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Subjects (abstracts): Christianity: The Sources of its Teaching and Symbolism; The History of Childhood; Foundations of Psychohistory; Ancient Faiths and Modern; The Rise, Decline & Fall of the Roman Religion; Rivers of Life

from: Symbolism in Relation to Religion, or Christianity: The Sources of its Teaching and Symbolism, James Ballantyne Hannay, Kennikat, 1971 (1913).

'It is this element of the miraculous which divides religions from philosophical, ethical, or political systems.


In order to define the position, I shall call the primitive instinct, the love of the miraculous, MIROPHILY, and the practice of it,which is the basis of religionsMIROLATRY. The statement of a religion is a MIROLOGUE, and its tenets MIRODOXES. The essence of religions is MIRODOXY, and official religions may therefore be said to be founded on MIROLOGY, or Miraculous Statements.

All students agree with Jacob Grimm [1785 - 1863], who, in his "Deutsch Mythologie," says: "Simple folk have a craving for myths." It is this craving which I call Mirophily, and when Mirophily states that a code of laws has been miraculously communicated, we have a religion.

In modern times it is almost impossible for the ideas of advanced scientific men to have any great force with common people, as such men cannot state their views in the form of a mirodox, while the most trashy religion will find millions of adherents, because it panders to the Mirophilic craving, and is enforced by the Mirodox of a revelation from a god, and thus BECOMES BACKED BY FEAR,—Mormonism, for instance....

Other races of lower intelligence, having their immediate attention drawn to the influence of natural events on man, such as the effect of sun, rain, and wind, on the production of food, and the occurrence of war, famine, and disease, sought some explanation of human joys and sorrows in the action of invisible spirits which were to be propitiated by various means. The lowest races are ruled by a religion of fear,—dread of the dark and of evil spirits, whom they may propitiate by prayers, and offerings, or sacrifices.' [5-6].

"This readiness to accept, or eagerness to hear and delight in these statements of miracles and the unknown is the sentiment I have named MIROPHILYA SENTIMENT AS REAL AS THE LOVE OF SWEET SOUNDS OR COLOURS." [7].

PAGE 794

"The ancient Hebrew idea that women had no higher nature, and were simply the property of the men, caused their conception of the sexual relation to be somewhat degraded.

The first commandment to man: "Be fruitful and multiply," was repeated more frequently than any other commandment in the Bible, and that seemed to be the preponderant view of the relation between man and woman.


The beautiful poetry of Greece, and Rome, and even of the Dark Ages, the poetry of the troubadours, the high ideals of the Knight errant, the poetry of love; a swelling torrent gathering force down the ages till modern poetry sings of nothing else; all this sweet anthology of the most beautiful and precious endowment of man, is an absolutely unknown to the Hebrew Scriptures as was the idea of eternal life. The great patriarch Abraham prostitutes both of his wives, rather than run any risk to his own skin.

The joyous old Greek idea of Eros, and the infinitely beautiful conception of Cupid and Psyche, have long been killed by the Churches' public interference in matters which are for the man's and woman's inmost thoughts alone.

The degraded idea of love comes from the Hebrew idea of man possessing woman as part of his goods; but modern ideas are marching in the line of rendering the mother and child economically independent of the man. Woman's work for the State, in bearing and educating young children, is quite worthy of the same payment as man receives for his work, in the production of houses, food, clothing, and material comforts.

The domination of modern religion by the barbarous echoes of a dead past has been protested against by our best scholars, as witness Carpenter, p. 463, "Bible in the Nineteenth Century," the Rev. Canon Hensley Henson, in Contemporary Review, April, 1904, Rev. F.M. Wood, Vol. II., p. 67, "Hasting's Dict. of the Bible," Colenso, and many others." [326-327].

'The Confessional, the special "engine" of the Catholic Church was the practice of the Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, and all so-called Pagan countries; and the immoral questions asked of young girls, which caused such a protest when an attempt was made to poison the English Church by its introduction by the High Church party, were so well known and resented by the old Romans, that they were made the subject of the licentious poems of Propertius, Tibullus, and Juvenal ["Satires, vi. 535 [?]"] (Hislop [The Two Babylons], p. 10).' [327].

• • •

PAGE 795

from: The History of Childhood, The Untold Story of Child Abuse, Lloyd deMause, Editor, Peter Bedrick Books, 1988 (1974).

'One imagines that there would be all kinds of places to look to find this missing empathic [for children] faculty in the past. The first place to look, of course, is the Bible; certainly here one should find empathy toward children's needs, for isn't Jesus always pictured holding little children? Yet when one actually reads each of the over two thousand references to children listed in the Complete Concordance to the Bible, these gentle images are missing. You find lots on child sacrifice, on stoning children, on beating them, on their strict obedience, on their love for their parents, and on their role as carriers of the family name, but not a single one [image] that reveals any empathy with their needs. Even the well-known saying, "Suffer little children, and forbid them not, to come unto me" turns out to be the customary Near Eastern practice of exorcising by laying on of hands, which many holy men did to remove the evil inherent in children: "Then there were brought unto him little children, that he should put his hands on them, and pray...he laid his hands on them, and departed thence." (Mat. 19.13.).

