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A few references from my researches, which reflect my discoveries.

Subjects and results:

Bible (Old Testament. New Testament.) (was)is Fiction ("historical Fiction", etc.).
Jesus (was)is a Fictional character (not "historical").
Paul (was)is a Fictional character. Etc.

Some principal foci in this presentation:

Saint Justin Martyr256.-263.
Witnesses 315.-328.
Vergil 339.-343.
The Jesus Seminar 344.-348.
Josephus 387.-394.
Aramaic 398.-401.
Presumption 405.-407.
Christian "Eugenics" 408.-410.
Laughter 411.-419. Etc.

197. "In many respects, says Montaigne [1533 - 1592], moral as well as physical, the cannibals live more sensibly than we do....they have a government of sorts, but not one that systematically robs and starves the helpless; they may eat their enemies, but do not burn them alive or torture them to death over doctrinal trivia....

Twenty years ago, in attending the Montreal Expo, I dropped in to the Canadian Indian exhibit, where the walls were covered with printed statements expressing the exhibitors' opinion of their white visitors. I remember nothing of the actual wording, but what was said in effect was: You conquered us, not fairly in battle but by infecting us with your foul diseases; you stole our land and shut us up into open-air cages; you trapped the animals and burnt the forests we depended on for food and shelter; worst of all, you robbed us of our Great Spirit and put your own horrible scarecrow in its place. "

[Northrop Frye 1912 - 1991] [see 307.].

198. "He [Giulio Cesare Vanini 1585 - 1619] argues against the existence of non-material beings, such as ghosts, demons, spirits, and the immortal human soul.90 Religions, including Christianity, are fictions, invented by rulers and priests to secure their power;91 miracles attributed to prayer have natural explanations,92 reason is instinct, and immortality the product of illness or diet.93...In 1619, at the age of 34, he was burned to death at Toulouse for blasphemy and atheism.94" [see 169.].


199. "Thomas Paine [1739 - 1809] did not consider his Age of Reason to be complete. He wrote an extensive new section, but Thomas Jefferson [1743 -1826 (President 1801 - 1809)] prevailed on him not to publish if for fear that it would supply fresh ammunition to his enemies [source? This appears to "fit" William Duane (1802), more than Jefferson. see Reference 199.]. In 1807, however, Paine published most of the new section in a series of pamphlets, now generally known as The Examination of the Prophecies [which includes: The Age of Reason Part Three]. "

200. "he ["Jesus Christ"] did not exist even as a man--that he is merely an imaginary or allegorical character, as Apollo, Hercules, Jupiter and all the deities of antiquity were. "

[c. 1802] [Thomas Paine 1737 - 1809] [see Reference 200.].


Paris, February 21, 1802, since the Fable of Christ.

Dear Friend:

....I expect to arrive in America in May next. I have a third part of the Age of Reason to publish when I arrive, which, if I mistake not, will make a stronger impression than anything I have yet published on the subject....

Yours in friendship,

THOMAS PAINE. " [see Reference 201.].

202.["The New Testament"] "as false, paltry, and absurd, as the Old....the story of Christ is of human invention and not divine origin".

[c. 1802] [Thomas Paine 1737 - 1809].

203. "St. Peter, is a purely imaginary being; that, like his master, Jesus Christ, he never had any real existence: but is of that order of romantic and ideal personifications which weak and disordered minds naturally fall into".

[Robert Taylor 1784 - 1844] [Originally published in weekly numbers, by Richard Carlile (Paine's publisher) 1829 - 1830].

204. "An idea is able to gain and retain the aura of essential truth through telling and retelling. This process endows a cherished notion with more veracity than a library of facts....[D]ocumentation plays only a small role in contrast to the act of re-confirmation by each generation of scholars. In addition, the further removed one gets from the period in question, the greater is the strength of the conviction. Initial incredulousness is soon converted into a belief in a probability and eventually smug assurance.60" [W. Arens.].


205. "1. Universalists believe in a god which I do not; but believe that their nothing more than a chimera of their own imagination. 2. Universalists believe in Christ, which I do not; but believe that the whole story concerning him is as much a fable and fiction as that of the god Prometheus....3. Universalists believe in miracles, which I do not; but believe that every pretension to them is to be attributed to mere trick and imposture. 4. Universalists believe in the resurrection of the dead, immortality and eternal life, which I do not; but believe that all life is material, that death is an eternal extinction of life.8"

[Abner Kneeland 1774 - 1844]. [repeat of 1.].

[1833 published in the "Boston Investigator" (newspaper), Abner Kneeland, editor (American State Trials, Vol. 13, 452-453)].

206.["Prometheus and Christ"] "Among all the gods of Greece, it is Prometheus who stands in the most remarkable relation to mankind. He presents a striking resemblance and a striking contrast to the Christian Saviour. More than any other Greek god, he intercedes for mankind, makes common cause with men. Therein lies the resemblance. But Christ suffered human existence as a man. His whole mission depended on his close bond with mankind. The paradox in his [Christ] case is not that he, a man, made common cause with mankind. The paradox is the faith of the Christians who believe him to be a god. Prometheus never appears as a man. He is a mythological being and was never anything else....Just as the divinity of Christ is an intrinsic part of the Christian faith, so Prometheus' bond with mankind is an intrinsic part of the Greek view of the world. " [see 296., 297.].

207. "B.C. stands for Before Christ. In A.D. 532, a monk named Dionysius Exiguus worked out a Christian system for dating events starting with the year he believed Christ was born. He called the years after this event anno Domini (in the year of our Lord), as A.D. 532. The years before the birth of Christ are called Before Christ, as in 400 B.C. "


208. "the amazing change that took place over two hundred years in attitudes towards scripturally based religion, and the reasons for that change. I suggest that one of the factors involved was the ability of Jewish thinkers, schooled in modern Christian thought, to raise the possibility that Christians were misreading the biblical texts, misinterpreting the prophecies made in the Old Testament, and failing to see that those prophecies had not been fulfilled in the New Testament. If one could give this serious consideration, then Christianity was not the fulfillment of Judaism, and was not based upon it. Then, one could ask, did it have any genuine historical or theological basis at all? One could even come to the question raised by Napoleon Bonaparte [1769 - 1821] and Bruno Bauer [1809 - 1882], of whether Jesus ever actually existed as a person99 let alone as a divine being, and to the question raised by David Hume, Tom Paine, and a host of others, of whether the Old Testament was anything more than superstitious folk-literature?100 When such questions could be asked, one had entered a world outside of traditional Judaism and Christianity, a world in which many of us are still floundering. [see 382.-383., etc.]

[Footnote] 99This is asserted several times in Napoleon's table-talk [sources?], and became a notorious 'scholarly' view when advanced by Bauer a few decades later. "

[Note: Thomas Paine (1737 - 1809) definitively denied an historical Jesus c. 1802, and in effect c. 1794 (see: The Age of Reason ["Part First" and "Part Second"]), which was--is repressed--not noted, everywhere, and by everyone (including: Thomas Jefferson 1743 - 1826; Robert Ingersoll 1833 - 1899; H.L. Mencken 1880 - 1956; Herbert Cutner 1881 - 1969; George Albert Wells 1926 - ; et al. An exception! Frank Zindler, ed., Thomas Paine The Age of Reason Part Three, 1993 (1807), III-IV)!].

[1797, Napoleon meeting with Paine: "it became clear that Bonaparte had read not only The Rights of Man but The Age of Reason [1794 - 1795], for he made use of both works when feeling in a democratic or an iconoclastic mood. " (Tom Paine Friend of Mankind, Hesketh Pearson, 1937, 253)].

209. "The third thesis is that the gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke were written not as a narrative of historical events, but chiefly as propaganda".

[see 78., 132., 212.].

210. "For my own part, I do not believe there is one word of historical truth in the whole book [Matthew]. I look upon it at best to be a romance; the principal personage [Jesus] of which is an imaginary or allegorical character founded upon some tale, and in which the moral is in many parts good, and the narrative part very badly and blunderingly written. " [see 354.].


211. "Why? What possible reason could there have been for Paul and James and the other writers to ignore practically the whole earthly career of Jesus? Does it not raise a presumption that there was no such earthly career? What other possible reason could there have been?" [see 126., 223., 226., 299., etc.].

212. "If the Gospels are to be seen as missionary documents, then the main purpose of the stories in them is to evoke faith. " [see 78., 132., 209.].

213. "Paul could say to the Corinthians that, if the resurrection were not true, and if Christ had not been raised, then his teaching was in vain, and the Corinthians' faith too was in vain, and that of all men Christians were most to be pitied for their false hope [1 Corinthians 15:14-19 (15:12-58)]. For Paul and the writers of the New Testament the resurrection of Jesus was obviously a reality. Our conclusion, though, is that the resurrection of Jesus was an event only in the minds and lives of Jesus' followers [see 102., 126., 260.-263., 288.-289., etc.]. It cannot be described as an historic event. The Easter story is a faith legend, not an objective eyewitness report; but it is a myth that the Christian church through the centuries has found to be a continuing inspiration. "

[see 15., 247., 248., 273.].

[note, and review, the psychology (sin, sacrifice, blood, forgiveness, resurrection, etc.)!].

214. "With a combination of syncretism, reinterpretation and exegesis, Christianity managed to absorb nearly all of paganism except its Goddess [?]. According to Guignebert [1867 - 1939 (Sorbonne)]:

Western peoples in the early centuries of the Christian era never really understood the Christian dogmas, nor have they understood them since. The religion which they have constructed upon these dogmas through their own efforts was something was cast in formulas ill able to contain it. The Western peoples have, strictly speaking, never been Christians....Bearing the impress only of the Christian legend and nourished upon formulas passively repeated, these men--the vast majority of professed Christians--remained actually pagans, and still do so within the folds of the Catholic commonwealth. "

215. "In thus singling out the power [Eros] that produces these procreations and setting it at the beginning of the whole series as its divine cause, Hesiod [c. 8th century B.C.E.] performed a hypostasis [via mental wizardry (hypostatization)] such as we find at analogous stages in the theological thought of all times and all peoples. This is precisely what the Hebrew theologians are doing when they take the phrase 'And God said:' (the phrase repeated at every new creative act of Yahweh in the Mosaic account of Creation) and hypostatize it as the creative Word, the Logos, treating it as a primordial being in itself and placing it at the head of the series of creative acts that proceed from it. " [origins of hocus-pocus!] [compare: Logos (etc.) and Jesus (see 216.)] [see 291.].


216. "The Logos is a substantialization of an intellectual property or power of God the creator, who is stationed outside the world and brings that world into existence by his own personal fiat. The Greek gods are stationed inside the world". [see 215.].

[Note such words (in relation to "Jesus") as: hypostatization (215., 352.); logos (216., 233., 234.); substantialization (216.); literalization (361.); "romantic and ideal personifications" (203.); reify; materialize; man made conglomerate, composite (346.), amalgam, abstraction (234.), (Reference 200.); projection; superstition (313.); hocus-pocus (215.); oral tradition (18.); lies; forgeries; "not in verifiable Fact, but in Cravings, Imaginations, and Aspirations of the soul. " (260.); self-fulfilling (group-fulfilling) prophecy (288.); demand characteristics (289.); anthropomorphization (352.); hagiography (232.); invented (235., 294., 361.); myth; legend; "imaginary or allegorical character" (200.); "a priori construction" (241.); phantasm; not human (242.); novelty (285.); "known by name" (243.); fiction; plagiarism; "creations by the church" (236.); 'metaphoric phrase, "son of God"' (361.); apparitions (374.); "incarnation of the logos" (242.); Strange Tales About Jesus (290.-294.); pseudepigrapha; apocrypha; gospels; hoaxes; art (352.); etc.].

217. "Christianity was originally a movement of the oppressed; it first appeared as a religion of slaves and freedmen, of the poor, the outcasts, of the peoples subjected or dispersed by Rome. "

218. "New Testament writers, are not above changing the events to suit the prophecy, as well as the words of prophecy to suit the events. "

219. "Modern theologians tend to sidestep the question of whether Jesus was in fact a fable or a real person. In view of the complete dearth of hard evidence, and the dubious nature of the soft evidence, it seems Christianity is based on the ubiquitous social phenomena of credulity". [see 216., 288., 289.].

[220.-221. "orthodox" input]

220. "Is it not possible that the figure of Jesus is the loftiest poem of mankind, as some are now saying of an Abraham or a Moses?...If they ever lived, then they were children of men; if they were only invented, then they are children of the imagination, which derives its material from our reality. "

221. "Doubters have said, not without reason, that even the Synoptists' [writers of Mark, Matthew, Luke] portrayal of Jesus is a legend of a saint [hagiography] painted against a golden background. " [see 232.].


222.[Encyclopaedia Judaica] "The historicity of Jesus is proved by the very nature of the records in the New Testament, especially the four Gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John....John's Gospel is more a treatise reflecting the theology of its author than a biography of Jesus....The Jesus portrayed in these three Gospels is, therefore, the historical Jesus....Matthew, Mark, and Luke are interdependent. Scholars call these three the Synoptic Gospels because they can be written in parallel columns [exhibiting their commonalities, etc.], such form being called synopsis [in the sense of a "general view"]. "

223. "It is odd that the Jews have always [Not in my researches. Much fear, collusion, etc.] classified Jesus as a myth [Sources?], yet his crucifixion allegedly took place in Jerusalem....Apart from the Gospels which cannot be regarded as either historical or objective since they were written for the sole purpose of fostering the faith of Christians--what other documentary evidence exists to prove that Jesus ever existed at all?"

[see Reference 223.] [see 102., 110.-112., 126., 211., 224., 226., 299., 363., etc.].

224.'It is now more than half a century since Renan put the question, "Has Jewish tradition anything to teach us concerning Jesus?" This question must be answered in the negative. As far as the contemporaneous Jewish literature goes, it does not contain a single reference to the founder of Christianity. All the so-called Anti-Christiana collected by mediaeval fanatics, and freshened up again by modern ignoramuses, belong to the later centuries, when history and biography had given way to myth and speculation. Almost every Christian sect, every Christian community, created a Christ after its own image or dogma [see 260.-263., 288.-289., etc.]. The Jewish legend [of Jesus]--a growth of those later centuries--gave him an aspect of its own, purely apocryphal in its character, neither meant nor ever taken by the Jews as real history.'

[Solomon Schechter 1848 - 1915 (Cambridge. "headed the Jewish Theological Seminary" [New York])] [see 223., 401., etc.].

225. "That the Talmud is useless as a source of reliable information about Jesus is conceded by most Christian scholars. "


226. "Our opponents ask: If Jesus was not an historical personage, how is it that no one ever doubted his existence? We reply with the further question: Granting that he was an historical personage, how is it that not only does the Talmud never mention him, but, apart from the gospels, not a single work belonging to the early Christian period gives us any intimate detail about the life of this personage? Examine Paul's Epistles! As we shall show in the next chapter, they do not tell a single special fact about the life of Jesus. Read the other Epistles of the New Testament--Peter, John, James, Jude, and the Epistle to the Hebrews--and the letter of Clement to the Corinthians, the letter of Barnabas, the Pastor of Hermas, the Acts of the Apostles, etc. Nowhere in any single one of these early Christian documents do we find even the slenderest reference to the mere man Jesus [see 388.], or to the historical personality of Jesus as such, from which we might infer that the author had a close acquaintance with it. His life, as it is described in the gospels, in all its human detail, seems to have been entirely unknown to these authors. "

[see 126., 211., 223., 299., etc.].

227. "if the transformation of Jesus into an historical person only occurred at a relatively late stage (the first half of the second century), the absence of any doubt about the historical existence of Jesus before that time is quite intelligible. "

228. "4) According to my thesis, there were no Christians, either Gentile or Jewish, living during the first century; there was no historical Jesus of Nazareth [and, no Nazareth! (see: Frank Zindler, ed., Thomas Paine The Age of Reason Part Three, 1993, 24-25. Et al.)]; and there was no supernatural Christ. I will therefore describe the participants of the movement that preceded the development of Catholic Christianity as the New Convenantors and their philosophy as the New Covenant. " [see 65., etc.].

229."Tertullian [c.160 - 220 C.E.] retorts that he [Marcion c.100 - c.165 C.E.] might just as well have retained the nativity, arguing that it was only a phantasm of a nativity in the same way as what had all the appearance of flesh was merely putative flesh. " ["Marcion...denied the flesh of Christ"].

230. "the Demiurge...arranged events so that Jesus would be persecuted and crucified--although the crucifixion itself was only a collective hallucination of the onlookers, since Christ had no physical body capable of suffering. "

[Marcion ("According to the heresy hunter IRENAEUS")].

231. "DOCETISM....In the early Church, a tendency, rather than a formulated and unified doctrine, which considered the humanity and sufferings of the earthly Christ as apparent rather than real. Evidence for its existence is to be found in the NT (1 Jn. 4. 1-3; 2 Jn. 7; cf. Col. 2. 8 f.)".

232. "Jesus, our knowledge of: Our knowledge of Jesus is largely dependent upon the Gospels,* particularly the Synoptics;* but these unfortunately, are hagiography* rather than biography. " [see 216., 221., etc.].


233. "The Logos served Greek Jews as the bridge to the remote, transcendent God in a way comparable to that served by angels in the thought of Palestinian Jews. " [see 216., etc.].

234. "Greek Jews...often treat Logos as a mere abstraction". [see 216., etc.].

235. "Bauer moved from the opinion that the Gospel writers had invented incidents into the opinion that they had invented Jesus. "

[Bruno Bauer 1809 - 1882] [see 216., etc.].

