phalli on terracotta "boat"
  • Phalli on walls, etc.
  • Phalli, Ornithoid
  • Phalli, Paper
  • Phalli, Plaster
  • Phalli, Scrapings from, consumed by barren women
  • Phalli, Silver
  • Phalli, Slate
  • Phalli, Stone
  • Phalli, Terracotta
  • Phalli, Theriomorphic
  • Phalli, Tufa or lava
  • Phalli, Wax
  • Phalli, Wearing of
  • Phalli, Winged
  • Phalli, Wooden
  • Phallic bone amulet found in Christian girl's tomb
  • Phallic designs
  • "Phallic emblem" in compound of Bangkok monastery
  • Phallic emblems in relief of various objects
  • Phallic figures, Alleged neolithic.
  • Phallic objects, Finds of phalli and other
  • Phallic objects, Various
  • Phallic ornament worn by Gippsland women
  • Phallic ornament worn by Nundu men
  • Phallic representations
  • Phallic symbolism
  • Phallic works
  • Phallica, Phallika
  • Phallicism, Bibliographies of
  • Phallicism, General and classical
  • Phallicism, Origin of, and primitive
  • Phallicism proof of slow growth of sense of shame
  • Phalloid concretions as charms
  • Phalloid glass drinking vessels
  • Phalloid horns on bronze ring
  • Phalloid pebble as ornament
  • Phalloid sticks used in defloration
  • Phalloid statuettes

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  • Phalloid stones
  • Phalloid timbers in Indonesian temples
  • Phalloid vases
  • Phalloid weapons, Satyrs with
  • Phallophoria, Phallophori, Phallagogia
  • Phallophoria by Roman women
  • Phallophoria, Egyptian
  • Phallophoria, Greek. See Dionysia.
  • Phallus, Alabaster
  • Phallus and crescent conjoined on gold medallion
  • Phallus, Anthropoid, issuing from lion's paw
  • Phallus apparently worshipped
  • Phallus as apotropaion
  • Phallus as attribute of Egyptian deities
  • Phallus as attribute of fertility goddesses
  • Phallus as door-knocker
  • Phallus as goal in game
  • Phallus as ornament of priestly garments
  • Phallus as tribute
  • Phallus, Basalt, adored by Egyptian Arab women
  • Phallus, Chalk object possibly base of
  • Phallus," "Champions of the god, as title of honour
  • Phallus, Consecrated, as aphrodisiac
  • Phallus, Dancing around crowned
  • Phallus, Double, of reindeer horn
  • Phallus (?) engraved on lake-dwelling potsherd
  • Phalus, Enormous, in Zuñi ceremony
  • Phallus, 15 ft., in Japanese temple
  • Phallus, Green glaze
  • Phallus hung before hut, Breaking of, at death
  • Phallus incised on piece of lava
  • Phallus in mould design
  • Phallus (?) in red in "Cueva del Tesoro"
  • Phallus in relief on boy's tomb at Athens
  • Phallus in relief on bronze inscription plaque
  • Phallus in relief on Roman memorial tablet
  • Phallus (?) in slate
  • Phallus in tile work
  • Phallus issuing from snail
  • "Phallus-like" objects found in Indus Valley
  • Phallus, Marble, in flooring of church
  • "Phallus, Merciful," Arabic name of "high place" at Petra
  • Phallus not necessarily connected with idea of reproduction
  • Phallus oculatus
  • Phallus-offering in Egypt
  • Phallus on altar
  • Phallus on altar represented on savings box
  • Phallus on bulla
  • Phallus on disc
  • Phallus on forehead of figurine of Moloch
  • Phallus on gold pendant
  • Phallus on gold ring
  • Phallus on gold ring found in child's sarcophagus
  • Phallus on grave relief
  • Phallus on headgear of Bayonne women. See Headgear.
  • Phallus on holed tablet from Cyprus
  • Phallus on horn ornament
  • Phallus on stela
  • Phallus on stone at Locmariaker
  • Phallus (?) ("Un priapo") on tile
  • Phallus on vessel found at Osterburken
  • Phallus on votive tablet
  • Phallus, Projection on women's caps said to represent
  • Phallus, Representations of, in Maori ceremony
  • Phallus, Serpentine
  • Phallus, 6 ft. or 8 ft., as scarer away of cholera
  • Phallus, Tailed
  • Phallus, Talc
  • Phallus, Tin
  • Phallus velatus
  • Phallus with fifth (?) century BrÆhm_ inscription
  • Phallus with human face as glans
  • Phallus worn on head by Abyssinian chiefs