All of this is not to say that parents didn't love their children in the past, for they did. Even contemporary child-beaters are not sadists; they love their children, at times, and in their own way, and are sometimes capable of expressing tender feelings, particularly when the children are non-demanding. The same was true for the parent in the past; expressions of tenderness toward children occur most often when the child is non-demanding, especially when the child is either asleep or dead. Homer's [8th century B.C.E.] "as a mother drives away a fly from her child when it lies in sweet sleep" can be paired with Martial's [c. 40 - c. 104] epitaph [see #24, 516]:

Let not the sod too stiffly stretch its girth

Above those tender limbs, erstwhile so free;

Press lightly on her form, dear mother Earth,

Her little footsteps lightly fell on thee.68' [16-17].

PAGE 796

from: Foundations of Psychohistory, Lloyd deMause, Creative Roots, Inc., 1982.

'The history of childhood is a nightmare from which we have only recently begun to awaken. The further back in history one goes, the lower the level of child care, and the more likely children are to be killed, abandoned, beaten, terrorized, and sexually abused....

Historians have concentrated so much on the noisy sandbox of history, with its fantastic castles and magnificent battles, that they have generally ignored what is going on in the homes around the playground....

The importance of parent-child-relations for social change was hardly discovered by Freud; St. Augustine's [354 - 430] cry, "Give me other mothers and I will give you another world," has been echoed by major thinkers for fifteen centuries without affecting historical writing. Since Freud [1856 - 1939], of course, our view of childhood has acquired a new dimension, and in the past half century the study of childhood has become routine for the psychologist, the sociologist, and the anthropologist. It is only beginning for the historian. Such determined avoidance requires an explanation....

There is something mysterious about the silence of all these multitudes of babes in arms, toddlers and adolescents in the statements men made at the time about their own experience....

As the family sociologist James Bossard puts it: "Unfortunately, the history of childhood has never been written, and there is some doubt whether it ever can be written [because] of the dearth of historical data bearing on childhood."2' ["1"-2].

'The idea that the grandparent is actually reborn in the baby is a common one in antiquity,72 and the closeness between the word "baby" and the various words for grandmother (baba, Babe) hints at similar beliefs.73' [19].

'Little Louis XIII [1601 - 1643] often had both his penis and nipples kissed by people around him. Even though Héroard, his diarist, always made him the active one (at thirteen months "he makes M. de Souvré, M. de Termes, M. de Liancourt, and M. Zamet kiss his cock")74, it later becomes evident that he was being passively manipulated: "He never wants to let the Marquise touch his nipples, his nurse had said to him: 'Sir, do not let anyone touch your nipples or your cock; they'll cut them off.'"75 Yet the adults still couldn't keep their hands and lips off his penis and nipples. Both were the mother's breast returned.' [19].

'Another instance of the "infant as mother" was the common belief that infants had milk in their breasts which had to be expelled....' [19].

PAGE 797

"it was the sending of children to wet-nurse which was the form of institutionalized abandonment most prevalent in the past. The wet-nurse is a familiar figure in the Bible, the Code of Hammurabi ["18th century BC"], the Egyptian papyri, and Greek and Roman literature, and they have been well organized ever since Roman wet-nurses gathered in the Colonna Lactaria to sell their services.181 Doctors and moralists since Galen [129 - c. 199] and Plutarch [c. 46 - c. 120] have denounced mothers for sending their children out to be wet-nursed rather than nursing them themselves...." [37].

"Illustration 16—Christ's Grandmother Playing with his Penis. As Hans Baldung Grien's [Hans Baldung, or Grien c. 1476 - 1545 ("German painter and engraver") ("may have been a pupil of Dürer")] 1511 picture of Anna selbdritt shows, grandmothers were expected to masturbate their grandchildren." [56].

"Historical Group-Fantasies"

'(5) "forged in public discussion": It is not enough for fantasies to be shared for them to be considered historical group-fantasies—they must also be formed over a period of time through public communication. A crowd on a beach may all at any one moment share a fantasy simply held simultaneously by many individuals. Group-fantasies can be seen to evolve over time, as different people in the group suggest variations, until the precise formulation is reached which best fits the unconscious needs of the largest number at that historical moment.

To those who are unaware of the enormous emotional stake which underlies such group-fantasy work, the discussions during the formation of historical group-fantasies seem patently ludicrous. My favorite prototype of the work that goes on during the formation period for a history GROUP-FANTASY is the early christological controversies, such as those discussed at the Council of Nicea in 325 A.D., as one watches the group hammer out the precise formulation of the image of the Christian deity which would satisfy the emotional needs of the time. Was Christ god or man; how did he suffer; how die; how separate was he from God; did he defecate; how was he born; was his mother's hymen intact after his birth; and so on—all anxiety-ridden questions involving intense personal childhood fantasies shared by the people of the time. Watching the discussions about whether or not Christ was "consubstantial after the flesh" is good practice in recognizing the similarly arcane, hair-spli tting, but very important formation work going on in every group-fantasy's early stages.' [181].