236. "the Gospels, so said Loisy [see 168.], were not so much documents about Jesus as creations by the Church which shaped the Gospels in the light of Church experience, need, and belief. "

237.'Many pagan deities were remade into saints. Others were vaguely Christianized by interpreting them as prophetic figures. "Aesculapius, who suffered death because he had raised the dead, is a type of Christ...Jupiter, changed into a bull and carrying Europa on his back, also typifies Christ, the sacrificial ox who bore the burden of the sin of the world. Theseus who forsook Ariadne for Phaedra prefigures the choice which Christ made between the Church and the Synagogue. Thetis who gave her son Achilles arms with which to triumph over Hector, is no other than the Virgin Mary who gave a body to the Son of God. "37' [see 296.].

238. "For the scrolls [Dead Sea Scrolls] turn out not to have added one jot to the previous knowledge about Jesus. "

239. "The best witness of the historical existence of Jesus is, paradoxically, Paul, the alleged mainstay of the mythological view. "

[This one makes me laugh! A great scholar (Charles Guignebert 1867 - 1939 [Sorbonne]), with a great exhibition of erudition, "comes up" with this! (see 184.) (see his pathetic conclusion regarding the "historical" Jesus: see Reference 239., 132)] [see 10., 184., 226., 241., 242., 345., etc.].

240. "Marcion [c.100 - c.160 C.E.], unlike some Gnostics, relied more on biblical materials than on Greek philosophy. In particular, he emphasized Paul's teachings [Marcion's version], asserting that the original twelve apostles had misunderstood Christ's message by thinking him to be the messiah prophesied by the Old Testament rather than understanding him to be sent by the true God. Because of this misunderstanding, it was therefore necessary for Paul to receive a special revelation [see 241.] to correct it. "

[Marcion, an early "Spin Doctor"].

241. "Paul derived this narrative of the last supper, not from companions of Jesus, but as one of the private revelations [sic] to which he was liable. It rests, therefore, on no basis of fact, but, like much of Paul's conception of Jesus, is partly, or wholly, an a priori construction of his own mind. "


242. "John ["The Gospel According To John"], on the other hand, believed that Jesus was the incarnation of the logos, co-eternal with God, which is a very different thing. From this point of view, Christ is not human at all [sic!]. "

[Guignebert (see 239.)] [see Reference 242.].

[243.-244. Julian 331 - 363 C.E. (Emperor)]

243. "Yet Jesus, who won over the least worthy of you, has been known by name for but little more than three hundred years: and during his lifetime he accomplished nothing worth hearing of". [repeat of 163.].

244. "But if you can show me that one of these men ["Jesus or Paul"] is mentioned by the well-known writers of that time,--these events happened in the reign of Tiberius or Claudius,--then you may consider that I speak falsely about all matters. " [repeat of 165.] [see 277.-281., 299.].

[245.-246. Thomas Huxley 1825 - 1895]

245. "between that time ["second century"] and the date of the oldest extant manuscripts of the Gospels, there is no telling what additions and alterations and interpolations may have been made. "

246. "Now let any reasonable man ask himself this question. If, after an approximate settlement of the canon of the New Testament, and even later than the fourth and fifth centuries, literary fabricators had the skill and the audacity to make such additions and interpolations as these, what may they have done when no one had thought of a canon; when oral tradition, still unfixed, was regarded as more valuable than such written records as may have existed in the latter portion of the first century?"

[247.-248. J.M. Robertson 1856 - 1933]

247. "the whole apparatus of the Gospel crucifixion is pure myth. "

[see 15., 213., 273.].

248.["The Ascension"] "Of all the Christian miracles, this is perhaps the most obviously a fable born of ignorance. Only in a world living under the primitive delusion of a flat earth and a solid overarching firmament could such a fable have been framed; and it is a standing proof of the moral frailty of the religious intelligence that such a tale is still allowed to perplex and delude the simple....Such beliefs were in the ordinary way of opinion in an age in which it was quite worth while to go through the procedure of letting loose an eagle from the funeral pyre of each deceased emperor by way of demonstrating his ascent to heaven. "


249.["Mysteries (Greek, Phrygian, etc. ")] "All of them were proselytizing, and offered to mankind, in competition with one another, a better way of life....their principles were handed down, from generation to generation, by a set of priests or hierophants, who usually claimed extensive powers, and offered themselves as the only legitimate way by which the deities could be approached. They held the keys of the gate, and by their aid only could the would-be votaries attain to a divine communion. "

250.'Bruno Bauer [1809 - 1882]...has gone so far as to speak of Christianity, in this aspect ["ethical sense"], as "a Graeco-Roman phenomenon in a Jewish mask. "' [Excellent summarization!] [see 357., etc.].

251.'But if his thinking for himself takes the form of questioning these principles, whether moral or religious, his parents and teachers, unless they are very exceptional persons, will be extremely displeased, and will certainly discourage him.... "distrust thy father and mother" is the first commandment with promise. It should be a part of education to explain to children, as soon as they are old enough to understand, when it is reasonable, and when it is not, to accept what they are told, on authority.' [End of text] [see 190.-192.].

252.'The words of Tertullian: "It is to be believed absolutely because it is is certain because it is impossible" (On the Body of Christ,75).'

[The classic of Tertullian!] [see 377.].

[5/11/97 Note: This classic is apparently incorrect. See: #12, 259-260

("it is straightforwardly credible because it is unfitting")].

253.["Angels and Demons"] "As for Jesus himself [writers], there can be no doubt that he was born and bred [reared (inculcated)] and lived out his life in the midst of a threatening cloud of hostile spirits, and that belief in their existence and in their activities was one of the formative elements in his [their] religious experience. And this belief has remained active during the whole development of Christianity, which may even be said, in the last analysis, to be founded on it, for what is more fundamental in the Christian life than the perpetual sense of struggle between the power of God and the power of Satan, both in man himself and in the world? It was through the persistence of this attitude that the Christian faith, the origins of which we are about to examine, remained so essentially Jewish. " [see 6., etc.].

254.'"It is doubtless the tendency of religious minds," says Dr. Newman, "to imagine mysteries and wonders where there are none; and much more, where causes of awe really exist, will they unintentionally mis-state, exaggerate, and embellish, when they set themselves to relate what they have witnessed or have heard;" and he adds: "and further, the imagination, as is well known, is a fruitful cause of apparent miracles. "1' [see 7., 315.-328., etc.].


255.["The Age of Miracles"] "Faith in their reality [miracles], once so comprehensive, does not, except amongst a certain class, extend beyond the miracles of the New Testament and a few of those of the Old,1 and the countless myriads of ecclesiastical and other miracles, for centuries devoutly and implicitly believed, are now commonly repudiated, and have sunk into discredit and contempt. The question is inevitably suggested how so much can be abandoned and the remnant still be upheld. " [see 87., etc.].

[Note: Chapter IV ("The Age of Miracles") should be studied ("each time") 5-30 minutes, before commencing any studies related to theology (Biblical studies, etc.)].

[256.-263. Saint Justin Martyr c. 100 - c. 165 C.E.]

256.'It was an age [2nd century] which, as is abundantly proved from its literary monuments, habitually construed the past from the passionate ideals of the present [repeat of 176.]. Knowing what we do of that century, and its modes of imagination and customs of literary fiction, the assumption of the critic must be that the persons and the events of which the writers of that century said to themselves--

"Twas a hundred years since,"

are poetic, until they are proved substantially real. And the proof of substantial reality fails, when, instead of an imposing mass of contemporary testimony, we are confronted by a great void, and a scarce broken silence.

Justin is no historian at all. The broken narrative he actually tells is unvouched for in its details by preceding or contemporary writers.' [see 79.].

257. "The reader may practically confine himself to Justin of Neapolis [Justin Martyr, Saint c. 100 - c. 165 C.E.] as a dated witness from the middle of the second century. He knows no authoritative writings except the Old Testament; he had neither our 'Gospels' nor our Pauline writings; his imagination was a blank where our own is filled with vivid pictures of the activity of Jesus and of Paul.1

[Footnote] 1The late Bruno Bauer [1809 - 1882], who has long been treated by the theological world as an outcast, but who has been recently vindicated in a most candid spirit by Professor A. D. Loman... dates the New Testament literature in the period 130 - 170. " [see 282.].


258. "Justin is one of those men who, incapable of sound dialectic, imagines that others must be blind to the truth if they do not start with the same ideal premises with himself; and who is the very type of that kind of reasoner who would persuade himself and others by mere incessant repetition of the same thing, over and over again. His method can only be convincing to those who have been convinced beforehand. All this is instructive, because it brings to light the process by which the popular mind has, since Justin's time [2nd century], been brought into that fixed attitude of awful reverence towards the Ideals of Christendom, which is commonly, but erroneously, confused with Belief in the 'facts of the Gospel.'" [see 127.-139.].

259. "Here the tacit assumption creeps in that what is thus ideally 'true' must have been historically 'real'....If we say, without evidence, that we believe the representation to be that of historic fact, we simply mean that we prefer an easy acquiescence to a troublesome dispute....What deprives Justin of all credit as a historian of Christian origins, apart form his ignorance of sources, is the habit he has of inventing facts to correspond with poetic ideals. " [see 267.].

260. "Justin Martyr, in his effort to explain and defend Christianity in the presence of the Jew and the Greek, only succeeds in awakening irrepressible doubts as to the very existence of any individual Founder [Jesus] at all....the origin of the Christian symbol [Jesus], and its explanatory tradition, was not in verifiable Fact, but in Cravings, Imaginations, and Aspirations of the soul. " [see 216.].

261.'the Christian philosopher Justin Martyr [Saint. c. 100 - c. 165 C.E.] complained, in an open letter, written around the year A.D. 150 to the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, that Christians were being unjustly persecuted "even though we say the same things (about Jesus Christ) that the Greeks (say about their Gods)...we alone are hated because of the name of Christ...(and) put to death as offenders. "7 Nor is Justin Martyr reluctant to give abundant evidence to support this startling claim:

When we say that the Word (logos), who is the first-born of God, was born for us without sexual union...and that he was crucified and died and after rising again ascended into Heaven, we introduce nothing new beyond (what you say) regarding those whom you call sons of Zeus.8...When we say that Jesus was born of a virgin, you should consider this something in common with Perseus. When we say that he healed the lame, the paralyzed, and those born blind, and raised the dead, we seem to be talking about things like those said to have been done by Asklepios.9'


262.'The Jew Trypho, whom Justin introduces in his Dialogue with Trypho [c. 150 C.E.], expresses himself very skeptically about it. "Ye follow an empty rumour," he says, "and make a Christ for yourselves. " "If he was born and lived somewhere, he is entirely unknown. "1 This work appeared in the second half of the second century; it is therefore the first indication of a denial of the human existence of Jesus, and shows that such opinions were current at the time.' [Arthur Drews 1912].

263. "Justin's Dialogue with Trypho [c. 150 C.E.] presents itself as reporting a discussion, taking place, after his conversion to Christianity, with Trypho, a Jew. The question whether this dialogue is an historical record of an actual event or literary fiction is much debated. "

'Finally Trypho says: "As to (the) Christ, if indeed he is born and exists somewhere, he is unknown and does as yet not know himself nor has he any power, until Elijah comes and anoints him and makes him manifest to all. But you people, by accepting a worthless rumour, shape a kind of Christ for yourselves, and for his sake are now blindly going to ruin".'

[J.C.M. Van Winden 1971].

• • •

264. "The haeretics were, historically speaking, the predecessors of the Catholics, in spite of the assertions of Tertullian to the contrary. His 'churches of apostolic census,' like the apostles themselves, are unknown. " [see 358.].

265. "The Catacombs are the graveyards of the Roman people. "

266. "it seems sufficiently clear how from the mine of the Old Testament and the rabbinical writings materials were gradually collected out of which the Construction of that life manifested in the flesh gradually assumed distincter and yet distincter outline at the close of the second century in the person of Jesus. "

267.'"There was in ancient times," says the ecclesiastical historian Hausrath, "hardly any interest in historical truth as such, but only in ideal truth. There are very few cases in which an ancient historian put himself the question what had really happened and what was merely said to have happened. "1' [see 259.].

268. "without constant regard to the instincts of the vulgus the growth of religious communities can at no period be understood. "

269. "Jesus is more real to imagination now than He was at the end of the new century. " [see 12., 134., 317., 318., etc.].


270. "If the Four Gospels seemed to their early readers to leave gaps in the life of Jesus which might be edifyingly filled, and so pointed toward further gospel writing, the Book of Acts left a mass of loose ends that invited literary effort. " [The Four Gospels and Acts are non fiction, and their sequels are fiction? No! All fiction!].

271. "Christians have never been reluctant to write fiction about Jesus, and we must remember that our four canonical Gospels are only the cream of a large and varied literature. " [repeat of 60.] [see 61., 62., 290.-294., etc.].

272. "I accept the conclusion recently set forth by Mr. J. M. Robertson in a trilogy of able works, that the Gospel story is, to all intents and purposes, not merely legendary, but mythical. "

273. "His [Jesus] death on the cross is not described with accompaniments that were those of a Roman execution, but with the characteristic details of various rites of human sacrifice known in all parts of the world from India to Mexico. "

[see 15., 213., 247., 296., 297.].

274. "A point not made in The Age of Reason occurs in a letter written by Paine in 1806 to Andrew Dean, who had rented part of Paine's farm at New Rochelle. After referring to the Bible as 'a book of lies and contradictions' he allows that 'the fable of Christ and his twelve apostles' is the least hurtful part. "

275.'The tradition that Jesus chose "twelve Apostles" is legendary; it had at first a symbolical reference to the twelve tribes of Israel (cf. Rev. xxi. 14, Matt. xix. 28).'

276. "Indeed, whatever logical objections there may be to Thomas Paine's deism, one cannot but admire the force and courage of his attack not only on Christianity but on any form of religious superstition. "

[277.-281. "The Non-Christian Witnesses",
appropriately, very briefly summarized.]

277.'Within the 1st century after Jesus' death only two Latin authors made undisputed [sic!] mention of Him. Tacitus (Ann. 15.44) said that the Christians were named for a Christus who had been condemned to death by Pontius Pilate. Pliny the Younger (Letter to Trajan: Epist. 10.69 [10.96]) said that the Christians sang hymns to a certain Christus as to a God. The Jewish author Flavius Josephus (Ant. 20.9.1 [xx. 200]) mentioned the martyrdom of James, "a [the] brother of Jesus who is [was ("is" occurs "at Mt. 1:16, 27:17" [see 279.])] called the Christ. " One must turn to the Bible for any further 1st-century information about Jesus.

The OT cannot be expected to give any direct historical information about Jesus....There remains only the NT as a source for the life of Jesus and the meaning of His work and person.'

[New Catholic Encyclopedia] [see 278.-281., 363., etc.].


278.["THE NON-CHRISTIAN WITNESSES"] 'As early as the first few centuries of the present era pious Christians searched the Jewish and pagan writers for references to Jesus, convinced that such references ought to be found in them; they regarded with great concern the undeniable defects of tradition, and, in the interest of their faith, endeavoured to supply the want by more or less astute "pious frauds," such as the Acts of Pilate, the letter of Jesus to King Abgar Ukkama of Edessa,1 the letter of Pilate to Tiberius, and similar forgeries. Greater still was the reliance on the few passages in profane literature which seemed to afford some confirmation of the historical truth of the things described in the gospels.'

279. "The shorter Josephan [Josephus c. 37 - c. 100 C.E.] passage [Antiquities xx. 200 (see 388.)] mentioning Jesus (in a phrase of half-a-dozen words) is more often defended as genuine, but a number of eminent scholars (who certainly did not share Robertson's view of Jesus) agreed with him in impugning it (cf. 122, p. 11). Although even today it is still sometimes argued that this passage refers to Jesus as 'the so-called Christ' [see Reference 279.], and that a Christian interpolator would not have thus disparaged him, Robertson and others (e.g. W.B. Smith in his Ecce Deus) long ago pointed out that the depreciatory 'so' is not in the Greek, which reads 'Jesus who was called Christ'; and that this wording is Christian, occurring at Mt. 1:16, 27:17 and elsewhere in the NT".

[G.A. Wells] [see 363., 387.-393.].

280. "Tacitus' Annals (ca. AD 120)...states that 'Christians derive their name and origin from Christ, who was executed by sentence of the procurator Pontius Pilate in the reign of Tiberius'. This is the only really relevant piece of pagan evidence, and Robertson was quite right to say that, whether genuine or not, it states only what Christians were by then themselves saying about the origin of their sect".

[G.A. Wells].

281.'J. Weiss is perfectly correct when he says, as we saw previously: "There is no such thing as a really convincing witness in profane literature [see 244.]. " It is true that he is able to console himself for this. "What," he asks, "could Josephus or Tacitus do for us? They could at the most merely show that at the end of the first century not only the Christians, but their tradition and Christ-mythos, were known at Rome. When it originated, however, and how far it was based on truth, could not be discovered from Tacitus or Josephus" (p. 91).'

[see: Tacitus, 20-56].


[282.-284. van Manen 1842 - 1905 (Dutch)
(see Additional References: Bergh van Eysinga)]

282. "Moreover, the history of the origin and collection of the books of the NT has long ago enabled us to see that they arose one by one in the ordinary genuinely human manner, and only gradually were gathered together. Not at a single stroke, nor by any special divine or human providence, nor yet in virtue of exceptional talents or, if you will, supernatural gifts denied to other Old-Christian writers or collectors, was this task achieved. It was done by men moved after the same manner as ourselves, men who were the children of their own time and, be it said with all reverence for the priceless work they accomplished, were gifted in very various degrees". [see 257.].