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  • Praeputium Christi as relic
  • Praiape," "Petit, in copper
  • Priapeia (poems or festival)
  • Priapic kobolds or demons, Vedic
  • Priapique," "Emblème
  • Priapo," "Piccolo
  • Priapus
  • Priapus as healing god
  • Priapus (City)
  • Priests, etc., Coitus with, thought sacred.
  • Promiscuity
  • Prostitutes or fornication
  • Prostitution, Religious
  • Pubic hair of lamb as sterility remedy
  • Pubic ornaments of Hindu children
  • Pudenda, Alleged worship of, by Druses
  • Pudenda, Animal in relief with human
  • Pudenda, Animals', in religious and other ceremonies, or as amulets
  • Pudenda, Animals', eaten to obtain virile power, or as sterility remedy
  • Pudenda, Animals', in remedies
  • Pudenda, Apotropaic character of
  • Pudenda as figures in game
  • Pudenda, Calf's, in threshing custom
  • Pudenda, Conjoined male and female, on New Guinea men's house
  • Pudenda, Conventionalized representation of
  • Pudenda, Customs and beliefs relating to human
  • Pudenda, Figures with exaggerated
  • Pudenda, Imitations of, greatest treasure of W. Australian tribe
  • Pudenda in textile materials
  • Pudenda, Male and female, engraved on men's armlets
  • Pudenda, Male and female, worshipped by Ibo
  • Pudenda, Male, given to chief's wife at cannibal feasts
  • Pudenda of deities, Consecration of
  • Pudenda of slain foes, Virtue and use of
  • Pudenda, Ploughed figure of, in wheat field
  • Pudendal blood
  • Pudicitia
  • Shrines, Phallic
  • Sodomy, Gods of
  • Sodomy, Ritual
  • Sodomy, Representations of
  • "Sun dance" of Arapahos
  • "Sun dance" of Sioux
  • Sun disc and crescent, Symbolism of
  • Sun-god, Connection of phallic worship with
  • Sun, Invocation of, by barren Hindu women
  • Sun, Phallus as emblem of
  • Sun, Symbolism of
  • Yoni
  • Yoni as constellation and zodiac sign
  • Yoni, Ceremony of passing through
  • Yoni painted on buttocks of Bairagas

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• • •

from: Sex Worship: An Exposition of the Phallic Origin of Religion, Clifford Howard, Fifth Edition, Chicago Medical Book Company, 1909. [reprint (and related reprints) available from: The Book Tree, P.O. Box 724, Escondido, CA 92033].

"for a wife was a mere chattel, to be fought for or purchased; and, when finally possessed, the token of her subjugation was a ring (the badge of servitude), which was placed upon one of her fingers." [16].

"It is apparent to every one who has had an opportunity of studying the subject, that all religions have had a common origin, and that however much they may differ in their teachings and their institutions, they but represent different methods of worshiping one and the same object. Brahma, Jehovah, God, Allah and hundreds of others, are simply different names for the same deity, as viewed from different standpoints; and this deity, this universal object of adoration, is the supreme creative power." [32-33].

"we find that the fundamental religious beliefs of the world have remained unchanged from time immemorial, however diversified and contradictory have been their superincumbent theologies, and that beneath the outward and ceremonial differences of the various faiths of mankind, throughout all the world and throughout all the ages of human history, there are to be found the same legends and the same beliefs; all pointing to a common origin, to a universal foundationthe worship of nature in its great mystery of life; the worship of the supreme creative power." [42-43].

• • •

from: The Sex Worship and Symbolism of Primitive Races An Interpretation by Sanger Brown II., M.D., Assistant Physician, Bloomingdale Hospital, With an Introduction by James H. Leuba; Boston: Richard G. Badger, Toronto: The Copp Clark Co., c1916.

'During the time of earth worship, the social organization of the tribe was such that the mother was the dominating influence in social structure. Descent was matrilinear, and a society known as matriarchy existed, as contrasted to the later patriarchy. The mother was the leading figure in social as well as in family life. At this period a certain degree of sexual promiscuity existed; the mother of the child was known but the father was not and so the descent was in the female line. With earth worship, then, there was mother worship, and the term "Mother Earth" had a very real significance.' [114].

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"Patriarchy succeeded matriarchy, but whether as a gradual evolution or otherwise is not clear. Some writers speak of bitter conflicts in Persia, India, Greece and elsewhere. In any case the religion of the father replaced that of the mother; the social system changed and the father took his place at the head of the family. During this period we are told* that man shifted his belief from the earth to the sky, the sun was found to be the source of energy and worship was transferred to the Heavens. Just as formerly the female deity was identified with the earth, so the male deity was identified with the sun, Zeus and Apollo being two examples of the latter type from a great many.

We are now approaching a well known historic period. The religion of the father and the son had replaced that of the mother and child. The age of hero worship had commenced and THIS HERO WAS OFTEN IDENTIFIED WITH THE SUN. For this reason, the fact that a myth is in the form of a sun myth does not argue against its being the expression of a very deep religious motive. As has been stated, earlier motives are carried forward, and so while sun worship is a somewhat later development than the phallic beliefs, it is quite natural that many phallic ideas should find expression at this subsequent period.

We have now reached a time when sex worship became decadent, for CHRISTIANITY FOLLOWED SUN WORSHIP AND HERO WORSHIP; and this brings us to the present day. The religion of father and son remains, and much of the form of the earlier worship has been retained in the modern." [116-118].