PAGE 798

'Marital discord, in fact, is one of the best documented emotional causes of fetal distress, being associated in several careful statistical studies with later child morbidity, physical illness, physical defects, severe behavioral disturbances, hyperactivity, aggressivity, and early school failure.59 Indeed, maternal fright alone can be so severe that it can actually cause the death of the fetus immediately afterwards.60 In fact, severe emotional distress within the family during the mother's pregnancy has been found by Dennis Stott to have been associated with damage to the fetus "with almost 100 percent certainty" in large samples in both Scotland and Canada.61

Although most of these studies have been generally ignored by medicine and psychology alike, some obstetricians have recently begun to draw the same conclusions as I have drawn regarding the womb as a place full of pain as well as tranquility.' [255].

'Ever since the early research in the 1930s by Anselmino, Haselhorst, Bartels and others,65 medical research has been puzzled by the low oxygen pressure of fetal blood, which continuously has such low oxygen levels that adults would black out in comparable conditions. This normal condition of low oxygen pressure was termed "Mt. Everest in utero," with the suggestion that fetal development during the last trimester is analogous to a mountaineer climbing Mt. Everest and experiencing slowly decreasing oxygen levels as the fetus grew bigger and the placenta became less efficient. Although the discovery that this very low oxygen level is somewhat offset by an oxygen affinity of fetal red blood cells that is somewhat higher than adults, even so, it is now recognized by many researchers that this one factor is not enough to completely offset the growing insufficiency of oxygen supply to the brain cells. In fact, the late-term fetus is often "extremely hypoxic by adult standards." As one obstetrical researcher puts it, "the foetus in utero may be subject to great O2 and CO2 pressure changes" which produce frequent hypoxia, "the most frequent cause of brain damage in the perinatal period."66' [256].

• • •

PAGE 799

from: Ancient Faiths and Modern: A Dissertation upon Worships, Legends and Divinities in Central and Western Asia, Europe, and Elsewhere, Before the Christian Era. Showing their Relations to Religious Customs as they now Exist. By Thomas Inman, M.D. (London), Author of "Ancient Faiths Embodied in Ancient Names," Etc., Etc. Consulting Physician to the Royal Infirmary, Liverpool; Lecturer, successively, on Botany, Medical Jurisprudence, Therapeutics, Materia Medica, and the Principles and Practice of Medicine, Etc., in the Liverpool School of Medicine; Etc., New York: J.W. Bouton, 1876 (c1875). [reprint available from:].

"It required much courage to allow myself to believe that doctors have, taking everything into consideration, done more harm in the world than good, and still more to announce my conviction that Christianity was even more culpable than medicine. The physician, when professing to cure, has too often assisted disease to kill; and he who has had the cure of souls, has invented plans to make believers in his doctrine miserable. The first fills his coffers proportionally to the extent to which he can protract recovery; the second becomes rich in proportion to the success with which he multiplies mental terrors, and then sells repose. The one enfeebles the body, the other cripples the intellect, and aggravates envy, hatred, and malice. Both are equally influential in preventing man from being such as we believe that the Almighty designed him to be." [x]. [See: The Anxiety Makers, Alex Comfort, 1967; etc.].

'There are many who would rather die with a physician close beside them when they are ill, than live without a doctor; and there are few would not rather enjoy the fear of hell with the orthodox, than be with heretics free from such terrors—"FOR SURE, THE PLEASURE IS AS GREAT IN BEING CHEATED, AS TO CHEAT."'

[x-xi]. [See: #2, 36-37].

'Considering myself as an university graduate and an English gentleman, entitled to give a literary challenge, I make no scruple to enter the lists, and invite champions to break a lance with me in favour of their patron saint or lady.

I assert that their tutelary saintsAdam, Abraham, David, Moses, Solomon, and the prophets, are imaginary beings, or, where real, were not as worthy as they are supposed to have been. I defy scholars to prove that the Israelites were ever, as a body, in Egypt; that they were delivered therefrom by Moses; that the people wandered during forty years in "the desert;" received a code of laws from Jehovah on Sinai; and were, in any sense whatever of the words, "the chosen people of God."

I assert that the whole history of the Old Testament is untrue, with the exception of a few parts which tell of unimportant eventse.g., it is probable that the Jews fought with their neighbours, as the Swiss have done in modern days—but I do not believe the tale about Samson any more than that of William Tell.

I assert that there is not a single true prophecy in the whole Bible, which can be proved to have been written before the event to which it is assumed to point, or which is superior, in any way, to the "oracles" delivered in various ancient lands....

As the weapons on both sides must necessarily be literary—the pen, and not lance or spear, it is advisable to say a few words thereupon. In argument I do not recognize that style of logic which considers that the words "it may be" are equal to "it is."'


PAGE 800

"My challenge, however, is not confined to the subject of the Old Testament;

I affirm that the New Testament is equally untruealthough not to the same degree. Yet, as in the latter, there are not so many asserted facts, there cannot be so many points for cavil. To be more specific: I assert that the history of Jesus was framed upon that of Sakya Muni, and very probably at Alexandria, long after the death of the son of Mary. I do not deny the existence of Jesus; but I assert that every miracle which is told respecting himand the narrative of his miraculous conception, and of the marvels occurring at his birth, have no foundation in fact." [470-471].

• • •

from: The Rise, Decline & Fall of the Roman Religion, James Ballantyne Hannay, The Religious Evolution Research Society, 1925.

[reprint source:].