283.[A.] "To compose 'letters' under another name, especially under the name of persons whose living [examples?] presentment, or real [examples?] or supposed spiritual equipment, it was proposed to set before the reader, was then just as usual as was the other practice of [B.] introducing the same persons into narratives and reporting their 'words,' in the manner of which we have examples, in the case of Jesus, in the gospels, and in the case of Peter, Paul, and other apostles, in Acts." [2 forgery (propaganda) styles].

284. "The time seems to be approaching when the question as to 'genuineness'--in the sense now usually attached to the word--will no longer be discussed as regards any of the epistles that have come down from the first Christian centuries; it will be enough to be satisfied of their genuine antiquity. "

285. "For this very thing was proclaimed ["prophets"] beforehand, that a novelty ["Christ"] should come to renew and quicken mankind. "

[Irenaeus c. 130 - c. 200 C.E.].

286. "The extent to which Jesus' biography has been constructed from the OT is particularly apparent in the stories of his early life and last days. "

287.'"the new Paganism called Christianity. "'

288. "self-fulfilling [group-fulfilling] prophecy A term used to refer to the fact that frequently things turn out just as one expected (or prophesied) that they would--not necessarily because of one's prescience but because one behaved in a manner that optimized these very outcomes. "

289.'demand characteristics....any social setting that, by its very nature, establishes a set ["disposition or tendency on the part of an organism to respond in a particular manner. " (689)] that carries with it behavioral "demands. "'


[290.-294. from: Strange Tales About Jesus A Survey of Unfamiliar Gospels]

290. "A Swedish journalist with feminist leanings announced a couple of years ago that a new Gospel had been found, revealing that Jesus was a woman. The journalist in question is fairly well known as one who is fond of practical jokes, and nothing more has been heard about this Gospel either in Sweden or abroad. But the interesting point is how disturbed some people became about this story and about the possibility that it might be true. The idea of the unknown Jesus manuscript seems to lie deep in our [sic] unconscious, and many of us seem to hope or fear that such a manuscript might appear. "

291.'The Coptic-Gnostic library of Nag-Hammadi (1945), the Dead Sea Scrolls (1947), the Jewish fragments from Masada (1963-65), and, most lately, the sensational finds in the Monastery of St. Catherine (1975) have given scholars an immense amount of material for future work. But stories of alleged finds have followed in the traces of these real discoveries. The later parts of The Gospel of Peace (or The Gospel of the Essenes), for example, have obvious similarities to the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Donovan Joyce's Jesus Scroll is directly inspired by the Masada finds.8 May we, perhaps, understand this is as a kind of modern folklore, where the belief in revelations [A. "written word" ("scripture")] or in letters from heaven [B. "word of God"] has been superseded by a kind of religious science fiction, where the credulity appears under the cloak of scholarly work? As we all know, it is possible to make people believe in the strangest things, as long as they are presented as "scientific discoveries. "'

[Note: A. and B. (from: New 20th Century Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Baker, 1991, 712-713) are principal loci of the hocus-pocus of Christianism, etc.] [see 215.].

292. "It is a varying image of Jesus that we have encountered in the many modern apocrypha. Essene brother, traveler to India, vegetarian and friend of animals, nature healer, and magician--there is in fact no limit to the qualities and activities that human imagination has been able to attribute to Jesus. There is, indeed, truth in Albert Schweitzer's [see Reference 292.] famous saying that every time seeks and finds the Jesus that it wants [see 260., 288.-289., etc.]. New times will certainly create new images of Jesus which we cannot yet visualize. "

293. "A reflective reader will soon be struck by the realization that none of the alleged Gospels gives us a deeper knowledge of Jesus. They do not attribute to him any qualities--divine or human--that might enrich our image of him. On the contrary, we get throughout a superficialized, sentimentalized, and seemingly modern image of Jesus".


294.'If scholars today are fragmenting the Gospel and are making the faith in Christ an interesting literary or historical problem, is it then blameworthy if somebody wants to give faith a new life by religious creativity? To create a Gospel for our time, in which Christ speaks to us directly in our present situation, is that not perhaps even laudable? The objection that this would be an inauthentic Gospel is somewhat difficult to uphold, if we consider how the exegetes used to dismiss parts of our canonical Gospels as "congregation theology," "creations by the primitive Church," "secondary insertions," and "redactional framework. " If the primitive Church was allowed to make inventions about Jesus within good conscience, why are we forbidden to do it?

Perhaps some unknown authors will create something new about Jesus in the future, and in a form unknown to us. The time of myths is not ended'.

• • •

295. "But how shall we excuse the supine inattention of the Pagan and philosophic world to those evidences which were presented by the hand of Omnipotence, not to their reason, but to their senses? During the age of Christ, of his apostles, and of their first disciples, the doctrine which they preached was confirmed by innumerable prodigies. The lame walked, the blind saw, the sick were healed, the dead were raised, daemons were expelled, and the laws of Nature were frequently suspended for the benefit of the church. But the sages of Greece and Rome turned aside from the awful spectacle, and, pursuing the ordinary occupations of life and study, appeared unconscious of any alterations in the moral or physical government of the world. "

[Edward Gibbon 1737 - 1794, sneering!].

296. "Jesus of Judea, crucified for the sins of the world, completes the score of crucified saviors. It is not to be supposed that these twenty characters [crucified saviors] all had a real existence, or even that there is more proof of one than of another, but this part is perfectly clear: the legend and tradition of a crucified god or demigod, put to death in that ignominious manner as an atonement or propitiation for the sins of mankind, was held and promulgated by nearly all the ancient religions more than one thousand years before Christianity was known in the world; and the only rational conclusion to come to is that the founders of the newer system of Christianity [see 43., 287.] had these facts before them and utilized them in perfecting the new religion. "

[D.M. Bennett 1818 - 1882].

297. "As the first few characters [Jesus. Paul. Et al.] are regarded, more or less, as myths, therefore there is not any very marked conduct to be mentioned in connection with them. " [D.M. Bennett 1818 - 1882].

298. "If all the O.T. influences were to be removed from the N.T., the latter would in many areas consist of little but meaningless shreds. Where the O.T. is not actually quoted, its content and ideas provide subject matter and structure for the Christian author. " [repeat of 88.].


299. "Just as there is a Christ myth, there is a Jesuit legend. Just as the Christ did not exist, the biblical Jesus did not exist. There is absolutely nothing contemporary with the Jesus of the Gospel that confirms the validity of his being. No sculptures, no drawings, no markings in stone, nothing written in his own hand; and no letters, no commentaries, indeed no authentic documents written by his Jewish and Gentile contemporaries, Justice of Tiberius, Philo, Josephus, Seneca, Petronius Arbiter, Pliny the Elder, et al., to lend credence to his historicity. "

[see 102., 110.-112., 126., 211., 223., 224., 226., 244., etc.].

300. "The Christian theory is little else than the idolatry of the ancient Mythologists, accommodated to the purposes of power and revenue".

• • •

301. "the earlier conflict between Jews and Christians over messianic and other interpretations of scripture reflects their competing claims for living space in the Roman empire. " [see 302.].

302. "As the divinization [due to religious (etc.) propaganda] of Jesus developed, the demonization of the Jews [due to religious (etc.) propaganda] grew apace. "

[see Reference 389., 53, 54, etc.] [see 301.].

303.'"It was not sheer hypocrisy when the rank-and-file Nazis declared themselves not guilty of all the enormities they had committed. They considered themselves cheated and maligned when made to shoulder responsibility for obeying orders. Had they not joined the Nazi [compare: religious movements] movement to be free from responsibility?" Eric Hoffer'.

304. "In brief, the standards of judgment and morality shown by a crowd or large gathering are lower than those of its individual components....A crowd falls into simple uncritical attitudes. It shows all the signs of irresponsibility; and everybody feels absolved and safe because of the presence of the rest. "

[Crowds are regressive!].

305. "Reading the Gospels, and contemplating the quiet dignity and unwearing kindliness of its central figure [Jesus], one would say that it would be impossible that any religion founded on such an influence could develop mob hysteria, ferocious persecution, torturing of suspected dissidents, or public burnings of "heretics".

[Northrop Frye 1912 - 1991] [see 169., 198., 407., etc.].


306.'"He [man] has the capacity to veer with every wind, or, stubbornly, to insert himself into some fantastically elaborated and irrational social institution only to perish with it. [For man is a] fickle, erratic, dangerous creature [whose] restless mind would try all paths, all horrors, all betrayals...believe all things and believe nothing...kill for shadowy ideas more ferociously than other creatures kill for food, then, in a generation or less, forget what bloody dream had so oppressed him. " --Loren Eiseley'

[see 458, Robert Lifton: "a universal proclivity toward constructing good motives while participating in evil behavior. "].

307. "To understand the horrors that were inflicted by Europeans and white Americans on the Indians of the Americas it is necessary to begin with a look at the core of European thought and culture--Christianity--and in particular its ideas on sex and race and violence. "

308. "All the killers were Christian....The Nazi system was the consequence of a movement of ideas and followed a strict logic; it did not arise in a void but had its roots deep in a tradition that prophesied it, prepared for it, and brought it to maturity. That tradition was inseparable from the past of Christian, civilized Europe.14" [Elie Wiesel].

309. "The Christian claim of resurrection is not harmless. It is intimately connected with the assertion of absolute authority by one group of human beings over another. " [Extremely noteworthy (Heinous!)] [see 406., etc.].

• • •

310. "We are able to obtain a full and minute conception of the belief regarding angels and demons and their influence over cosmical phenomena, as well as of other superstitions current amongst the Jews at the time of Jesus,5 from the Talmud, Targums, and other Rabbinical sources. "

311. "The belief in demons at the time of Jesus was equally emphatic and comprehensive, and we need scarcely mention that the New Testament is full of references to them.3 They are in the air, on earth, in the bodies of men and animals, and even at the bottom of the sea.4...The earth is so full of them that if man had power to see he could not exist, on account of them; there are more demons than men". [see 6., etc.].

[See subjects: "Miracles"; "Angelology of the Jews"; "Demonology of the Jews"; "Superstitions of the Jews"; "Sorcery and Magic"; "Exorcism of Demons"; "Preternatural Portents"; "Cosmical Theories of the Fathers"; "Character of the Witnesses of Miracles"].

312. "Most men are limited in outlook and intelligence".


313. "superstition....b: an irrational abject attitude of mind toward the supernatural, nature, or God resulting from such beliefs, conceptions, or fears".

314. "The importance of religion to many men seems to lie in its nonrational character, in the emotional satisfaction it provides. "

[315.-328. Witnesses]

315. "the majority of men report far less what they have seen than what they believed they saw. They repeat much less what they heard than what they believed they heard [compare: oral tradition (see 18.)]. A dozen persons having witnessed an accident will present a dozen different accounts, or, at least, accounts that do not harmonize exactly. Still better, among the dozen there will be one, perhaps, who will have seen nothing, and another who will have seen the contrary to what his companions saw. "

316.'Jules Simon was astounded "that so many honest persons contradict each other when giving accounts of events that they have witnessed. At every step I encounter this frightful spectacle. Man is least sure of his own spirit. He is not sure of his eyes: the fact is that his eyes and his memory are in strife with his imagination. He believes that he is seeing; he believes that he is remembering, and he is really inventing. "

This is what explains those ancient and modern, and even contemporary tales of miracles, apparitions and wonderful happenings that are often attested by a large number of witnesses. The number of witnesses signifies nothing, nor does their honesty or their good faith. On the contrary, good faith, in the matter of testimony, is an element to be on guard against.'

317. "Saint Paul attests that Christ resurrected was beheld by more than five hundred persons; well, it is a matter of doubt now [Remy de Gourmont 1858 -1915] as to whether there ever existed a person named Jesus and surnamed the Christ. Thousands upon thousands of persons in the Middle Ages, and even later, saw the Devil, and, adds M. Le Bon, if unanimous testimony may be considered as proving anything, one might say that the Devil is the personage whose existence has been best demonstrated. "

["the Devil": see Martin Luther (1483 - 1546) Reference 317.].

318. "Although apparitions of the Virgin began to outnumber those of Jesus, saints, and angels in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, when devotion to Mary increased in western Christianity, the early sixteenth century brought a diminution in Marian sightings. " [see 359., 374., 402., 403.].


319.'men are amazing; they imagine that it is enough to have witnessed an event to be sure of that event! The matter is far more complicated. Certainty is difficult to acquire.

Nothing is more difficult than that which is too easy. Nobody would imagine that he could play the violin without having learned how; and if he did, the least attempt would at once extinguish his pretense. But to see? What more simple than that? All one has to do is open one's eyes. "I saw it," is the reply of a witness whose story is contested'.

320. "they see what they wish to see, what is useful to them, what is agreeable. The second is the tendency toward inhibition; they do not see what they do not wish to see, what is useless to them, or disagreeable.

The great rule by which almost everything may be explained, is the rule of utility. "

321. "We do not see that to which we are indifferent. " [see 334.].

322. "Really good observers are very rare. "

323. "Occupied only with his advancement and with his family affairs, he really saw nothing. "

324. "To ask anybody what he has seen is to subject him to torture. "

325. "In general, when we are questioned we have a tendency to affirm that which we believe probable and to deny the case that seems to us improbable. "

326. "we hold in our minds a series of types of fact [See: "demand characteristics", 289.] to which invariably we relate the new events that we happen to witness. "

327. "M. Claparède even goes so far as to admit that the evidence of various individuals may be erroneous, even if they all agree. I am of his opinion, because it is quite normal that the same interest or the same absence of interest unconsciously guides witnesses of diverse origin and condition. "

[see 62.].

328. "in our daily life, we have less need of certainty than of a certain approximation to certainty. Let us learn how to see, but without looking too closely at things and men: they look better from a distance. "

[End of essay ("The Art of Seeing")].

• • •


329. "The proliferation of 20,800 denominations is sure to cause unfavorable comment....but....Christianity is being spread among some 8,900 peoples speaking 7,010 languages in the modern world....this diversity has made it far more difficult for hostile regimes to comprehend the phenomenon of Christianity in order to control it, suppress it, or eradicate it. " [see Reference 393.].

330.["Holy Clerks"] "All that is needed to expose the hollowness of this ancient delusion ["the assumption that clergymen are necessarily religious. "] is to consider the chain of causes which brings a young man to taking holy orders....The sacred sciences may be nonsensical, but they at least have the vast virtue of short-circuiting, so to speak, the climb up the ladder of security....the young divine is a safe and distinguished man the moment he is ordained; indeed, his popularity, especially among the often greater at that moment than it ever is afterward. His livelihood is assured instantly. At one stroke, he becomes a person of dignity and importance, eminent in his community, deferred to even by those who question his magic, and vaguely and pleasantly feared by those who credit it. "

331. "ordinary folk have a deep respect for professional men of every kind. They are unaware that a man who makes a profession of a thing loves it not for the thing itself, but for the money he makes by it; or that it is rare for a man who teaches to know his subject thoroughly; for if he studies it as he ought, he has in most cases no time left in which to teach it. "

332. "A universal prejudice may also be used as an authority; for most people think with Aristotle that that may be said to exist which many believe. "

333. "For what they hate in people who think differently is not so much the different opinions which they profess, as the presumption of wanting to form their own judgement; a presumption of which they themselves are never guilty, as they are very well aware. In short, there are very few who can think, but every man wants to have an opinion; and what remains but to take it ready-made from others, instead of forming opinions for himself?"

334. "For what is not to our interest mostly seems absurd to us". [see 321.].

335. "For reasons that are certainly understandable, if not excusable, historians of the early Christian church have tended to avoid the clear evidence for pagan trinities". [see 237., 336., 357., 358., etc.].

336. "Like sainthood and trinities, angels, too, had a long and distinguished pedigree in paganism. " [see 237., 335., 357., 358., etc.].


337. "a deep and traditional respect in the Graeco-Roman [see 250., etc.] world for the primacy of Egyptian culture and its pantheon. There was a widespread belief that many of the great gods of Greece had once come from Egypt, and the priests of the Egyptian cults were universally regarded as sages and wise men who had access to the secrets of the universe.6 Such a regard for the venerable antiquity of the country may explain why it was the only province of the entire Roman Empire in which the standardized iconography of the individual Roman emperors was never imposed. From the Atlantic to the Euphrates, in portraits and statues, Augustus or Trajan or Septimius Severus could be readily identified. But not in Egypt. " [see 20., 21., 378., 421.].

338. "Christianity triumphed over the pagan religions, but it had to yield to the pagan school-system, the last stronghold of classical culture. In the first four centuries the Christians did not dream of creating Christian schools; the pagan educational system, to which they were once, at best, indifferent, became in course of time indispensable to them. The pagan schools of grammar and rhetoric exercised upon them an influence that can hardly be overrated. " ["Hagendahl, Latin Fathers, p. 311"].

[339.-343. Vergil (70 - 19 B.C.E.]

339. "Vergil [Eclogue IV] prophesies that the Child will rule a world at peace and surrounds his prophecy with a rich complex of highly emotive apocalyptic imagery....The most famous identification of the Child is with Jesus Christ, son of the Virgin Mary. "

340. "Vergil's famous Messianic Eclogue [IV].2 Here, whether the child who is to be born be the son of Octavian and Scribonia or not, we have a remarkable and almost unique agreement with OT conceptions....the parallel may point to an independent spread of something like a Messianic hope in pagan circles. "

[see 177., 178.].