"One writer may describe the features of nature worship and quite ignore the presence of sex worship. Others may describe only phallic rites. These discrepancies may be understood when the order in which the various beliefs developed is recognized. Nature worship developed first, but much of its symbolism was carried into the phallic ceremonies. Thus we see the phallus associated with the pine cone and other elements of vegetative life. Some of these elements, the pine cone for example, finally came to have a phallic significance, but at an earlier period they probably represented the vegetation spirit. In fact, reproductive attributes of both nature and man were often worshipped at the same ceremony." [119].

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'....we see evidences of PRIMITIVE RACIAL MOTIVES cropping up in all sorts of ways in later civilization.

But to say that the earlier motives are no longer outwardly expressed is not to infer that they do not exist. Fundamental as they are in our mental development, they enter into our general personality and become a part of our makeup. How is the motive expressed in sex worship a part of our motives and feelings of today? Superficially it does not appear to be present, but a little reflexion shows that it is there. It has become so much a part of us that we scarcely recognize its presence, THE INSTINCT TO REPRODUCE BEING COMMON TO EVERYONE. Every woman feels this to be her duty,—her religious duty if the dictum of the Church is to be followed:

"Lo, children are an heritage of the lord; and the fruit of the womb is his reward. As arrows are in the hand of a mighty man; so are children of the youth. Happy is the man that has his quiver full of them; they shall not be ashamed, but they shall speak with the enemies in the gate." Psalm 127.

During earlier times barrenness was regarded as a curse, and many charms were in use to counteract this calamity. A sentence from a letter of Julia Ward Howe to her young sister about to be married, affords an apt reference to this sense of duty: "Marriage, like death, is a debt we owe to nature, and though it costs us something to pay it, yet we are more content and better established in peace when we have paid it." THE FEELING ASSOCIATED WITH THE COMMAND "TO INCREASE AND MULTIPLY" IS SO MUCH A PART OF OUR INNERMOST THOUGHTS AND FEELINGS that further references to it are unnecessary.' [124-125].

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• • •

from: Sex in Religion An Historical Survey, G. Simpson Marr, Allen & Unwin, 1936.

'Another work devoted to a particular aspect of the activity of sex is The Natural Philosophy of Love, by Remy De Gourmont [1858 - 1915], translated into English by Ezra Pound, the well-known American writer. This remarkable work of research is a careful inquiry into the subject of sex in relation to man and the lower animals. There passes before our eyes many quaint and curious customs amongst obscure tribes and the biological basis of the sexual instinct is laid bare. It is obviously of importance to understand this foundation before we build thereon. "WE ARE ANIMALS," writes DeGourmont, "we live on animals and animals live on us. We are predatory and we are the living prey of the predatory, and when we follow the love-act, it is truly, in the idiom of theologians, more bestiarum. Love is profoundly animal; therein is its beauty." One interesting suggestion emerges in the course of this discussion by Remy De Gourmont. It is that the quality of thought itself is partly at least conditioned by sexual health, for the brain is conceived not as a separated and desiccated organ but as the very fluid of life itself.' [201].

'If religion has its fundamental basis in reverence for life, as Miss Goldsmith [Elizabeth E. Goldsmith] has stated in her Life Symbols as related to Sex Symbolism, worship of this mysterious, impersonal quickening power explains the beliefs of mankind which at one time or another have exalted every phase of life: "At the beginning of things," she writes, "the physical was reverenced, not as distinct from the spiritual but simply as the form through which the spiritual manifested itself. It has taken the passage of many centuries for us to return to what was a very sound and fruitful conception at an early stage of religion." The medieval view, therefore, of the sinfulness of the flesh must from this standpoint be regarded as a retrograde step.' [243].

PAGE 759

Additional References

Sexual Symbolism, A History of Phallic Worship, Includes two complete Volumes A Discourse on the Worship of Priapus [Richard Payne Knight, 1786] The Worship of the Generative Powers [Thomas Wright, 1866], Introduction by Ashley Montagu, The Julian Press, 1961 (1957). [two Classics!].

Manual of Classical Erotology [De Figuris Veneris], Karl Friedrich Forberg [1770 -1848], 2 volumes in 1, Grove Press, 1966 (1824 Latin). [a Classic!].

The Plague of Lust, Julius Rosenbaum [1807 - 1874], Frederick Publications, 1955 (1845 German) ("1839 -" German). [a Classic!].

Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, edited by James Hastings, Volume IX, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1961 (1908). [Phallism. E.S. Hartland [1848 - 1927]. 815-831].

Pictorial History of Morals, edited by Harry E. Wedeck, Philosophical Library, 1963.

Phallic Worship, George Ryley Scott, Senate, 1996 (1966). [Superb Bibliography!].

The History of Prostitution, George Ryley Scott, Senate, 1996 (1968).

Sacred Sexuality, A T Mann and Jane Lyle, Element, 1995.

Love in the Ancient World, Christopher Miles with John Julius Norwich, Photographs by Christopher Miles, St. Martins, 1997. [Gorgeous Book!].

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