'It is a great crime to ask questions about "holy" thingsa crime at one time punished with death, as these questions only embarrass the priest. The Protestant Church lacks all these props, and it will either become a "non-supernatural-belief" body, teaching only a religion of kindness, which is the only creed worth following, or it will become extinct. Protestants are the cream of the peoples, and they read, so their acquaintance with the results of scientific investigation will undermine their faith in the "big man" god, and an "after-life," and they will turn their whole energies to bettering this life.

All "revealed" faiths are bound to die, as the falsity of the priests' statements is always exposed by the more advanced thinkers, owing to their receptivity of new ideas and the results of scientific research.

For instance, the learned and reverend authors of the Encyc. Bib. [Encyclopaedia Biblica] have treated the Jesus miracles of walking on the waters, feeding thousands, etc., as "childish" fables, and have declared that PETER AND PAUL WERE MERELY "PEN" NAMES, or lay figures on which the true authors of the New Testament, the Roman ecclesiastics [see my Ecclesiastical Corporation, #22, 440], hung their religious disquisitions—in fact, THE WHOLE NARRATIVE IS FICTION. That was always my opinion. The artificial sources of the names Peter and Paul are very apparent....' [186-187].

• • •

PAGE 801

from: Rivers of Life, or Sources and Streams of the Faiths of Man in all Lands; Showing the Evolution of Faiths from the Rudest Symbolisms to the latest Spiritual Developments. Major-General J.G.R. Forlong, with Maps, [Tables], Illustrations, and Separate Chart of Faith Streams. 2 Volumes [in the original, a folded colored Chart forms a 3rd volume]. London: Bernard Quaritch, 1883. [Monumental!].

[reprint, from Kessinger: 406/756-0167; e-mail:].


Vol. I.


I. Introductory 1-30

II. Tree Worship 31-92

III. Serpent and Phalik Worship 93-322

IV. Fire Worship 323-402

V. Sun Worship 403-534

VI. Ancestor Worship 535-548

Vol. II.

VII. Early Faiths of Western Asia as in Kaldia and Asyria 1-141

VIII.Faiths of Western Aborigines in Europe and Adjacent Countries 142-448

IX. Faiths of Eastern Aborigines, Non-Aryan, Aryan and Shemitik 449-662


I. A Colored Chart of all Faith Streams, 7 1/4 Feet by 2 1/4 Feet,

Either Folded or on Roller.

II.Map of World, as Known About Second Century B.C.,

Showing Movement of Early Races and Faiths Prefacing Vol. II.

III.Sketch Map of Ancient India, and from BaluchistÆn to Anam,

Showing Early Tribes, Their Sacred Places, &c. End of Vol. II.

IV. Synoptical Table of Gods, God-Ideas and Many Features which

all Faiths have more or less in Common. If on Roller

this is 3 Feet by 21 Inches [End of Vol. II.]

PAGE 802


Works which have been Read or Consulted by the Author,

and More or Less Quoted." [pages vii - xii].

Volume I

"Introductory Chapter."

"I had better here state, once for all, that in a subject such as mine, where I have to substantiate certain positions taken up, I cannot pretend not to plagiarize; that is to say, I must borrow views, facts, and materials in support of my own, and of my chronology, from the storehouses of the learned of all classes, which I have been able to meet with; nay, worse, I shall often not be able to name, and so to kindly acknowledge the writers from whom I quote; for I find in going over my note-books, containing many years of detached studies, that I can only guess at many of my sources of information. I beg, therefore, the kind consideration of those from whom I borrow, or whose writings I err in quoting or understanding; I am here only anxious to enlighten the ordinary reading public, perhaps I should say of the male sex, for to our sisters, the origin of Faiths and of the various rites they continually see around them, must long remain mysterious, except perhaps to that advanced, strong-minded and ev er-increasing phalanx, who dare to enter upon all those themes which form the broad domain of social science. This work, then, is for men, and indeed only for that class of my brothers who venture on strong food, and have permitted themselves to look beyond the swaddling bands of youth. My readers must be persons capable of standing some amount of mental and psychological incising, which is absolutely necessary if we are to go to the roots of the hopes and fears and faiths of man. For he [man] was an animal from the beginning, and but here and there, in these later times, has risen to be a spiritual animal. No maudlin sentiment of false delicacy must in this case keep us from calling a spade a spade...." [3].

'I cannot for a moment admit what the unread world may say of my subject—that it is somewhat fanciful, its dates, localities, and decipherings loose and indefinite. To the wide, well read and writing world, I confidently appeal, for it is from them I borrow, and on them I build. I shall also, however, have a class of readers who call themselves religious, and they will probably say the theme is atheistic, for many think, like Israel of old, that disbelief in their God is a disbelief in any God! Some readers also do not like to know that other faiths are the Parents of their own....' [7].

PAGE 803

'Bibles and Sacred Books.—Lastly, all religions have Bibles, before whose worlds, nay, even in many cases before whose names, not only the voice but the head and the knee of man are bent, and even this would be a small thing, were it not that intellect and reason, God's highest gifts to man, which alone raise him above the rest of his animal creation; are bent, crippled, nay broken, and ordered to be subservient to the foolish dicta, words, and ideas, often found in these books called Bibles, and this for no other reason than because there written; thus do nations turn such books into fetishes. It is forgotten or ignored, that though placed there by good and holy, though in our day what would be called ignorant men; who when their spirit was fired with holy thoughts, wrote—"Thus saith the Lord;" yet we know, for our reason and conscience, if not historians, tell us, that the words and dogmas we are told to bow before, have been too often written by conquerors and tyrants and bad men, who thus desired to justify their unjust acts.