341. "It is curious and perhaps significant that the two pagans whom the Church took most warmly to its bosom were Vergil and Seneca. Seneca is commended highly by the Latin Fathers and came to be regarded as virtually one of them. This distinction is in part due to the apocryphal [Forged] correspondence with St. Paul".

342. "The poem [Virgil: ECLOGUE IV] was for a thousand years accepted as a prophecy of the birth of Christ, for obvious reasons". [see 123.].

343. "The Fourth is the famous Messianic Eclogue, which the Christian fathers Lactantius and Augustine and the medieval Church took as prefiguring the birth of Christ, and which the Emperor Constantine himself translated into Greek hexameters. Reference to the Virgin (6), the Serpent (24), the primal deceit (31), and similarities to Isaiah ix, 6 and xi, 6 and to ideas about the Millennium made a Christian interpretation inevitable. "

[344.-348. "The Jesus Seminar"]


344. "Eighty-two percent of the words ascribed to Jesus in the gospels were not actually spoken by him, according to the Jesus Seminar. "

345. "Paul, who did not know the historical Jesus. " [see 239., 241., 375., 391.].

346. "The search for the real Jesus begins with a modern critical edition of the Greek New Testament.

A critical edition of the Greek New Testament incorporates hundreds of thousands of individual judgments....The Fellows of the Jesus Seminar have developed their own critical edition, which has been employed as the basis of the Scholars Version. Like all other critical editions, it is a composite text created out of thousands of Greek manuscripts and earlier critical editions....Out of the mass of data gathered from over 5,000 Greek manuscripts, some mere fragments, scholars have had to select the readings they took to be closest to the original version ["original version"! obviously, Meaningless!]. "

[More laughs! #1 Create your own version. #2 Do research in your version. #3 Publish the results with much hoopla.].

[see 16., 26., 64., 68., 89., 172., 173., 236., 245., 246., 271., 282.-284., 315.-328., 368., 376., 385., 395., etc.].

347. "The words attributed to Jesus in the Fourth Gospel are the creation of the evangelist....The primary information regarding Jesus of Nazareth [see 228.] is derived from the synoptic gospels, along with the Gospel of Thomas [This is a favorite! "Panic", going extra canonical (see 367., etc.), attempting to substantiate an "historical" Jesus. Oh, this makes me laugh! The camel nose in the tent (all the Jesus Fictions can enter)!]. " [see 290.-294., etc.].

348. "Mark is now understood to be the fundamental source for narrative information about Jesus. The priority of Mark has become a cornerstone of the modern scholarship of the gospels. " [see 178., 349., 350., etc.].

349. "This Gospel [Mark] is largely a collection of narratives that depict Jesus as being almost constantly active (a favorite word in Mark is "immediately," which occurs about forty times in sixteen chapters). " [repeat of 55.].

[See: "Transitional Tags" in Gospel Fictions, Randel Helms, 26-27].


350.'Mark is in other words, not a biography; its outline of Jesus' career is fictional and the sequence has thematic and theological significance only. As Norman Perrin bluntly puts it, "The outline of the Gospel of Mark has no historical value. "6 Anyone can demonstrate this with a careful reading of Mark, watching the transitional tags between episodes. The following selection of them are translations from the New English Bible: ·"When after some days" (2:1); ·"Once more" (2:13); ·"When" (2:15); ·"Once, when" (2:18); ·"One Sabbath" (2:23); ·"One [On] another occasion" (3:1); ·"On another occasion" (4:1); ·"When he was alone" (4:10); ·"That [unspecified] day" (4:35); & #183;"He left that place" (6:1); ·"On one of his teaching journeys" (6:6); ·"On another occasion" (7:14); ·"There was another occasion about this time" (8:1); ·"Jesus and his disciples set out" (8:27); ·"On leaving those parts" (10:1); ·"As he was starting out on a journey" (10:17).' [repeat of 56.].

351. "The gospels are stories; they're Passion Plays. The writer J. M. Robertson [1856 - 1933] said that long ago. And actually it [wasn't only] the gospels that were Passion Plays. There were Passion Plays enacted in relation to the god Adonis; there were Passion Plays enacted in relation to the god Attis. This idea of the death and resurrection of a sacrificed god giving rise to Passion Plays is quite common in the ancient world So the genre of the gospels is that of a story. So that's all I'm saying: look at the thing as a story rather than as a theology and then you'll get further in understanding it and countering the evil [see Reference 389., 53, 54, etc.] aspects of it. " [Hyam Maccoby].

352.'Some confusions can and do arise from failure to discern anthropomorphization and the "painting" of portraits of purity and salvation or their hypostatization; that is, there is a mistaking of art for empirical substance. How does one know that it is only art? When absolute purity is personified within a human form, without argument or explanation, there is no appreciable difference between this and iconic representation.'

[The Jesus Idea (title of this book)] [see 121.-123., 215., 216., 412., etc.].

353. "the distinction which has been made between religion and folklore since Christianity vanquished the pagan religions did not exist in antiquity. "

[see 179.].

354.'He [Augustine 354 - 430 C.E.] recounts that he had to completely alter his own linguistic assumptions and his taste for the "stately prose of Cicero," in order to accommodate the seemingly vulgar, childlike language of Scripture.9 Are these not, he asks himself, simply "literary" fables like the "immoral stories" he and his fellow churchmen object to in pagan literature?'

[repeat of (see) 104.].

355. "While our Christian clergy of the present day, either the most ignorant or the most deceitful of the whole human race, have played into this fool's game, have pandered to the passions of barbarous ignorance, and found that the swinish multitude...would never endanger the power of the clergy by seeking to be wise above what is written. "


356.'"Therefore speak I to them in parables; that seeing they may see, and not perceive: and hearing they may hear, but not understand."

O, what a clear way [parables] of conveying divine instruction to the mind! This accounts for Christians being such wonderfully clever boys as they all are. The greater proficiency they make in the study of divine things, the less they know of 'em: the more they get on, the more they get off: they go to school to learn ignorance: they'd have known more if they had been taught less....

This parabolical, hyperbolical, or rather diabolical, mode of conveying instruction, once adopted, all notion of history, or of historical fidelity, is at a sheer end for ever.'

357.'Taylor's [Robert Taylor 1784 - 1844], conclusion is: "As we see Protestantism to be a mere modification or reform of Popery, so Popery was nothing more than a similar modification or reform of Paganism. It is absolutely certain that the Pagans were in possession of the whole Gospel story many ages before its Jewish origin was pretended; and it was not until the first error had been committed of suffering the people to become acquainted too intimately with the contents of the sacred books that it became necessary to invent a chronology, and to 'give to airy nothing a local habitation and a name.'"'

[see 43., 83., 84., 102., 216., 354., etc.].

358.'St. Augustine [354 - 430 C.E.] himself wrote (Retractationes 1.12.3): "The very thing which is now called the Christian religion existed among the ancients also, nor was it wanting from the inception of the human race until the coming of Christ in the flesh, at which point the true religion which was already in existence began to be called Christian. "' [repeat of 43.] [see 264., 421.].

359. "At last, when the closing of all pagan temples was ordained, the Parthenon became a Christian church, and the cultus of the virgin goddess [Athene, etc.] of Athens was replaced by that of the Virgin Mary....When the Virgin Mary replaced Athene ["sixth century"? (see Reference 402., 314)] she, in her turn, became...'Mother of God, Virgin Athenian One, Terrible, Hearkening-to-prayer'. It is those last two epithets which especially emphasise the smooth transmutation.1" ["1Cook, Zeus, iii, p. 588"] [see 318.].

360. "Paine's insistence on the way religion is used as a prop for those in political power corresponds to a feature of Geddes's [Alexander Geddes 1737 - 1802] work. "

361. "So they invented Jesus, the Son of God--an easy literalization of the then common metaphoric phrase, 'son of God'. " [see 216.].

362. "In religion, politics, and psychiatry, it's dangerous to tell the truth: if discovered, the truth-teller is cast out of the group as a heretic and a traitor. "


363.[The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Religion] "The only source for our knowledge of the life and teaching of J. [Jesus] is the New Testament which, however, reflects the beliefs and struggles of the Nascent Church rather than those of J.'s own day. The New Testament account being often tendentious and unreliable has to be used with great caution. Jewish references to J. (e.g., the Talmud and Toledot Yeshu) are late and merely polemical; the reference of Josephus is probably a Christian interpolation. "

[see 223., 277.-281., 387., 390.].

364. "Although the life and teachings of J. [Jesus] have exercised a great influence on the course and development of Western civilization, they had no direct effect on Jewish thought".

365. "the greatest contradiction concerning Jesus's sojourn on earth, if such be granted, lies in the various aliases he adopts or which are bestowed upon him. There is no consistency in his role or identity that emerges from the New Testament, and perhaps he was, like Paul, all things to all people".

366. "Developing theology creates fictions; moreover, each gospel implicitly argues the fictitiousness of the others. "

367.'The difference, however, between "apocryphal" and "canonical" is to the critical student merely ecclesiastical, as the ecclesiastical distinction itself is founded on interested considerations.' [see 78.].

368. "first-century Christians believed that the career of Jesus, even down to minor details, was predicted in their sacred writings....So the story of Jesus came into being as a mirror of the Old Testament; the Gospels closed the self-reflexive circle: Old Testament-New Testament [Northrop Frye is quoted, 19 (see 89.)]. Outside the Gospels, the best New Testament examples of this kind of thinking appear in the letters of Paul".

369. "Christians had scoured the Old Testament for passages that could, out of context, be interpreted as ancient oracles about the career of Jesus. This involved interpretive methods that to modern eyes seem bizarre. "

[see 390.-391.].

370.'since Jesus' life happened "according to the Scriptures," early Christians were confident that in order to find out about him, they did not need to engage in historical research or consult witnesses (in our understanding of these two approaches); they found detailed history in the ancient oracles of the Hebrew Bible, read as a book about Jesus.' [see 298.].

371. "Mark had composed his Gospel on the basis of earlier oral and written sources, which in turn had found much of their information about Jesus in the Old Testament. " [see 298., 369.].


372.'The standard phrase "the beginning of the gospel" (arche tou euangeliou) of Caesar (or whomever) seems to have been widespread in the Graeco-Roman world. A stone from the marketplace of Priene in Asia Minor reads: "The birthday of the god (Augustus) was for the world the beginning of euangelion because of him. "4 Mark uses the same formula to open his book: "The beginning of the gospel [Arche tou euangeliou] of Jesus Christ the Son of god [theou hyios]. " Even the Greek phrase "son of god" was commonly used for Augustus....Mark begins his mythical biography of Jesus with ready-made language and concepts, intending perhaps a challenge: euangelion ["good news, gospel"] is not of Caesar but of Christ!'

373. "You will think, perhaps, my dear friends, that among the great number of false religions there are in the world, my intention will be to except from their number at least Christianity, apostolic and Roman, which we profess and which we say is the only one to teach genuine truth, the only one which recognises and adores, as is required, the true God, and the only one which leads men on the path to salvation and eternal happiness. But disabuse yourself, my dear friends, disabuse yourself of that, and generally of all that your pious ignoramuses, or your mocking and self-interested priests and doctors, press you to say and to believe, under the false pretext of the infallible certitude of their supposedly sacred and divine religion....Your religion is no less vain, no less superstitious than any more at bottom than illusions, errors, dreams, fictions and impostures, invented firstly for political ends and ruses, continued by deceivers and impostors; finally received and believed blindly by the ignorant and rude common people, and then eventually maintained by the authority of the great, and the sovereigns of the earth, who have favoured the abuses, the errors, the superstition and the imposture which are upheld by their laws in order to hold the mass of men in yoke and make them do all that their rulers want. "

[Jean Meslier 1664 - 1729 (priest) (Mémoire [Testament]) (See: The Encyclopedia of Unbelief, 1985, Vol. 2, 448-450)] [MÉMOIRE: NEVER TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH! (Jean Meslier, Ouvres Complètes, Jean Deprun, Roland Desne, Albert Sobul, 3 Vols., Editions Anthropos, Paris, 1970-1972)]

[Mémoire: by design, made public posthumously]

[see 82., 83., 91., 93., 169., 300., 360., 423., etc.].

374. "In the New Testament, apparitions are central to the story of Jesus. "

[see 216.].

375. "the character and sufferings of the early Christians are mendaciously represented, the fine qualities of the Romans are miserably slandered, the utter viciousness of the mass of the Christians after Constantine is concealed, the triumph of Christianity is described as spiritual and not a word said about the score of imperial decrees which forced it upon the Romans, and the subsequent lapse into barbarism is concealed under vague and untruthful generalities....This tradition of lying is carried over the whole Christian Era....There is hardly a single aspect of the history of the last nineteen centuries as to which Christian literature is not radically untruthful....It is a veritable orgy of historical lies. "


376. "Every single historical point I have treated in this series--the character of the ancient civilizations, the story of the Hebrews, the person and teaching of Christ, the establishment of Christianity, every phase of its history, and its relation to art, science, tolerance, philanthropy, morals, civilizations, etc.--is obscured by a mass of untruths in all Christian literature. Christianity, as such, is based essentially on historical untruths. "

377.'Roman Catholics whose belief in infallible authority compels them to accept that wine becomes physically transformed into blood....the very mysteriousness of the belief moves the believer to perpetuate the mystery.

An extreme symptom of "mystery is a virtue" infection is Tertullian's "Certum est quia impossible est" (It is certain because it is impossible) [see 51]. That way madness lies. One is tempted to quote Lewis Carroll's White Queen, who, in response to Alice's "One can't believe impossible things" retorted, "I daresay you haven't had much practice....When I was your age, I always did it for half-an-hour a day. Why, sometimes I believed as many as six impossible things before breakfast. "'

378. "The Egyptians were the first who asserted the doctrine that the soul of man is immortal". [Herodotus c. 485 - c. 425 B.C.E.] [see 20., 21., 337., 421.].

379.'"Q: What is the soul?

A: The soul is a living being* without a body, having reason and free will.

--Roman Catholic catechism"

The Astonishing Hypothesis is that "You," your joys and your sorrows, your memories and your ambitions, your sense of personal identity and free will, are in fact no more than the behavior of a vast assembly of nerve cells and their associated molecules. As Lewis Carroll's Alice might have phrased it: "You're nothing but a pack of neurons. " This hypothesis is so alien to the ideas of most people alive today that it can truly be called astonishing.'

380. "No religious group wields more power on behalf of high immigration to the U.S. than the Catholic Church. Thanks to the 1880-1914 and 1970-present Great Waves of immigration consisting primarily of Catholics, the church towers over all other American religious groups. Its fifty-nine million members give it immense financial, institutional, and political clout". [Stephen D. Mumford].

381. "The reason why person A believes one thing and B believes another is simply and solely that A was born on one continent and B on another....For religious belief, epidemiology [see Reference 381.] is the root cause. "


• • •

382.'The light shining alone on Jesus, the interpreting of Shiloh to mean the Christian Lord, the scepter rising out of Israel, the betrayal of a familiar friend, the offering of a pain-killing drink ("they made me eat gall... "), the curing of the sick, the cries in the wilderness, the parting of garments among them, the piercing of the hands and feet, the desolation of the high places--all these ideas and many more were taken from writings the Jews never intended as support for anything outside of their own totally obsessive religion, and twisted and corrupted by Christians in a fanciful effort to fulfill everything they could conceive of as being a "prophecy. " And then they had the mind-boggling gall to not only call their savior-god the son of the Jewish Yahweh, they salted the wound with the declaration that Israel had been abandoned by the Jewish God. As Paul explained it, th e destiny and mission of Israel was interrupted. Because of the sinfulness and the unbelief [common charges against "Heretics"] of the Jews, he charged, God had turned His face from them.'

[see 81., 208., 218., 286., 298., 369., 370., 371., etc.].

383.'How is it possible--even in the wildest stretches of fantasy--for anyone to believe that so God-centered ("The Lord our God, the Lord is One, transcendent, immutable, eternal... ") a people as the Jews would ever have included in their holy writings conceptions and predictions relating to other gods and other religions? And yet, that is precisely what the Christians believed--or pretended to believe [see References 173., 175.]. There is no such thing as a suffering or dying Messiah in the Old Testament. Only the most extremist of Jews, or the most desperate, would ever have been attracted to so alien a concept--a contradiction in terms representing a failed Messiah who could never fulfill the wish-fantasies of Judaism.'

384. "the conception of a human society which is natural in the sense of being primarily related to physical nature is a constant theme in literature....It produced the pastoral, a convention of Greek origin; it produced the bucolic poetry of Virgil; it produced even the shepherd symbolism of the Bible, though otherwise it is outside the mainstream of the Christian tradition, Christianity being a big-city religion with a strongly urban basis in its organization and symbolism. "

385. "Asked to think of Jews and Christians in the first four centuries of our era, the mind obliges with pictures of peasants and shepherds in Galilean hills, fishermen at the lakeshore, women around a village well. Such is the power of the gospel stories of Jesus [Pastoral (Greek origin) Literature]....In reality, however, both early Judaism and early Christianity were mostly urban movements, streetwise and cosmopolitan.1"


386.'But the Jesus who emulated Buddha in advocating poverty and humility eventually became the mythic figurehead for one of the world's pre-eminent money-making organizations. The cynical Pope Leo X [1475 - 1521] exclaimed, "What profit has not that fable of Christ brought us!"59'

[(59) L. Sprague de Camp, The Ancient Engineers, (my source) Doubleday, 1963, 365 (also, from the same reference: [Leo X] "Since God has given us the Papacy, let us enjoy it".)].