Who can tell what misery, blood and money a single text1 in one of these so-called revealed bibles has cost mankind, simply because men thought each text a direct command from God? IT IS VAIN TO ARGUE OR REASON WITH THE POOR BIBLICIST, FOR THOSE WHO MOST IMPLICITLY FOLLOW, ARE ALWAYS THOSE WHO HAVE TAKEN NO PAINS TO ENQUIRE INTO OR TO VERIFY THE BOOK AND ITS PRETENSIONS. "To doubt is to be damned," is the Bibliolater's cry, and it is urged that the more foolish and unreasonable the doctrine, the more certainly has it come from God, "expressly to try our faith!"' [10].

"The volume called the Christian Bible was for ages a series of disconnected manuscripts, transcribed, added to and curtailed, again and again, from 630 B.C. to the days of printing 1516 A.D., or say for 2200 years, and this was no doubt done by interested and often not perfectly reliable transcribers." [16].

'The Old Testament, as Christians have it, is, according to Jewish writers, imperfect, but after some weeding out it was bound up as it is, along with various floating manuscripts, telling of Christ, his life, and sayings, in the fourth century A.C., and called "The Christian Bible."' [16-17].

PAGE 804

"Mr Lesley would place Ancestral worship as man's first faith, just as others would place Serpent before Phallic, and others again, strong in Kaldean history, claim the first place for Sun, and the classic scholars of Latin literature say the same of Fire; my own travels and studies in eastern lands have however convinced me, that the order in which I here [colored Chart "7 1/4 Feet by 2 1/4 Feet" (starting 10,000 B.C.)] place these four [five?] early symbolic objects of man's adoration is in the order in which they mostly flourished, though the idea of the second [Phallic] is in the first [Tree], and abundantly in all that follow.—1ST, TREE; 2ND, PHALLIC; 3RD, SERPENT; 4TH, FIRE; 5TH, SUN; 6TH, ANCESTRAL; being the adoration and worship of Ancestors, their tombs and writings: a faith deeply impregnated wi th all other streams, and with the worship of a representative man, as Amon, Herakles, Brahma, Abram, &c." [27].

Excursus: from: The Tree of Life, an Archaeological Study, Studies in the History of Religions, (Supplements to Numen), XI, E.O. James, Brill, 1966. [Note: extensive Bibliography: "xiii" - xviii].

"Whether or not a particular tree was thought to be tenanted by a divine being, its sacredness was more than that of a symbol. Like sacred springs and rivers the sanctity of trees was due to their being permeated with the life displayed in their growth akin to that of human or animal organisms. This might be associated with an indwelling spirit or deity, or a theophany manifest in conjunction with them and interpreted accordingly in terms of a cult-legend, but, nevertheless, it was their inherent qualities that gave them their status and significance. For this reason they [trees] were treated as a god, or the equivalent, venerated, propitiated, assigned a cultus, honoured with sacrifices and surrounded with tabus because of the supernatural power and life that resided in them. Thus, in the worship of an Earth-god the presence of a tree in addition to an altar has been required, and sometimes the deity has been represented by an entire wood. Indeed, in an ancient prayer T'ang, the founder of the second dynasty in China, during a drought is said to have offered himself as a victim to the wood of Sang, the great Earth-god being a pine tree,1) In Crete and the Aegean Zeus was conceived as a triple divinity, a Sky-god, a Water-god and an Earth-god, who dwelt in a sacred oak and was served by a sacral king regarded as an incarnation of Zeus himself.2)" [4].

PAGE 805

'All, whether the Sun-god, "Sun of righteousness," Dagon, Isis, the symbolic flaming candle or humble fire-vessel, on the altars of the devout, the Fleur-de-lys, modern or ancient crosses, all and every one of these, tell alike the same story in the eyes of the pious archeologist, seeking for the roots of man's faiths.' [29].

'THE CROSS, OF COURSE, MY LEARNED READERS ALL KNOW, IS A PRE-CHRISTIAN SYMBOL. It was not employed as a symbol in Christian worship till 300 A.C., nor till 600 A.C. was the crucifix, or "cross of the crucifixion" employed. The cross after 300 A.C. began to be looked upon as an exorciser, possessing great efficacy against all sorts of devils and evil spirits, and had thus again become the charm which the old Pagan faith attached to it. It ["The Cross"] was still the tree symbol in another form, though after 600 A.C. it merged into "the Cross of Calvary." To the present time the cross retains its old significance. On Good Friday, Christians regard it as the symbol of death, whilst on Easter, or resurrection day, it becomes the emblem of eternal life, therein inheriting all the pleasing associations that belonged to its Pagan prototype. Easter, of course, is the well-known Solar and favorite Phenician festival o f Astarte or Ashtaroth, the Female Energy, and to Sol we owe all such festivals, and most of the rites and symbolism they ["festivals"] develop.' [75].