[387.-394. Josephus (c.37 - c.100 C.E.]

387. "The most obvious reason for Christian interest in Josephus is that he mentions three prominent NT personalities: John the Baptist, Jesus, and Jesus' brother James....All three occur only in the potpourri of material that he includes in Antiquities 18-20 to fill out that rambling narrative".

[This "potpourri", "rambling", is suspect] [Josephus, in his extensive extant works, does not mention the "famous" "apostle" "Paul"] [see 390., 391., etc.].

388.Jesus characters, in the index: Josephus, in Ten Volumes, Vol. X, 279-280.

Note: "Jesus (9)" contains the Testimonium Flavianum ("A. [Antiquities] xviii. 63-64") and "the brother of Jesus who was called the Christ" ("xx. 200"). [see Reference 388.].

"Jesus (1). See Joshua

Jesus (2) (Bibl. Ishvi), son of Saul, A. vi. 129

Jesus (3). See Abiezer

Jesus (4) (Bibl. Jesuha), son of the high priest Jozadak, A. xi. 73, 75, 79; rejects offer of Samaritans to help build the temple, xi. 84, 86; xi. 90, 121; his descendants send away foreign wives, xi. 151; his return from Babylon, xx. 234

Jesus (5) (Bibl. Jeshua), son of Joiada, brother of Johanan, A. xi. 298; quarrels with Johanan, xi. 299; killed by Johanan, xi. 299; xi. 300; Bagoses makes the Jews suffer seven years for his death, xi. 301

Jesus (6), high priest, son of Simon, A. xii. 238; changes name to Jason, xii. 239; contends with Menelaus for high priesthood, xii. 239-240; removed from high priesthood by Antiochus Epiphanes, xv. 41

Jesus (7), high priest, son of Phabes, removed from high priesthood by Herod, A. xv. 322

Jesus (8), high priest, son of Se_, replaces Eleazar as high priest, A. xvii. 341


Jesus (9), called the Christ [(7/30/97) error: "He was the Christ"], A. xviii. 63-64; his brother James stoned ["Jesus who was called the Christ"], xx. 200

Jesus (10), son of Damnaeus, becomes high priest replacing Ananus. A. xx. 203; deposed as high priest, xx. 213

Jesus (11), son of Gamallel, succeeds Jesus the son of Damnaeus as high priest, A. xx. 213; deprived of high priesthood, xx. 233

Jesus (12), son of Sapphas, selected as general for Idumaca, B. ii. 566

Jesus (13), chief priest, B. vi. 114 (probably to be identified with [10] or [11], according to Niese's index

Jesus (14), son of Gamalas, high priest, friend of Josephus, incites people against Zealots, B. iv. 160; addresses the Idumaeans, B. iv. 238-270, 283; murdered by the Idumaeans, iv. 316, 322, 325; urged by Simon son of Gamaliel to remove Josephus from command in Galilee, V. 193; tells Josephus' father of plot against Josephus, 204

Jesus (15), brigand chief on borderland of Ptolemais, promised large sum of money to bring Josephus under fire of war, V. 105-106; his plot intercepted, 107-110; promises loyalty to Josephus, 111

Jesus (16), son of Sapphias, chief magistrate of Tiberias, instigates mob against Josephus, B. ii. 599; heads revolt in Tiberias, iii. 450-452; flees to Tarichaeae, iii. 457; iii. 467, 498; ringleader of party of sailors and destitute class in Tiberias, V. 66; sets on fire palace built by Herod the tetrarch at Tiberias, 66; massacres Greek residents in Tiberias, 67; instigates mob at Tarichaeae to punish Josephus, seeks to kill Josephus, 134-136; promises welcome for Jonathan's embassy, 271; urges citizens of Tiberias to desert Josephus, 278-279; cross-examines Josephus about dispostion of furniture confiscated from royal palace at Tiberias, 294 ff., 300-301

Jesus (17), brother of Chares, brother-in-law of Justus of Tiberias, murdered by people of Gamala, V. 178; slain by followers of Josephus, the mid-wife's son, 186

Jesus (18), a Galilaean, hired with his army by leaders of Jerusalem to accompany deputation seeking Josephus' removal from command in Galilee, V. 200 (perhaps to be identified with Jesus [15])

Jesus (19), armed ambuscade concealed in his mansion, V. 246 (perhaps to be identified with Jesus [16])


Jesus (20), priest, son of Thebuthi, delivers up temple treasures to the Romans, B. vi. 387-389 Jesus

Jesus (21), son of Ananias, rude peasant, prophesies the fall of Jerusalem, B. vi. 300-309".

389.'The first figure to be discussed is Jesus. As has already been explained, his appearance in Josephus' texts was contrived by means of interpolation [Forgery]. However, illustrations show to what extent his presence was real in the perspective of Josephus' medieval readers. The short paragraph of the Testimonium Flavianum appeared only in Book XVIII of the Antiquities, but Christ was represented, sometimes unexpectedly, in many of the manuscripts of Josephus. As the basic element of the initial miniature to the text, Christ was usually linked with the words In principio. The initial "I" of a twelfth-century manuscript originally from Zwiefalten, Germany (Hist. fol. 418, Stuttgart regional library), ends at bottom with a crucifixion scene placed upon the heads of Adam and Eve. On either side of the initial are rows of small biblical figures supposed to foreshadow the crucifixion: Adam, Eve, and the serpent; Noah and the dove in the Ark; Abraham's sacrificial ram; the Brazen Serpent; and the widow of Sarepta.27 In the interpolated text relating to Jesus, in Book XVIII, several illustrators have printed either a cross, a crucifixion, or Christ enthroned (Lat. 5047, Lat. 5049, French 6446, Bibliothèque nationale, Paris)....Since Josephus was "mobilized" by the church for its own needs, it was natural that his works should be brought into direct relationship with Christological illustrations....several secondary figures bear the name of Jesus, and so they deserved a portrait'. [see 388., 393.].

390. "it is almost certain that Josephus' paragraph on Jesus has been edited [forged] by Christian copyists, but the editing was done early on, by about AD 300. Consequently, subsequent Christian readers thought that the glowing account of Jesus in our versions of Josephus had been written by the Jewish historian himself. " [see 363.].

391.'Dr. Case [Shirley Jackson Case, U. Chicago (see 6., 87.)] is asked, if Paul had any knowledge of an earthly Jesus, why did he not use it? And his answer is, "How do we know that he did not"? It is always the same answer. If we point out that Josephus, actually writing a detailed contemporary history of Pauline times, never mentions him [Paul] or Peter, or indeed any apostle or disciple or even Christianity, we are asked how do we know he didn't somewhere else? I admit that the argument from silence can sometimes be carried too far, but the truth is that wherever we look for some details about a real Jesus the answer seems to be silence or inventions.' [see 387., etc.].


392. "The tenacity of the claim that Jerusalem fell as punishment for "the Jews'" treatment of Jesus, the incredible energy devoted to this matter over the centuries, and the Christian lack of interest in the Roman involvement in Jesus' death call for an explanation....the customary use of Josephus by Christian authors has been doubly abusive: first, his material has been wrenched out of its narrative setting, so that his own story has been lost. Second, that material has been used to tell another story--one that he did not espouse. "

[see 302.] [compare 369.] [see Reference 389.].

393. "was this passage [Testimonium Flavianum (Antiquities XVIII, 63-64)] really written by Josephus' hand? The question did not even begin to be asked until late in the sixteenth century [see Reference 388.].12 The critical argument is based on simple common sense: if Josephus had indeed written the lines, he would have to have been a Christian, and that had clearly not been the case. " [see 389.].

[Voltaire 1694 - 1778] '"Let there be an end to attempts to justify the fraud committed by those who inserted in Flavius Josephus' history that famous passage [Antiquities XVIII, 63-64] touching upon Jesus Christ, a passage recognized as false by all true scholars. If that clumsy passage contained nothing but the words 'he was the Christ ["Messiah"],' would that in itself not suffice to brand it as fraudulent in the eyes of anyone with common sense? Is it not ridiculous to think that Josephus, devoted as he was to his nation and his faith, would have recognized Jesus as Christ? Ah, my friend, if you believe Christ, then become a Christian. If you believe Christ the son of God, God Himself, how can you only say a mere four words about him?"15' [see 388.].

[(8/2/97) footnote to above] '15. Voltaire, Conseils raisonnables à M. Bergier. Cf., Histoire de l'établissement du christianisme, VI, which states: "We are aware of the extent to which the Christians have indulged in forgery in a good cause. They have falsified, and very clumsily, the text of Flavius Josephus: they have made that convinced Pharisee write as though he had recognized Jesus as the Messiah. "' [259].

394. "Close inspection of the many affinities between Josephus and Luke-Acts indicates that Luke probably knew the writings of his famous Jewish contemporary. He appears to build his case for Christianity squarely on the foundation of Josephus' case for Judaism. If he is not doing so, the coincidences are remarkable....Josephus wrote to defend Judaism...Josephus is the most valuable non-biblical source for understanding the NT".

[compare 369., 392.].


• • •

395. "Historical investigations have revealed to us the origin and growth of the Bible; we know that by this name we designate a collection of writings, as radically unlike in origin, character and contents, as if the Nibelungen Lied, Mirabeau's speeches, Heine's love poems and a manual of zoology, had been printed and mixed up promiscuously, and then bound into one volume. We find collected in this book the superstitious beliefs of the ancient inhabitants of Palestine, with indistinct echoes of Indian and Persian fables, mistaken imitations of Egyptian theories and customs, historical chronicles as dry as they are unreliable, and miscellaneous poems, amatory, human and Jewish--national, which are rarely distinguished by beauties of the highest order, but frequently by superfluity of expression, coarseness, bad taste and genuine Oriental sensuality. As a literary monument the Bible is of much later origin than the Vedas; as a work of literary va lue it is surpassed by everything written in the last two thousand years by authors even of the second rank, and to compare it seriously with the productions of Homer, Sophocles, Dante, Shakespeare or Goethe, would require a fanaticized mind that had entirely lost its power of judgment; its conception of the universe is childish, and its morality revolting....And yet men, cultivated and capable of forming a just estimate, pretend to reverence this ancient work, they refuse to allow it to be discussed and criticized like any other production of the human intellect, they found societies and place enormous sums at their disposal to print millions of copies of it, which they distribute all over the world, and they pretend to be edified and inspired when they read in it. "

[see 16., 26., 28., 34.-39., 51., 57., 68., 71., 77., 78., 80.-85., 89.-91., 195., 208., 236., 246., 271., 283., 294., 298., 311., 368., 414., 417., 420., 421., etc.].

396. "It is contended that Christian faith is a gift from God by which the believer receives certain spiritual truths that the nonbeliever is incapable of believing. By using this apologetic device, the missionary movement hopes to stifle all criticism. It confounds [see Reference 396.] emotion and ignorance with faith. "

397.'There is a basic truth concerning the New Testament message that no claim to faith can ever eradicate: "What is good is not new, and what is new is not good. "' [End of text].

[398.-401. Aramaic]

398.'"The language of the sacred writings of the Jews, from the earliest documents of the Bible down to modern times, has been Hebrew. "'

["Ehud the preface of his dictionary of the Hebrew language".].


399.'These Qumran [Dead Sea Scrolls] documents contain not only the scrolls of scripture, such as the book of Isaiah, but also commentaries on passages and books such as the "Commentary on the Book of Habakkuk. " These commentaries were written in the common language of the late Second Temple period. Among the Dead Sea Scrolls were routine descriptions of the details of the Qumran community and their daily lives. Of these 1,300 parchments, not a single one was found written in Aramaic. They are all written in Hebrew!'

400. "There is no archaeological evidence that Jesus or his community spoke anything other than Hebrew! Archaeological evidence indicates that Aramaic was not the language of that period!"

401. "Why are the Dead Sea Scrolls of Jesus' generation written in Hebrew instead of in Aramaic? The problem is not with the Qumran documents; the problem is the crackpots who hallow the argument and seek to uncircumcise Jesus by cutting off his native Hebrew language and transplanting a Gentile tongue into him. " [see 224.].

[402.-404. Marina Warner]

402. "Christians, aware of the antique pantheon, are still worried by the parallel between Christ's story and the dozens of virgin births of classical mythology....The historical fact remains that the virgin birth of heroes and sages was a widespread formula in the hellenistic world". [see 296., etc.].

403. "the possibility [to this Catholic authoress] of a rational explanation [parthenogenesis ("virgin birth") (see Reference 403.)] dispels the disquiet that the Church may have lied about Mary and Jesus all these centuries. "

404. "Five thousand years ago, in the dust-blown plain of Sumer or southern Mesopotamia....Dumuzi had been sacrificed to the underworld, tortured and afflicted by demons, just as Christ suffered the tortures of his passion and then descended into hell. " [see 19., 42., 179.].

[405.-407. Presumption]

405. "presumption [:]....Seizure and occupation without right; usurpation; presumptuous assumption (of an office)....The taking upon oneself of more than is warranted". [see 81., etc.].

406. "presumptuously [:]....["1720"] Presumptuously to arrogate a Preheminence above all their Brethren. " [see 309.].


407. "Rebuttable presumption....Once evidence tending to rebut the presumption is introduced, the force of the presumption is entirely dissipated and the party with the burden of proof must come forward with evidence to avoid a directed verdict. "

["Rebuttable presumption": Those that introduced evidence to rebut the presumptions (of "orthodox" Christianism) were labeled heretics, anathema, despised of God, etc. Persecuted, tortured, killed, etc. The winner? Power!!! (Christianism!)].

[408.-410. Christian "Eugenics"]

408. "When the complete record of Christianity's misdeeds is finally and accurately written, this will stand out as its greatest crime against civilization. Its greatest crime has been, not the burning of men at the stake or the imprisonment of others in a Christian dungeon, but in the lower type of mind and character that it has encouraged, in the hypocrisy that it has made almost a second character. In Pagan Rome it was said that one priest could not meet another without a smile. If Christian can meet Christian today with a grave face, it is only because the selective influence of Christianity has developed a type that lacks the wit to perceive the absurdity of its own religious beliefs. " [End of essay].

409. "the Church brutalised the breed of our forefathers. She acted precisely as if she had aimed at selecting the rudest portion of the community to be, alone, the parents of future generations. She practised the arts which breeders would use, who aimed at creating ferocious, currish, and stupid natures. "

[Sir Francis Galton 1822 - 1911].


410.'The nature of this process ["an hypocrisy that is unconscious, ingrained, organic, secured by a process of elimination that has been at work for many generations. " (123)] has been well pointed out by Mr. [Sir] Francis Galton in the following passage:

The policy of the religious world in Europe...having first captured all the gentle natures and condemned them to celibacy, made another sweep of her [the Church's] huge catch those who were the most fearless, truth-seeking, and intelligent in their modes of thought, and therefore the most suitable parents of a high civilization, and put a strong check, if not a direct stop, to their progeny. Those she reserved on these occasions, to breed the generations of the future, were the servile, the indifferent, and again, the stupid. Thus as she...brutalized human nature by her system of celibacy applied to the gentle, she demoralized it by her system of persecution of the intelligent, the sincere, and the free. It is enough to make the blood boil to think of the blind folly that has caused the foremost nations of struggling humanity to be the heirs of such hateful ancestry, and that has so bred our instincts as to keep them in an unnecessarily long continued antagonism with the essential requirements of a steadily advancing civilization.2' ["2Hereditary Genius, p. 358. "].

[411.-419. Laughter]

411.'the wise Plato [c. 428 - c. 348 B.C.E. (influence on Christianism. reviled by Thomas Jefferson, et al.)] did well to order people to abstain from immoderate laughter, saying: "One must not be excessive in laughter, for such laughter is followed by a great change. It cannot be admitted, then, that someone representing people of great authority laugh dissolutely; still less the gods. This is why we must not listen to Homer [8th century B.C.E.] when he says:

Unextinguishable laughter burst out among the gods

When they saw Vulcan running across the heavens.

For he had become lame. "1e'

412. "It has sometimes been remarked that Jesus never laughs [see 352.] in the NT. Neither does anyone else; the only people in the entire NT who laugh are the mourners in the house of Jairus* who laugh in disbelief at Jesus' promise to revive the girl (Mt. 9:24; Mk 5:40; Lk 8:53). " [see 180., 352.].


413.'When he ["Alexander the False Prophet"] discovered that I [Lucian c. 117 - c. 180 C.E.] had entered the city and ascertained that I was the Lucian of whom he had heard (I had brought, I may add, two soldiers with me, a pikeman and a spearman borrowed from the Governor of Cappadocia, then a friend of mine, to escort me to the sea), he at once sent for me very politely and with great show of friendliness. When I went, I found many about him; but I had brought along my two soldiers, as luck would have it. He extended me his right hand to kiss, as his custom was with the public; I clapsed it as if to kiss it, and almost crippled it with a right good bite!

The bystanders tried to choke and beat me for sacrilege; even before that, they had been indignant because I had addressed him as Alexander and not as "Prophet. "'

[(Lucian) "produced a new form of literature--humorous dialogue. " (Cambridge Bio. Dict., 1990, 923)].