'It is here, perhaps, necessary to inform my readers that all conical or erect STONES, and all quaint or rude masses of Rock usually denote the male sex, unless ovate or well-rounded, when they are feminine: Thus, great virility is intended by the rocks seen in figures I and II of plate IV., and so also in most places where we see a Hercules or Apollo leaning against a rock, more especially if a serpent is seen entwined or crawling near to this. It should not be, but I fear it is, necessary to explain to mere English readers of the Old Testament, that the Stone or RockTsur—...[Hebrew word]—was the real old God of all Arabs, Jews, and Phenicians, and this would be clear to Christians were the Jewish writings translated according to the first ideas of the people, and Rock used, as it ought to be, instead of "God," "Theos," "Lord," &c. bein g written, where Tsur occurs.' [103]. [See: #7, 187].

PAGE 806

"If Kaldiac Astronomy was fatal to ophiolatry [snake worship], no less [fatal] was the more advanced solar worship of Egypt and the general culture of art and literature to every form of superstition in Greece and Rome. Had these nations but educated the masses with a hundredth part of the learning of the writers whose works have come down to us, every old faith, fable, and superstition would have been blotted out, and even Christianity would have been impossible to man". [105].

"In chapters xvi. to xxii. of 2 Kings, we have an attempt, and no bad one, to describe the grandest developments of Phallo-Solar Faiths; and from the general history of these tribes might gather substance for as complete and impressive a description of details as we could get in Egypt or Asia Minor. At the entrance of Solomon's temple, we are told, stood the mighty Baal, represented by chariots with horses yoked; whilst ever around him, and in the course sacred then to all Heaven's other orbs, were his Priests, called Chemorim, burning incense to the Sun, Moon, and twelve Zodiac Constellations." [220].

'The Egyptian "emblems of life," or phalli, used to be very abundant in the British Museum; they had once evidently been used as religious ornaments, and were in the form of a cross or four phalli-meeting in a centre, which centre, if a circle, was variously called "the wheel of life," the sun, &c. Constantine [c. 280 - 377], to please the Christians, abolished staurosis or stake-punishment, and Theodosius prohibited the carving of the symbol where it would be exposed to profanation (Hume, H.E. App., I.8); which shows us all knew that Christ was put upon the genuine and simple symbol, and not on the Crux which is the Phallus complex. The question has this interest, that it proves Christians have no claim to the very phallic symbol which some have sought to monopolise as altogether their own.' [229].

PAGE 807

"Most of my readers will readily acknowledge that Sun-worship is but one of the phases or sects of the great family of Phallic Faiths. Sol is the fire of heaven which lighteth the generative fires of earth, the genial parent who reneweth in its season all nature, and giveth fertility to both animal and vegetal creation, and which therefore came to be worshipped as the giver of procreative power. In all countries advanced beyond the rudest fetishism, the Sun has been more or less identified with the Great Creator, and the creating organs—things the rudest people were deeply cognisant of long before they could read the heavens, or grasp Sabeanism. It was to Phallic objects, I think, they first gave the names Al, Ar, El, &c., afterwards applied to the Sun and planets, as we see in many ways when we press to their roots such terms as Ra, Ram, Deva, Am, Am-on, B-el-Peor, Jah, IAO, AUM, IO, IOni, Pa, Ma, &c.

In every ancient nation we observe that men, especially heroes, incorporated these Phallic names with their own, calling themselves or being called, bulls, rams, boars, wolves, &c.—a strong proof of their animal propensities in primitive times. Yet it has been often urged upon me by learned men, that the Solar idea was the first faith of man, and that I erred in making it follow Tree and the more purely Phallic faiths. For a long time I wavered. In the course, however, of study and research, overwhelming evidence constantly cropped up that "THE PHALLIC IDEA IS AT THE FOUNDATION OF THE PLANETARY CULT OF ALL THE PEOPLES OF ANTIQUITY;"1 ["1Anthrop. Journal, Oct. 1870. Art. iv."] and very many years before I read this quotation I came to the conclusion that it was Phallic faith and love of offspring that led man to look upwards to those orbs which marked to him the times of fert ility and sterility, as it was also Phallic faiths which led to the worship of progenitors, and from them to ancestor cult. I long sought for evidence to enable me also to put Ancestor before Solar worship, but this is wanting; and I am convinced that every careful student of these matters, if he searches on through all faiths, will come to the same opinion as I have done." [409-410].

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'As men are, so will their ideas of God be; each one, according to his cultivation and idiosyncrasies, projects on his mental canvas the highest ideal of the Illimitable of which he is capable,—a task which all good priests and churches endeavour to perform when they represent their gods and prophets as perfect, though the latter are too often glorified at the expense of all historical and scientific truth, and the god-idea too frequently degraded to accord with the stories of the prophet. A late powerful writer [Edward Maitland 1824 - 1897]3 ["3Keys of the Creeds, Trübner, 1875."] urges that the Roman Catholic Church, (apparently his) properly administered, should not concern itself with the truth of the facts of Christ's life; nay, that it matters not very greatly to that Church whether Christ ever lived at all. It is the church's province, he says, simply to teach the highest goodness and perfection, and show forth to evil m en an incarnate ideal of God. Paul and others, it is evident, did this, and so do all Christians who receive the so-called historical parts of the Bible "on faith." Early religionists never questioned or critically sifted the history and miracles of Christ or other prophets, but on the contrary rather avoided this, raising the prophet to what they conceived a most perfect and divine level, and therefore to a god-man—one able to mediate between men and a still more distant ideal god. This, says the author of "The Keys," many early Christians saw in "the light of the world" passing through his various stages—born of a virgin, underground, subject to many perils in infancy, to the malevolence of Typhon, the Serpent or Evil Spirit, and eventually dying through his agency, but not until he had saved creation from his wintry curse, and left it well stored and able to withstand fresh assaults.1 "This Sun of Righteousness," they av erred, descended into Hell (Ades or the West), and rose to heaven, the arbiter of life and death, the conqueror of the grave. The Nicene Creed is thought by some to formulate the idea that Christ was an incarnation of the Sun, and this the author thinks was natural, seeing that "Constantine [c. 280 - 337] was an ardent Sun-worshipper," and wished Christianity to be engrafted on Solar cult; whereas "Julian [331 - 363], more truthfully-minded, sought to re-establish Sun worship in connection with Christianity,"2 engrafting on the Sun-incarnation-idea, together with many spiritual truths those Neo-Platonic views of the Logos, or "word made flesh," which the Jewish Christians had learned. Solar worshipers, of course, had no objections to make to the so-called "Christian rites" of baptism, eucharistic repasts, and keeping holy the Sun's day. Indeed Jews, and especially So lar Essenes, had long practised such Mithraic rites. The doctrines which Jesus is held to have taught as to poverty, chastity, &c., were all severely inculcated by many sects, but most markedly by the Essenes, who, as I have already stated, fully understood the meaning of the Sun's relation to bread, and wine, and all his functions in connection with each season.' [412-413].

PAGE 809

'Men are now beginning to recognise in Solar faiths the key to the material side of all religions, though in all countries they cling to some ideal man, prophet or demigod, justly considering that from such good ensample [example] our moral element can be best developed. The very advanced author [Edward Maitland 1824 -1897] of "The Keys" thinks truly that "THE ORGANS OF SEX," AND THE SUN, ARE AT THE BASE OF "EVERY RELIGIOUS WORSHIP KNOWN TO US, each alike catholic in their acceptance, their necessity, and their functions." Not only does the Sun's course, he adds, at this day control "our secular and ecclesiastical calendars, times, and festivals held in honour of Christ, but they coincide with the main circumstances narrated of his life, from his conception and birth to his ascension and reception into heaven."1' ["1Keys of the Creeds [Putnam's sons, 1875], p. 60."]. [414].

[Note: for the following comments, latitudes are determinants] 'To appreciate Sol's birth, his vernal coming, and the sadness of his autumnal going, we require to try and remove ourselves back to that early condition of our race, when clothes, and those the scantiest and most indifferent, were a luxury of great; when the whole mass of people lived in what we should call mere huts of grass, clay, or stone, the rude construction of which left the dwellers keenly alive to every wintry blast and shower. Winter to them, indeed, was a ruthless tyrant, who lopped off from every tribe its frail ones by thousands; nor have we yet managed to entirely avert his destructive influences of cold and darkness. At the fatal sign of the Dragon which appears on the October horizon, all nature collapses, and cold obtains the mastery over growth and heat, causing the churches to say their Paternosters; and when in November Sagittarius shoots his darts right to the heart of anima l and vegetable earth, then men wail still more. November the old Skands called Wind monat, and allowed none to venture seaward. All had then to bury themselves in their dens, live on salt meat and corn, and pray for living and dead saints. It was therefore with no hypocrisy or romance, that Jewish women met to weep for Tamuz, or that they watched the loved Adonis of their harvest joys day by day sinking lower, and growing colder and more dead. They saw fruits, flowers, crops, and all verdure droop with him; the heavens then lowered and scowled angrily on them, and poured forth day by day colder and more merciless rains, whilst seas and rivers roaring tempestuously added to their fears; and nature not even leaving them their leafy retreats, they crouched and hid themselves away in huts and caves, and holes, trying as best they could to withstand winter and his chilly blasts. Is it to be wondered at, then, that as Typhon took his departure, these early races welcomed with heart-felt joy the genial budding spring, and still more so the fruit-bearing summer; that they laughed and sang with nature as she advanced with warmth and smiles, and pregnant with all forms of life? Stilled then were the turbulent rivers and noisy ocean, serene the skies, and balmy the air; all the animal creation now responded gladly to the desire nature implanted in them "to multiply and replenish" the earth, and so repair the ravages of angry Typhon.' [428].

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'In spite of all the Christian lore which has interlarded and overlaid the festivities of the winter solstice we can still see clearly the origin of the festival, and all its rites and customs. I may quote the following from Mahaffy [Sir John Pentland Mahaffy 1839 - 1919], cited in the "Life of Jesus," by Thomas Scott [(of Ramsgate) 1808 - 1878], a sound and learned writer:

"There is indeed hardly a great and fruitful idea of the Jewish and Christian systems which had not its analogy in the Egyptian faith. The development of the one God into a Trinity; the incarnation of the mediating Deity in a virgin, and without a father; his conflict and momentary defeat by the powers of darkness; his partial victory, for the enemy is not destroyed; his resurrection and reign over an eternal kingdom with his justified saints; his distinction from, and yet identity with, the uncreate, incomprehensible Father, whose form is unknown, and who dwelleth not in temples made with hands. All these theological conceptions pervade the oldest religion in Egypt...."1' [435]. [See: #24, 495 (Robert Taylor)].