414.'Lucian [c.117 - c.180 C.E.], on the other hand, offers in "Alexander the False Prophet" a delightful, cynically told story of an opportunist and trickster who makes his fortune by capitalizing on foolish, gullible people who are ready to believe anything. Reading these ancient "lives" should shed light on the distinctive features of the gospel accounts of Jesus, as well as showing the influences of contemporary literary styles on the writers of the gospels.'

415. "We may all, in this country, laugh at Mohammedanism, or Hinduism, or the religious beliefs of primitive people. In other countries we might just as freely laugh at Christianity. "

416. "A superstition is never really dead until people have gained courage enough to laugh at it. That is why superstition dreads ridicule above everything. "

417. "We do not laugh at the story of Jesus walking on the water or casting devils out of lunatics, or at the story of his ascension to heaven; we laugh at people believing these to be historical events....If the Christian were only out of the way, we could treat the biblical legends exactly as we treat the legends of other people. It is the believer who blocks the way."

418. "The world has had many different sorts of religion, but it has never had one that taught its votaries to laugh. For religion to have encouraged laughter would have been a preparation for suicide. The vulgar mind cares more for status than for reason....The laugh of the liberated mind is the death knell of injustice and superstition. " [End of essay] [see Reference 317.].


419. "A flask of Bombarolina, and Mr. Norman Douglas [1868 - 1952] bent on winning an admission that the rites of the Church are all a survival of Paganism, pure and simple. "

[Caricature (1923) by (Sir) Max Beerbohm (1872 - 1956): Norman Douglas (huge) pouring wine for a priest (small)] [see Reference 419.] [see 287., 357.].

• • •

420."Thousands of theological books have been written on thousands of questions of no possible importance. Libraries have been printed on subjects not worth discussing--not worth thinking about--and that will, in a few years, be regarded as puerile by the whole world. " [see Reference 420.] [see 193., 196.].

421. "'The great truth is that THERE NEVER WAS BUT ONE RELIGION IN THE WORLD! And the great lie is, the pretence to make a distinction where there never was a difference. Paganism, Judaism, Deism, Christianism, and all other isms are but one and the self-same Ism, being each or any of them, as chance or different degrees of ingenuity have prevailed, either more or less cleverly constructed poems, or tissues of fiction, thrown over the face of universal nature, whose allegorical genius speaks in that inscription on the statue of the Saitic Isis: "I am all that is, that hath been, or that shall be, and no man hath lifted my veil. "...Alike in India, in Egypt, in Greece, in Italy, from the Ganges to the Nile, from the Nile to the Thames, the religious language and the religious ideas of "all people that on earth do dwell" have through the same eras of time, borne the same sort of references, used the same sort of ceremonies, and made play about the same eternal conceit of fish, fishermen, fish ponds...the Chaldaic Oannes, the Indian Vishnu, the Egyptian Bacchus, the Uranian Venus, the Philistine Dagon, the Grecian Neptune, the Christian Jesus, are all of them icthyomorphic deities, mermaids, fish-fags, ladies of the lake, all of them gudgeons themselves or baits to catch gudgeons! And hence...there can be no going to Heaven but only in the way that a fish could go there--by water--no salvation but by baptism....'

Taylor's [Robert Taylor 1784 - 1844] lecture, however, should be read in its entirety as it covers a vast ground and is full of wit--real wit that is, the kind which is so universally disliked by the pious, the kind that pokes fun at the religious absurdities which, believed in literally by Christians and their like, can only be justified on grounds of faith, for reason--and humour--would implacably reject them. " [Last page of text] [see 358.].


422.["Conclusions"] "Let us ask what has actually been destroyed by such an inquiry ["Supernatural Religion" (Christianism ["Christianity"])] pressed to its logical conclusion. Can Truth by any means be made less true? Can reality be melted into thin air? The supposed Revelation not being a reality, that which has been destroyed is only an illusion, and that which is left is the truth. Losing belief in it and its contents, we have lost nothing but that which the traveller loses when the mirage, which has displayed cool waters and green shades before him, melts swiftly away. There were no cool fountains really there to allay his thirst; no flowery meadows for his wearied limbs; his pleasure was delusion, and the wilderness is blank. Rather the mirage, with its pleasant illusion, is the human cry, than the desert with its barrenness. Not so, is the friendly warning; seek not vainly in the desert that which is not there, but turn rather to other horizons and to surer hopes. Do not waste life clinging to ecclesiastical dogmas which represent no eternal verities, but search elsewhere for truth which may haply be found. " [End of text].

423. "neither d'Holbach [1723 - 1789] nor Naigeon [1738 - 1810] saw much hope for obviating the need for it [Theism]. What men regarded as essential to happiness and ease from pain, d'Holbach reasoned, could not be taken from them. Man was, in fact, 'a weak being, filled with needs, [who] requires at each moment aid that he cannot give to himself'.76 Man makes it a crime to dissipate his fears, and 'He who combats religion...resembles a man who uses a sword to kill fruit-flies: as soon as the blow is struck, the fruit-flies...return...and take again, in people's minds, the place from which one believed to have banished them.'77 Naigeon also saw the need for religious belief as 'inherent in human nature', and predicted that this would 'submit the weak human race, in all times and in all countries, to the yoke that fanatics want to impose upon them'. He only could envisage 'occasional epochs' when, from 'particular and momentary causes', life could be less 'painful' and less 'disastrous'.78 They both hoped, perhaps, that the Enlightenment might initiate such an epoch, but, to say the least, they did not insist on such a view. The belief that humanity could be improved in any fundamental way, Naigeon had written to Diderot in 1766, was a 'sweet error' and 'beautiful chimera'. It was also, he urged, indispensable to all those who cared for mankind but would not choose knowingly to be Sisyphus.79" [End of text].


197.Northrop Frye [1912-1991] Myth and Metaphor Selected Essays, 1974-1988, Robert D. Denham, ed., University Press of Virginia, 1990, 298.

198.Atheism from the Reformation to the Enlightenment, Michael Hunter and David Wootton, eds., "Atheism in Italy, 1500-1700", Nicholas Davidson, Oxford, 1992, 74.


199.'In God We Trust' The Religious Beliefs and Ideas of the American Founding Fathers, Selected, Edited, and with Commentary by Norman Cousins, Harper, 1958, 442.

from: Jefferson the President First Term 1801-1805, Dumas Malone, Little, Brown, 1970, Vol. 4, 199:

'The report had been going around that he [Thomas Paine] meant to add another part to the Age of Reason....William Duane, fearful lest he [Paine] take up the subject of religion, tried to dissuade him. Duane wrote [1802] Jefferson: "I have fairly told him [Paine] that he will be deserted by the only party that respects or does not hate him, that all his political writings will be rendered useless, and even his fame destroyed. "22'

[Footnote] "22Duane to TJ, Nov. 27, 1802 (Procs. Mass. Hist. Soc., 2 ser., XX, 279). "


200.Thomas Paine The Age of Reason Part Three Examination of the Prophecies, Edited and annotated by Frank Zindler, American Atheist Press, 1993 (1807), 65.

[Note: I "shockingly" "stumbled upon": "he did not exist even as a man", Soho Coffee House, San Diego, 5/16/94, reading: The Theological Works of Thomas Paine, Donohue, "1910", 233].

from: The Life of Jesus, Maurice Goguel, Barnes & Noble, 1958 (1933 English) (1932 Paris), 61-62:

'It was not until the eighteenth century that the idea that possibly Jesus never existed at all made a timid appearance with "some disciples of Bolingbroke [1678 - 1751], more ingenious than learned," who, according to Voltaire (who, however, brushes aside their view very decidedly), held that the obscurities and contradictions in the Gospel tradition gave them the right to deny the existence of Jesus.1 These ideas, which the disciples of Bolingbroke did not venture to express in writing, were made public at the close of the eighteenth century by Volney [1757 - 1820] and Dupuis [1742 - 1809].2 For these writers Jesus was neither a man nor a god; they claimed that he really represented a solar deity like the divinities which men have worshipped down the ages....The first author of the nineteenth century to pronounce definitely against the actual existence of Jesus was Bruno Bauer [1809 - 1882].'

[Goguel does not mention Thomas Paine 1737 - 1809].

[(12/29/97) Goguel does not mention Robert Taylor 1784 - 1844].

3/20/92, at the beginning of my theology studies, in a handout (two, 2" "Kinko's" boxes, to each recipient) to "10" friends ("victims"), I wrote:

"The Historicity of Jesus Christ. Another man made conglomerate! (composite; amalgam; etc., as indicated by the enclosed authors). "

2/12/93, in a handout to "10" friends ("victims"), I wrote:

"1 The historical Jesus (not historical [an abstraction]; the "logos," and etc.). "

Note: from 11/92 - 1/95, I sent "850" ("theology") handouts (excerpts, and "70" books, etc.) to "10" friends ("victims"). "100,000" pages.

201.The Complete Writings of Thomas Paine, Collected and Edited by Philip S. Foner, 2 Vols., Citadel, 1969 (1945), 1426.

[ I found: "Paris, February 21st, 1802, since the Fable of Christ", 12/92, thanks to: Views of Religion, collected by Rufus K. Noyes M.D. [1853- ], L.K. Washburn, Boston, 1906, 532 (A Classic!)].


202.Thomas Paine The Age of Reason Part Three Examination of the Prophecies, Edited and annotated by Frank Zindler, American Atheist Press, 1993 (1807), 76-77.

203.Rev. Robert Taylor, B.A. [Cambridge] [1784-1844], The Devil's Pulpit: or Astro-Theological Sermons, Author of the "Diegesis," "Syntagma," & C., With a Sketch of HIs Life, and an Astronomical Introduction, Josiah P. Mendum, at the office of the Boston Investigator, Boston, 1873, 161-162.

204.Barbara G. Walker, The Woman's Encyclopedia Of Myths And Secrets,

Harper & Row, 1983, 471.

205.Blasphemy in Massachusetts Freedom of Conscience and the Abner Kneeland Case, Leonard Levy, ed., Da Capo, 1973, ix.

206.C. Kerényi [1897-1973], Prometheus Archetypal Image of Human Existence, Tr. Ralph Manheim, Pantheon, "1963" (c1946 Zurich), 3.

207.The World Book Encyclopedia, 1990, Vol. 2, 178.

208.Atheism from the Reformation to the Enlightenment, Michael Hunter and David Wootton, eds., "Jewish Sources of Irreligion", Richard Popkin, Oxford, 1992,


209.George Luther Clark, A Lawyer Looks at the Bible, Vantage, 1956, 12.

210.Thomas Paine The Age of Reason Part Three Examination of the Prophecies, Edited and annotated by Frank Zindler, American Atheist Press, 1993 (1807), 42.

211.George Luther Clark, A Lawyer Looks at the Bible, Vantage, 1956, 184.

212.Origins of Christianity, R. Joseph Hoffmann, ed., "The Story of the First Easter", J. K. Elliott, Prometheus, 1985, 319.

213.See 212., 324.

214.Barbara G. Walker, The Woman's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets

[See: Pagan; Jesus; etc.], Harper & Row, 1983, 762.

215.Werner Jaeger [1888-1961], The Theology of the Early Greek Philosophers,

The Gifford Lectures 1936, Oxford, 1964 (1947), 16.

216.See 215., 16.

217.V. F. Calverton, The Passing of the Gods, George Allen & Unwin, 1934, 130.

218.John Allegro, The Dead Sea Scrolls, A Reappraisal, 1964 (1956), 104.

219.Barbara G. Walker, The Woman's Encyclopedia Of Myths And Secrets,

Harper & Row, 1983, 471.

220.Martin Kähler, The So-Called Historical Jesus and the Historic Biblical Christ, Tr. Carl E. Braaten, Foreword by Paul Tillich, Fortress, 1977 (1896), 78-79.

221.See 220., 78.

222.Encyclopaedia Judaica, Macmillan, Vol. 10, 1971, 10.

223.Soledad De Montalvo, Women, Food and Sex In History, 4 Vols., American Atheist, 1988, Vol. II, 398. [Non Pareil!].

The definitive question, superbly presented! Not, by the usual Homo sapiens "theologicus"--a male (role of testosterone levels, etc.?)!

The answer to the question is, of course, in the question--NEGATIVE!


224.Solomon Schechter [1848-1915], Studies in Judaism Second Series, Adam and Charles Black, 1908, 102. ["On the Study of the Talmud 1Paper read before the Hebrew class at University College, London, October 19, 1899. " (311)].

225.G. A. Wells, Professor of German, Birkbeck College London, Did Jesus Exist?, Elek/Pemberton, 1975, 12.

226.Arthur Drews [1865-1935], The Witnesses To The Historicity Of Jesus,

Tr. Joseph McCabe, Arno, 1972 (1912 Watts), 58-59.

[Preface lauds J.M. Robertson; W.B. Smith; Dupuis.] [A Classic!].

227.See 226., 59.

228.Nicholas Carter, The Christ Myth, Published by Nicholas Carter, 1993, 7. [Superb critical, courageous writing!].

229.Ernest Evans, Tertullian's Treatise on the Incarnation, S·P·C·K·, 1956, 88.

230.Chas S. Clifton, Encyclopedia of Heresies and Heretics, 1992, 91.

[see end papers: chart: "Heresies and Heretics"; "World Events"].

231.The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingstone, eds., Oxford U., 1974 (1957), 413.

232.An Encyclopedia of Religion, Vergilius Ferm, ed., Philosophical Library, 1945, 391.

233.Samuel Sandmel, Provost and Professor of Bible and Hellenistic Literature Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, We Jews and Jesus, Oxford, 1965, 40.

234.See 233., 41.

235.See 233., 61.

236.See 233., 81-82.

237.Barbara G. Walker, The Woman's Encyclopedia Of Myths And Secrets,

Harper & Row, 1983, 762.

238.Samuel Sandmel, Provost and Professor of Bible and Hellenistic Literature Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, We Jews and Jesus, Oxford, 1965, 106.

239.Charles Guignebert [1867-1939], Professor of the History of Christianity in the Sorbonne, Jesus, University Books, 1959 (1935 English) (1933 French), 73.

240.Chas S. Clifton, Encyclopedia of Heresies and Heretics, 1992, 91.

[see end papers: chart: "Heresies and Heretics"; "World Events"].

241.Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, The Origins of Christianity, University Books, 1958 (1910 rev.) (1909), 251.

242.Charles Guignebert [1867-1939], Professor of the History of Christianity in the Sorbonne, Jesus, University Books, 1959 (1935 English) (1933 French), 118. [see extensive bibliography (with Roman numerals)].

Guignebert (see 239.): What a "spin"!

See: The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha, Oxford, 1973, 1286 (which includes John 1:1 and 1:14), and 1287 (John 1:15 - 1:18 [end of "The Prologue"]).

See: The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 1974, 833 ("Logos").

243.The Works of the Emperor Julian [331-363 C.E.], Tr. Wilmer Cave Wright,

3 vols., Heinemann, 1990 (1913), vol.III, 377 ["Against the Galilaeans"].


244.See 243., 377.

245.Thomas H. Huxley [1825-1895], Science and Christian Tradition Essays, Appleton, 1896, 222.

246.See 245., 223.

247.Origins of Christianity, R. Joseph Hoffmann, ed., "The Crucifixion Legend",

J. M. Robertson, Prometheus, 1985, 301.

248.See 247., 305.

249.Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, James Hastings, ed., 1961 (1910),

Vol. IX, 81.

250.Thomas Whittaker [1856-1935], Priests, Philosophers and Prophets, Watts, 1925, 193.

251.J. B. Bury, A History of Freedom of Thought, Holt, 1913, 252.

252.The Anchor Bible Dictionary, David Noel Freedman, Editor-in-Chief, Doubleday, 1992, Vol. 4, 848.

253.Charles Guignebert [1867-1939], The Jewish World in the Time of Jesus, University Books, 1959 (1939) (1935 French), 105.

254.[Walter Richard Cassels 1826-1907] [published anonymously], Supernatural Religion: An Inquiry into the Reality of Divine Revelation, In Three Volumes, Longmans, Green, 1879 (1874-1877), Vol. I, 97. [A Classic!].

255.See 254., 95-96.

256.[Edwin Johnson 1842-1901] [published anonymously], Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins, London: Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1887, 42.

257.See 256., xiv-xv.

258.See 256., 35.

259.See 256., 36.

260.See 256., 42-43.

261.David R. Cartlidge, David L. Dungan, Documents for the Study of the Gospels, Fortress, 1980, 16.

262.Arthur Drews [1865-1935], The Witnesses To The Historicity Of Jesus, Arno, 1972 (1912 Watts), 16-17. [Preface lauds J.M. Robertson; W.B. Smith; Dupuis.] [A Classic!].

263.An Early Christian Philosopher Justin Martyr's Dialogue With Trypho Chapters One To Nine, Introduction, Text and Commentary by J.C.M. Van Winden, Brill, 1971, 16, 123.

264.[Edwin Johnson 1842-1901] [published anonymously], Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins, London: Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1887, 44.

265.See 264., xxxviii.

266.See 264., 170.

267.Arthur Drews [1865-1935], The Witnesses To The Historicity Of Jesus, Arno, 1972 (1912 Watts), 58. [Preface lauds J.M. Robertson; W.B. Smith; Dupuis.]

[A Classic!].

268.[Edwin Johnson 1842-1901] [published anonymously], Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins, London: Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1887, 199.

269.See 268., 230.

270.Edgar J. Goodspeed, A History of Early Christian Literature, Revised and Enlarged by Robert M. Grant, U. Chicago, 1966 (1942), 64.