'We can scarcely exaggerate too much the important part which Light, Fire, and Candles have played in Christian worship. The Church has had special prayers for all of these, especially for candles, during nearly all her lifetime, and with these has, ever since the fifty or sixth century, conjoined the Cross as the Emblem of Life. I may here quote a prayer in regard to candles, for the benefit of those who are not in the way of seeing the worship of these:—"We implore Thee, by the invocation of Thy holy name, and by the intercession of the blessed Virgin, the mother of thy Son, whose feast we this day celebrate with the highest devotion, and by the intercession of all thy saints, that thou wouldst sanctify these candles to the good and profit of men....O Lord Jesu, I beseech thee that thou wouldst bless this thy creature of wax, and grant it thy heavenly benediction by the power of thy holy Cross, that as it was a gift to man by which the darkness might be driven awa y, so now it may be endowed with such virtue by the sign of the holy cross, that whithersoever it may be lighted and placed, the evil spirit may tremble," &c.2

No one will surely fail to see in this, a true Phallic and Fire-worship, especially when conjoined with the Phallic cross.' [437].

"Twelve was undoubtedly a highly cabalistic number, and it is possible that the intense tenaciousness of the old solar cult in the minds of the early Christians, in regard to the twelve Zodiacal signs, may have forced upon them the idea of the same number of apostles." [447]. [See: 200-203, 774, 775].

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'At the sack of Constantinople, in 1452, we again lost an enormous amount of literature. Some 120,000 Greek manuscripts were then known to have perished, though the hatred and pious zeal of Christian Priests and Monks had injured or interpolated many of these. It was then the custom of the clerical orders to sell what they called "profane" literature as waste paper to "bookbinders and racket-makers" and many monks and priests used to spend their worthless lives with professional calligraphists, "obliterating the writings by chemical preparations....In this way thousands of valuable MSS. have been lost.......Popes and clergy waged war on historians and poets." Fortunately some eminent men busied themselves deciphering the old writing under the new, and Greek dramas and Latin orations of "noble Pagans" were recovered under trumpery poems or THEOLOGICAL NONSENSE. In this way was won back much of Plautus and Terence, a work of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and eight hundred lines of a very ancient Iliad.2' [507].

Volume II

"We reject none of the literature of our race, and least of all the Bibles or Sacred Writings of mankind, but accept all as part and parcel of our common heritage. We only cast aside, from time to time, that which we find will not stand the searching-out light and science of our age; yet we do not call those who wrote what we reject, impostors or hypocrites, but rather see in their writings a valuable retrospect and warning of the credulous and superstitious times which our race has passed through." [written c. 1883]. [621].

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Volume I

'The reader will perhaps notice a little repetition, but this is generally due to an endeavor to press arguments home under divers phases and from different sources, and because, as Mr Herbert Spencer [1820 - 1903] reminds us, "IT IS ONLY BY VARIED ITERATION THAT ALIEN CONCEPTIONS CAN BE FORCED UPON RELUCTANT MINDS;" and, alas! not even then, thinks Professor Max Müller [1823 -1900]. He says, the older he grows "the more he feels convinced that nothing vexes people so much and hardens them in their unbelief and in their dogged resistance to reforms, as undeniable facts and unanswerable arguments." "Repeat," he continues, "the same thing over and over again, undismayed by indifference, ridicule and contempt, and all the other weapons which the lazy world knows so well how to employ against those who venture to disturb its peace."1 And having done all! what then? Can neither facts nor arguments convince? "No," says the Professor [Max Müller], "REFORMS ARE CARRIED BY TIME! and what generally prevails in the end are not logical deductions but some haphazard and frequently irrational movements."' [xxx].

'"IT WOULD BE DIFFICULT TO OVER-ESTIMATE THE NUMBER OF THOSE WHOSE GENUINE CONVICTIONS ARE DUE TO THE UNRESISTED BIAS OF THEIR INTERESTS. By the terms interests, I mean not only individual well-being, but also all those mental luxuries, all those grooves or channels of thought, which it is easy and pleasing to follow, and painful and difficult to abandon. Such are the love of ease, the love of certainty, the love of system, the bias of the passions, the associations of the imagination, as well as the coarser influences of social position, domestic happiness, professional interest, party-feeling or ambition. In most men the love of truth is so languid, and their reluctance to encounter mental prejudices is so great, that they yield their judgments without an effort to the current, withdraw their minds from all opinions or arguments opposed to their own, and thus SPEEDILY CONVINCE THEMSELVES OF THE TRUTH OF WHAT THEY WISH TO BELI EVE."

[William Edward Hartpole Lecky 1838 - 1903]

He, then, who would write as I am about to do, must expect to incur obloquy and every manner of reproach, and to hear applied to himself every usual orthodox opprobrious name; for it is NOT IN EUROPE, AND CERTAINLY NOT AMONGST SAXON RACES, THAT MAN MAY YET SPEAK THE TRUTH AND NOT SUFFER FOR IT....' [5].

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