271.Randel Helms, Gospel Fictions, Prometheus, 1988, 11.


272.Thomas Whittaker [1856-1935], The Origins of Christianity with An Outline of Van Manen's Analysis of the Pauline Literature, "3rd. " edition, Watts, 1914, xxx. [See: "Reason", Thomas Whittaker, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 1961, Vol. X, 593-598].

273.See 272., 20.

274.[Sir] A. J. Ayer, Thomas Paine, U. Chicago, 1988, 175.

275.Thomas Whittaker [1856-1935], The Origins of Christianity with An Outline of Van Manen's Analysis of the Pauline Literature, "3rd. " edition, Watts, 1914, xxx. [See: "Reason", Thomas Whittaker, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 1961, Vol. X, 137].

276.[Sir] A. J. Ayer, Thomas Paine, U. Chicago, 1988, 158.

277.New Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 7, McGraw Hill, 1967, 909.

278.Arthur Drews [1865-1935], The Witnesses To The Historicity Of Jesus, Arno, 1972 (1912 Watts), 1.

[Preface lauds J.M. Robertson; W.B. Smith; Dupuis.] [A Classic!].

279.J.M. Robertson (1856-1933) Liberal, Rationalist, and Scholar, An Assessment by Several Hands, G.A. Wells, ed., 'If I wish to be remembered at is as a Freethinker' (J.M. Robertson, 7 May 1912, reported in the Literary Guide, June 1912), Pemberton, London 1987, 126.

[See: "Critic of Christianity", G.A. Wells, 123-196].

'the so-called Christ', discussion: History? To me, applies to Antiquities xviii. 63-64.

from: Reference 388., 50, Footnote b: 'b Variant (Richards and Shutt's emendation in Class. Quart. xxi, 1937, p. 176) "the so-called Christ. "'

[refers to 51: "He was the Messiah.b" (Antiquities xviii. 63-64)].

280.See 279., 127.

281.Arthur Drews [1865-1935], The Witnesses To The Historicity Of Jesus, Arno, 1972 (1912 Watts), 56.

[Preface lauds J.M. Robertson; W.B. Smith; Dupuis.] [A Classic!].

282.Encyclopaedia Biblica A Critical Dictionary of the Literary Political and Religious History The Archaeology Geography and Natural History of the Bible, T. K. Cheyne, J. Sutherland Black, eds., "OLD-CHRISTIAN LITERATURE", Willem Christiaan van Manen [1842-1905], "Professor of Old-Christian Literature and New Testament Exegesis, Leyden" (xv), 4 Vols., Adam and Charles Black, 1902, Vol. III, 3473. [A Classic!].

283.See 282., 3481.

284.See 282., 3482.

285.Ante-Nicene Christian Library: Translations of the Writings of the Fathers Down to A.D. 325, Edited by the Rev. Alexander Roberts, D.D., and James Donaldson, LL.D., "IRENAEUS AGAINST HERESIES", T & T Clark, MDCCCLXIX, Vol. IX, 18.

286.G. A. Wells, The Jesus of the Early Christians, Pemberton, 1971, 109.

287.Joseph Wheless, Forgery in Christianity, Knopf, 1930, 31.

[For impressive biography, see: THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY, University Microfilms, 1967, Vol. 39, 429-430].


288.Arthur S. Reber, The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology, Viking, 1985, 679.

289.See 288., 185.

290.Per Beskow, Strange Tales about Jesus A Survey of Unfamiliar Gospels, Fortress, Pb. 1985 (1983) (1979 Stockholm), 5.

291.See 290., 5.

292.See 290., 108.

See the classic: Albert Schweitzer [1875-1965], The Quest of the Historical Jesus A Critical Study of Its Progress From Reimarus To Wrede, Macmillan, 1955 (many editions) (1910 English) (1906 German). See: Bruno Bauer,

137-160, etc. See: "Results", 398-403.

293.See 290., 109.

294.See 290., 109.

295.The Thinker's Library, No. II Gibbon On Christianity Being the 15th and 16th Chapters of Gibbon's "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire", Watts, n.d. [Introduction by The Rt. Hon. J.M. Robertson, 1929], 68.

296.D. M. Bennett [1818-1882], Editor of "The Truth Seeker," author of "The World's Sages, Thinkers, and Reformers," "Thirty Discussions, Bible Stories, Essays, and Lectures," "Interrogatories to Jehovah," "What I Don't Believe; What I do Believe: Why and Wherefore," and joint author of "Christianity and Infidelity--the Humphrey-Bennett Discussion," "The Bennett-Teed Discussion," etc., etc., etc., The Champions of the Church: Their Crimes and Persecutions, Liberal and Scientific Publishing House, Science Hall, 141 Eighth Street, New York, 1880 (1878), 19-20. [This copy: Library of Congress, via Interlibrary loan].

297.See 296., 1092.

298.Henry Shires, Finding the Old Testament in the New, Westminster, 1974, 15.

299.Nicholas Carter, The Christ Myth, Published by Nicholas Carter, 1993, 157. [Superb critical, courageous writing!].

300.Thomas Paine [1737-1809], The Age of Reason, Citadel, 1974 (1948) (1794 Paris), 53.

301.Robert Carroll, Wolf in the Sheepfold The Bible as a Problem for Christianity, SPCK, 1991, 104.

302.See 301., 98.

303.Hans Askenasy, Are We All Nazis?, Lyle Stuart, 1978, 156.

304.Michael Grant, Ancient History, Harper, 1965 Pb. (1952), 202.

305.Northrop Frye [1912-1991] Myth and Metaphor Selected Essays, 1974-1988, Robert D. Denham, ed., University Press of Virginia, 1990, 72.

306.Robert Jay Lifton, The Nazi Doctors Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide, Basic Books, 1986, 430. [see 533, Footnote: '62. Loren Eiseley, "Man, The Lethal Factor" (unpublished manuscript).'].


307.David E. Stannard, American Holocaust The Conquest of the New World, Oxford, 1992 Pb., 154. [a "Must See" book!].

See: The Malleus Maleficarum of Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger, Translated with Introductions, Bibliography and Notes by Rev. Montague Summers, Dover, [n.d.] Pb. (1971) (1948) (1928) (c. 1494) (complex bibliography. see xli-xlii).

I told a lady librarian, "This book has been responsible for more deaths than any other book. " She looked at me as verbose--developmentally disadvantaged, and responded in high dudgeon: "How about the Bible?!"

Today, 5/13/95, U.C. San Diego (food area), I saw an amusing bulletin, and began chatting to a nearby man (50?) about it. He commented on my new copy of The Malleus Maleficarum. A Pathologist (M.D.). Extremely keen. Very knowledgeable about the history of the Inquisitions. He said Kramer and Sprenger (authors) were opportunists. (This even "startled" the misanthrope me.) I questioned him: "wasn't their [Kramer and Sprenger] behavior due to religious zeal?" He responded: "No! Politics is the last refuge of scoundrels--actually, religion is! ("and the first--too!")"

from: Dogs of the Conquest, John Grier Varner and Jeannette Johnson Varner,

U. Oklahoma, 1983, Preface:

"Historians have agreed that the Spanish conquest of the Indies was accomplished by men, horses, and dogs, in that order. "

[see horrors, reproduced via woodcuts and words].

308.See 307., 153.

309.Graham Shaw, Chaplain of Exeter College, Oxford, The Cost of Authority Manipulation and Freedom in the New Testament, SCM, 1983, 279.

310.[Walter Richard Cassels] [published anonymously], Supernatural Religion: An Inquiry into The Reality of Divine Revelation, In Three Volumes, Longmans, Green, 1879 (1874-1877), Vol. I, 106. [A Classic!].

311.See 310., 111.

312.T. R. Glover, From Pericles to Philip, Macmillan, 1917, 369.

313.Websters Third New International Dictionary, 1981, 2296.

314.Edward Norbeck, Rice University, Religion in Primitive Society, Harper & Row, 1961, 279.

315.Remy De Gourmont [1858-1915], Philosophic Nights in Paris Being Selections from Promenades Philosophiques, Tr. Isaac Goldberg, "The Art of Seeing" [Compare: "How to Argue Logically", Arthur Schopenhauer, herein (331.) referenced.], John W. Luce, Boston, MCMXX, 122.

316.See 315., 126-127.


317.See 315., 127.

[Excursus: Devil, Luther, Scatology, Etc.]

from: Luther, Hartman Grisar, S.J., Professor at the University of Innsbruck, authorized translation from the German by E.M. Lamond, Luigi Cappadelta, ed., Nihil Obstat, C. Schut, D.D., Censor Deputatus; Imprimatur, Edm. Can. Surmont, Vic. Gen., Westmonasterii, die 22 Januarii, 1914; 6 Vols., Herder,

St. Louis, Mo., 1919, Vol. III, 229, 233, 239, 240, 241:

'the devil came in for the largest share...of vituperation, more particularly that devil who was filling Luther with anxiety and trouble of mind. The Pope and his Catholic opponents came a good second. Luther was, however, fond of spicing in the same way ["terms descriptive of the lower functions of the body"] even his utterances on purely worldly matters.

"When we perceive the devil tempting us," he says, "we can easily overcome him by putting his pride to shame and saying to him: 'Leck mich im Arss'....This counsel he actually put in practice: "On May 7, 1532, the devil was tormenting me in the afternoon, and thoughts troubled me, such as that a thunderbolt might kill me, so I replied to him: 'Leck mich im Arss, I am going to sleep, not to hold a disputation.'"2 When the devil would not cease urging his sins against him he had a drastic method of effectually disposing of his importunity.3'

[Luther] '"The lawyers scream [when we appropriate Church property]: 'Sunt bona ecclesiae!'...Yes [I say], but where are we to get our bread? 'We leave you to see to that,' they say. Yes, the devil may thank them for that. We theologians have no worse enemies than the lawyers....We here condemn all jurists, even the pious ones, for they do not know what 'ecclesia' means....If a jurist wishes to dispute with you about this, say to him: 'Listen, my good fellow, on this subject no lawyer should speak till he hears a sow s---, then he must say: 'Thank you, Granny dear, it is long since I listened to a sermon.'"7'

'Luther undoubtedly savours of his time, but his expressions are too often reminiscent of Saxon familiarity; for instance, when he vents his displeasure in the words: "The devil has given his mother 'eine Fliege [fly] in den Hintern.'"1

Luther was fond of introducing indelicacies of this sort even into theological tracts written in Latin and destined for the use of the learned, needless to say to the huge scandal of foreigners not accustomed to find such coarseness in the treatment of serious subjects.'

'Luther, "in his wish to achieve something," and to bring "his excellent ideas" home to the man in the street, of set purpose disregarded the "esthetic feelings of his readers" and his own "reputation as a writer. "'

["Wilhelm Walther of Rostock".] [The author (Grisar) does not concur 100%].


'Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche ("Werke," 7, p. 401) has a few words, not devoid of admiration for Luther, which, however, apply to the whole man and not merely to his habits of speech. They may well serve as a transition to what follows:

"Luther's merit lies in this, that he possessed the courage of his sensuality--in those days tactfully described as the 'freedom of the Gospel.'"'

from: Prejudices Sixth Series, H.L. Mencken, Knopf, 1927, 128-129:

"The Lutherans, who are very orthodox, all believe in demoniacal possession, and hence, by a necessary inference, in witches; if they did not they would have to put Martin Luther down as a liar. As for the Methodists, the Baptists and other such proletarians of the Lord.... "

from: The History of the Devil and the Idea of Evil, Paul Carus [1852-1919], Open Court, 1974 (1900), "Publisher's Preface":

'The History of the Devil, through its astonishing visual impact, impresses the reader with the universality of the idea of the Devil. In fact, Dr. Carus shows that the idea of Evil developed parallel to the idea of God. Like God, the Devil was symbolic of a real part of human experience. Both God and the Devil were institutionalized and personified. The human mind created its own gods and its own devils, but understanding that the Devil is merely a symbol of evil does not make evil any less real. Carus' interpretation of the Devil makes "evil" an obstacle to overcome--a fundamental problem confronting all people.

Paul Carus called himself "a perfect infidel...especially as to the belief in the traditional devil. " He wanted his readers to understand that he did believe, after all, in the reality of the devil in the sense that evil is an actual presence in the world. The Devil represents the universe's resistance to human effort. Without resistance no progress would be made: without evil there would be no good.

Dr. Carus saw that God and the Devil are relative terms: "Good is good only because there is evil, and God is God because there is a devil. "'

from: A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of The Christian Church, Philip Schaff, Professor in The Union Theological Seminary, New York, ed., Eerdman's, 1956, Vol. IV, St. Augustin [354-430]: Reply to Faustus [dates? contemporary of Augustin] the Manichaean "[Contra Faustum Manichaeum]", A.D. 400, Tr. Richard Stothert, Bombay, ("151"-345) 258:

"How can Faustus think that we resemble the Manichaeans in attaching sacredness to bread and wine, when they consider it sacrilege to taste wine?...According to your notion [Faustus], Christ is confined in everything you eat, and is released by digestion from the additional confinement of your intestines. "


Possibly the origin of the argument: After the ritualistic consumption of "bread and wine" ("Lord's Supper"; "Eucharist"; "Holy Communion"; "Divine Mysteries" [see 249.]; "the Mass"), is Christ defecated?

[see arguments, Faustus-Augustin: "Christ"; "Jesus"; etc. (index)].

See a scatology classic: Captain John G. Bourke [1843-1896], Scatalogic Rites of All Nations, A Dissertation upon the Employment of Excrementitious Remedial Agents in Religion, Therapeutics, Divination, Witchcraft, Love--Philters, etc., in all parts of the globe, based upon original notes and personal observation and upon compilation from over one thousand authorities, Foreword by Sigmund Freud [my copy], American Anthropological Society, 1934 (1891).

318.Joe Nickell, Looking for a Miracle Weeping Icons, Relics, Stigmata, Visions & Healing Cures, Prometheus, 1993, 169.

319.Remy De Gourmont [1858-1915], Philosophic Nights in Paris Being Selections from Promenades Philosophiques, Tr. Isaac Goldberg, "The Art of Seeing" [Compare: "How to Argue Logically", Arthur Schopenhauer, herein (331.) referenced.], John W. Luce, Boston, MCMXX, 129-130.

320.See 319., 130.

321.See 319., 131.

322.See 319., 128.

323.See 319., 131.

324.See 319., 131.

325.See 319., 137.

326.See 319., 137.

327.See 319., 138.

328.See 319., 139.

329.World Christian Encyclopedia A comparative study of churches and religions in the modern world AD 1900-2000, David B. Barrett, ed., Oxford, 1982, v.

330.A Mencken Chrestomathy His Own Selection of His Choicest Writings, Edited by and annotated by H.L.M., Vintage, 1982 (1949 Knopf) (copyrights go back to 1916), 74-75.

331.Arthur Schopenhauer [1788-1860], How to Argue Logically The Art of Controversy, Little Blue Book, No. 364, E. Haldeman-Julius, ed., Haldeman-Julius Publications, Girard, Kansas, [n.d.] [Essay traceable in the U. of California to 1890], 21-22.

332.See 331., 22.

333.See 331., 24.

334.See 331., 28.

335.G. W. Bowersock, Hellenism in Late Antiquity, U. Michigan, 1990, 17.

336.See 335., 19.

337.See 335., 56.

338.Michael Roberts, Biblical Epic and Rhetorical Paraphrase In Late Antiquity, Cairns, 1985, 62.


339.Vergil Eclogues [Vergil 70-19 B.C.E.], Robert Coleman, ed., Cambridge U., 1989 (1977), 152.

340.Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, James Hastings, ed., Scribner's, 1961 (1910), Vol. VIII, 579.

341.Moses Hadas, Jay Professor of Greek Columbia University, Hellenistic Culture Fusion and Diffusion, Columbia U., 1959, 57.

342.Jasper Griffin, Virgil [70-19 B.C.E.], Oxford, 1986, 28.

343.Virgil The Eclogues [Virgil 70-19 B.C.E.], The Latin Text with a Verse Translation and Brief Notes by Guy Lee, Penguin, "1984" (1980), Preface.

344.The Five Gospels The Search for the Authentic Words of Jesus, Robert Funk,

Roy Hoover, The Jesus Seminar, Macmillan, 1993, 5.

345.See 344., 7.

346.See 344., 8.

347.See 344., 10.

348.See 344., 11-12.

349.The New Oxford Annotated Bible, Herbert May and Bruce Metzger, eds., Oxford, 1977 (1965), 1213.

350.Randel Helms, Gospel Fictions, Prometheus, 1988, 26-27.

351.The Origins of the Holocaust: Christian Anti-Semitism, Randolph Braham, ed., Institute for Holocaust Studies of the City University of New York, Distributed by Columbia U., 1986, 68.

352.Arnold M. Rothstein, The Jesus Idea, Prometheus, 1993, 117.

353.Martin Nilsson [1874-1967], Greek Folk Religion, Foreword by Arthur Darby Nock, Harper, 1961 (c1940 Columbia U.), 40.

354.C. Jan Swearingen, Rhetoric and Irony Western Literacy and Western Lies, Oxford, 1991, 179.

355.Rev. Robert Taylor, B.A. [Cambridge] [1784-1844], The Devil's Pulpit: or Astro-Theological Sermons, Author of the "Diegesis," "Syntagma," & C., With a Sketch of HIs Life, and an Astronomical Introduction, Josiah P. Mendum, at the office of the Boston Investigator, Boston, 1873, 7.

356.See 355., 119-120.

357.H. Cutner [1881-1969], The Devil's Chaplain Robert Taylor (1784-1844),

The Pioneer Press, c. 1950, 41.

358.Moses Hadas, Jay Professor of Greek Columbia University, Hellenistic Culture Fusion and Diffusion, Columbia U., 1959, 196-197.

359.Charles Seltman [1886-1957], The Twelve Olympians Gods and Goddesses of Greece, PAN-Books, 1952, 57.

360.Edward H. Davidson and William J. Scheick, Paine, Scripture, and Authority The Age of Reason as Religious and Political Idea, Lehigh U., 1994, 69.

361.Thomas Szasz, The Untamed Tongue A Dissenting Dictionary, Open Court, 1990, 69.

362.See 361., 240.

363.The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Religion, R. J. Zwi Werblowsky and Geoffrey Wigoder, eds., Holt, Rinehart and Winston, "1966" (c1965), 210.

364.See 363., 211.


365.Ruth Hurmence Green, The Born Again Skeptic's Guide to the Bible, Freedom From Religion Foundation, 1992 (1979), 144.

366.Randel Helms, Gospel Fictions, Prometheus, 1988, 39.

367.[Edwin Johnson 1842-1901] [published anonymously], Antiqua Mater A Study of Christian Origins, London: Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1887, 37.

368.Randel Helms, Gospel Fictions, Prometheus, 1988, 18.

369.See 368., 131.

370.See 368., 134.

371.See 368., 134.

372.See 368., 25.

373.Jim Herrick, Against the Faith Essays on Deists, Skeptics and Atheists, Prometheus, 1985, 42-43.

374.Joe Nickell, Looking for a Miracle Weeping Icons, Relics, Stigmata, Visions & Healing Cures, Prometheus, 1993, 167.

375.Joseph McCabe [1867-1955] [Former priest, phenomenal writer!], The Forgery of the Old Testament and Other Essays, Prometheus, 1993 (1926-1927), 122.

376.See 375., 129.

377.Free Inquiry, Title of this issue: "Is Religion a Form of Insanity?", Summer 1993, "Viruses of the Mind", Richard Dawkins, 38.

378.Margaret A. Murray [1863-1963], Fellow of University College, London, Egyptian Religious Poetry, John Murray, London, 1949, 54.

379.Francis Crick [Winner of a Nobel Prize], The Astonishing Hypothesis The Scientific Search for the Soul [See: "confabulation", etc.], Scribner's Sons, 1994, 3.

380.Stephen D. Mumford, Free Inquiry, Spring 1994, "Vatican Influence on U.S. Immigration Policy", 25.

381.Free Inquiry, Title of this issue: "Is Religion a Form of Insanity?", Summer 1993, "Viruses of the Mind", Richard Dawkins, 41. ["epidemiology": to me, epidemics (of regional superstitions and hocus-pocus).].

382.Nicholas Carter, The Late Great Book The Bible, Truth Missions, 1985, 143.

383.See 382., 143.

384.Northrop Frye [1912-1991] Myth and Metaphor Selected Essays, 1974-1988, Robert D. Denham, ed., University Press of Virginia, 1990, 299.

385.Wayne Meeks and Robert Wilken, Jews and Christians in Antioch in the First Four Centuries of the Common Era, Scholars Press, 1978, 1.

386.Barbara G. Walker, The Woman's Encyclopedia Of Myths And Secrets,

Harper & Row, 1983, 471.

387.Steve Mason, Josephus and the New Testament, Hendrickson, 1992, 151.

388.Josephus, with an English Translation by Louis H. Feldman, Professor of Classics, Yeshiva University, in Ten Volumes, Harvard/Heinemann, MCMLXXXI (1965), Vol. X, 279-280.

[Testimonium Flavianum: for history and arguments, see: Vol. IX, 49, etc.].

from: Did Jesus Exist?, G.A. Wells, Elek/Pemberton, 1975, 11:

"In Josephus' entire work the term 'Christ' occurs only in the two passages about Jesus and his brother James. " [see 388. "Jesus (9)"].


389.Louis Feldman, Gohei Hata, Josephus, Judaism, and Christianity, Wayne St. U., 1987, 407.

from 53: 'Josephus' works play a key role, particularly, as Dr. Schreckenberg notes, The Jewish War, with its poignant description of the destruction of the Temple, which was interpreted as divine punishment for the alleged role of the Jews in the death of Jesus. We may thus call attention to the coincidence of the following factors in the fourth century: Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire; the Testimonium Flavianum, stating that Jesus was accused before Pilate "by men of the highest standing amongst us" first appears in Eusebius; and the most vicious anti-Jewish diatribes by John Chrysostom and Gregory of Nyssa appear.' [see 67., 302., 392.].

from 54: "It is interesting that The Jewish War, as Dr. Schreckenberg remarks, became more influential than the Antiquities in Christian polemic; and we may consequently remark that it is surprising that the Testimonium Flavianum is interpolated [Forged] into the Antiquities rather than into the corresponding passage about Pilate's procuratorship in The Jewish War (II, 169-177), as it is in the Slavonic version. "

from: Jewish Historiography and Iconography in Early and Medieval Christianity, Heinz Schreckenberg and Kurt Schubert, Fortress, 1992, 132 [Heinz Schreckenberg: "Josephus in Early Christian Literature and Medieval Christian Art"]:

"The bridges between Josephus and the New Testament, however, connected not only affinities at single points, but also entire complexes, such as the question of guilt as it was treated in Josephus (the guilt of the Zealots, Sicarii, etc. for the Fall of Jerusalem), and in the New Testament. As opposed to Josephus' differentiated intentions, it is to be noted, already the New Testament shows the tendency to place the blame for the Fall of Jerusalem on all Jews collectively, and thus to see them as deserving collective punishment. This was apparently encouraged by the fiction of the Jews' collective guilt for the death of Jesus. In truth, the social and religious existence of the Jews, three-fourths of whom were living in the Diaspora already before 70, remained unendangered, indeed, even improved after they acquired Roman citizenship via Caracalla's Lex Antoniniana in 212. "

390.Steve Mason, Josephus and the New Testament, Hendrickson, 1992, 9.

391.Herbert Cutner [1881-1969], Jesus God, Man or Myth? An Examination of the Evidence, The Truth Seeker Company, New York, [1950], 264.

[A Classic!] [a "Must See" book!].

392.Steve Mason, Josephus and the New Testament, Hendrickson, 1992, 23.


393.Mireille Hadas-Lebel, Flavius Josephus [c. 37 - c. 100 C.E.], Eyewitness to Rome's First-Century Conquest of Judea, Tr. Richard Miller, Macmillan, 1993, 226.

from 229: "So integral is this writer to the history of Christianity that the relative obscurity into which Josephus has lapsed in our own century can be viewed as another clear sign of the de-Christianization of the West. "

394.Steve Mason, Josephus and the New Testament, Hendrickson, 1992, 233.

395.Max Nordau [1849-1923] [Max Nordau (author, etc.) was "co-pilot" to Theodor Herzl (1860 - 1904), "Founder of The World Zionist Organization. "], The Conventional Lies of Our Civilization, Laird & Lee, 1895 (1885 English, London) (1883 German), 60-61.

396.Gerald Sigal, The Jew and the Christian Missionary: A Jewish Response To Missionary Christianity, KTAV, 1981, 289. ["confounds": to me, compounds (also, "faith" has components of "emotion and ignorance").].

397.See 396., 292.

398.Vendyl M. Jones, Will the Real Jesus Please Stand? Seven Riddles of Israel and Messiah, Cassette series on this and other subjects available. Institute of Judaic-Christian Research, Box 35, Tyler, TX 75710, Published by Priority, July 1983, "3-7".

399.See 398., "3-9".

400.See 398., "3-9".

401.See 398., "3-10".

402.Marina Warner, Alone of All Her Sex The Myth and the Cult of the Virgin Mary, Knopf, 1976, 35. [See: "Chronology" 347-364] [Beautiful Book!].

403.See 402., 43.

from: Parthenogenesis and Polyploidy in Mammalian Development, R.A. Beatty, Cambridge U., 1957, 99:

"if some of the births [mammalian] are genuinely parthenogenic, all these should be female. "

"To conclude, spontaneous parthenogenesis to term in mammals is not known".

404.See 402., 206.

405.The Oxford English Dictionary, 1989, Vol. XII, 428.

406.See 405., 429.

407.Black's Law Dictionary, Sixth Edition, 1186.

408.Chapman Cohen [1868-1954], Essays in Freethinking, 2 Vols., American Atheist, 1987 (1923), Vol. 1, 124-125.


409.[Sir] Francis Galton [1822-1911], Hereditary Genius An Inquiry into Its Laws and Consequences, Introduction by C.D. Darlington, World, 1962 (1869),


"An immediate practical consequence of his [Galton] discoveries was the adoption by Scotland Yard of his method of identifying individuals by their fingerprints. " ["Preface"].

'"I do not think I ever in all my life read anything more interesting and original. " Charles Darwin to Francis Galton on reading "Hereditary Genius", 3rd December, 1869' ["Preface"].

410.Chapman Cohen [1868-1954], Essays in Freethinking, 2 Vols., American Atheist, 1987 (1923), Vol. 1, 124.

411.Laurent Joubert [1529-1583], Treatise on Laughter, Tr. and annotated by Gregory David De Rocher, U. Alabama, 1980, 130.

412.John L. McKenzie, S.J., Dictionary of The Bible, Bruce, 1965, 495.

413.Lucian [c. 117 - c. 180 C.E.], Tr. A.M. Harmon, 8 vols., Heinemann, MCMLXI (1925), vol. IV, "Alexander the False Prophet", 245.

414.Howard Clark Kee, Professor of the History of Religion Bryn Mawr College,

The Origins of Christianity Sources and Documents, Prentice-Hall, 1973, 212.

415.Chapman Cohen [1868-1954], Essays in Freethinking, 2 Vols., American Atheist, 1987 (1923), Vol. 1, 186.

416.See 415., 187.

417.See 415., 188.

418.See 415., 189.

419.Constantine Fitzgibbon, Norman Douglas [1868-1952], McBride, 1953, title page.

[See: Beerbohm's Literary Caricatures From Homer to Huxley, J.G. Riewald (see other works on Beerbohm), Allen Lane (Penguin), 1977, 272-273, 284-285].


420.Robert Ingersoll [1833-1899], A Christmas Sermon, American Atheist Press, 1988, 28.

from: American Infidel Robert G. Ingersoll, Orvin Larson, Citadel, 1962, 245:

'On December 19, 1891, the New York Evening Telegram published Ingersoll's "A Christmas Sermon" and started a controversy that raged for two months and reached by January 9, according to the Telegram, "almost national dimensions. " "A Christmas Sermon" was short but it was strong stuff for any Christian stomach. Ingersoll maintained that Christmas was originally a Pagan festival celebrating the triumph of the Sun-God over the powers of Darkness. Christianity adopted the festival, and corrupted it. "Christianity did not come with tidings of great joy, but with a message of eternal grief. It came with the threat of everlasting torture on its lips....

"It taught some good things--the beauty of love and kindness in man. But as a torch-bearer, as a bringer of joy, it has been a failure. It has given infinite consequences to the acts of finite beings, crushing the soul with a responsibility too great for mortals to bear. It has filled the future with fear and flame, and made God the keeper of an eternal penitentiary, destined to be the home of nearly all the sons of men. Not satisfied with that, it has deprived God of the pardoning power. "'

from: Jesus or Christ, Essays, Being the Hibbert Journal Supplement For 1909, Sherman, French/Williams Norgate, 1909, 58:

'"The theological machinery that spoke so livingly to our ancestors, with its finite age of the world, its creation out of nothing, its juridical morality and eschatology, its relish for rewards and punishments, its treatment of God as an external contriver, an 'intelligent and moral governor,' sounds as odd to most of us as if it were some outlandish savage religion ["Professor William James"]. " But the question what we are to put in the place of an outworn theology is no light one'. [Percy Gardner].

421.H. Cutner [1881-1969], The Devil's Chaplain Robert Taylor (1784-1844),

The Pioneer Press, c. 1950, 67-68.

422.[Walter Richard Cassels 1826-1907]] [published anonymously], Supernatural Religion An Inquiry into the Reality of Divine Revelations, Popular Edition, Watts, 1902 (1874-1877), 912.

423.Atheism from the Reformation to the Enlightenment, Michael Hunter and David Wootton, eds., "The Atheism of d'Holbach and Naigeon", Alan Charles Kors, Oxford, 1992, 299-300.

PAGE 100


Ayer, [Sir] Alfred Jules, Language, Truth and Logic, Dover, 1952. [See: 34, 35, 39, 41, 116, 117, 120].

The Apocryphal New Testament Being The Apocryphal Gospels, Acts Epistles, and Apocalypses With Other Narratives and Fragments, Tr. Montague Rhodes James, ed., Oxford, 1969 (1924).

The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English, Edited in conjunction with many scholars by R.H. Charles, Oxford, 1978 (1913), Vol. 2, 1979.

Arnheim, Michael, Is Christianity True?, Prometheus, 1984.

Bergh van Eysinga, Gustaaf Adolf van den [1874-1957], Radical Views about the New Testament, Tr. from the Dutch by S.B. Slack, Introduction by the Translator, Watts, 1912. [See: Hager, Harry James (102)] [see 282.-284.].

Boyd, James P., Bible Dictionary, Ottenheimer, 1958.


Computer (University): use: "subject"; "title words"; etc., for: "Gospel"; "Gospels"; "Apocrypha"; etc. ["Take a lunch"!].

Conybeare, F.C., History of New Testament Criticism, Watts, 1910.

Couchoud, Paul Louis [1879-1959], The Enigma of Jesus, Tr. Winifred Whale (Winifred Stephens), Introduction by Sir James Frazer, Watts, 1924.

Cutner, Herbert [1881-1969], Jesus God, Man or Myth? An Examination of the Evidence, The Truth Seeker Company, New York, [1950]. [A Classic!]

[a "Must See" book!].

Doane, T.W. [1852-1885], Bible Myths and Their Parallels in Other Religions, University Books, 1971 (1882). [A Classic!].

Elliott, J.K., The Apocryphal New Testament A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in an English Translation, Oxford, 1993. [see 19., 20., by J.K. Elliott].

Ellis, Albert, The Case Against Religion: A Psychotherapist's View and The Case Against Religiosity, American Atheist, n.d.

Encyclopaedia Biblica A Critical Dictionary of the Literary Political and Religious History The Archaeology Geography and Natural History of the Bible, T. K. Cheyne, J. Sutherland Black, eds., 4 Vols., Adam and Charles Black, 1899, 1901, 1902, 1903. [A Classic!].

The Encyclopedia of Unbelief, Gordon Stein, ed., 2 Vols. (reprinted 1 Vol.), Prometheus, 1985. [A Classic!] [See: Bruno Bauer; Chapman Cohen; etc.].

Feldman, Louis, Josephus and Modern Scholarship, 1937-1980, W. de Gruyter, 1984. [A Classic!].

Goodspeed, Edgar J., Famous "Biblical" Hoaxes, originally entitled, Modern Apocrypha, Baker, 1956 (1931).

A Greek-English Lexicon, Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, Oxford, 1968 (1843). [See: xxx, "Novum Testamentum". Compare with other entries, etc.].

PAGE 101

Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament based on Semantic Domains, 2 Vols., United Bible Societies, 1988.

Hager, Harry James, The Radical School of Dutch New Testament Criticism A part of a dissertation submitted to the faculty of the Divinity School in candidacy for the degree of doctor of philosophy, U. Chicago, 1935 (1933).

Jaeger, Werner [1888-1961], The Theology of the Early Greek Philosophers,

The Gifford Lectures 1936, Oxford, 1964 (1947).

Koester, Helmut, Ancient Christian Gospels Their History and Development, SCM/Trinity, 1990.

Kors, Alan Charles, D'Holbach's Coterie An Enlightenment in Paris, Princeton U., 1976.

Kors, Alan Charles, Atheism in France, 1650-1729 Volume I: The Orthodox Sources of Disbelief, Princeton U., 1990.

Larson, Martin A., The Story of Christian Origins or The Sources and Establishment of Western Religion, Village Press, 1977.

Léon-Dufour, Xavier, Dictionary of the New Testament, Tr. Terrence Prendergast, Harper, 1980.

Mangasarian, Mangasar Mugurditch [1859-1943] (Crapsey, Algeron Sidney [1847-1927]), Did Jesus Really Live?

A debate held in Orchestra hall, Chicago, 1/21/1908. "Yes! contends Rev. Crapsey. No! Contends Mr. Mangasarian". Judge Theodore Brentano. Chicago, Original research society, 1908.

Martin, Michael, The Case Against Christianity, Temple U., 1991.

[See: "Introduction"; "Historicity of Jesus" (G.A. Wells); etc.]

[I thank a "Kinkos" ("copy center") employee, for this reference].

The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Colin Brown, ed., 3 Vols., Paternoster/Zondervan, 1975.

New Testament Apocrypha [Edgar Hennecke], Wilhelm Schneemelcher, ed., Tr. R. McL. Wilson, 2 Vols., Westminster, 1963 (c1959 Germany).

New Testament Apocrypha, revised edition, Wilhelm Schneemelcher, ed., Tr. R. McL. Wilson, "2" Vols., James Clarke & Co Westminster/John Knox Press, 1991 (c1990 Germany). [Note: I have only seen Vol. 1. Availability of Vol. II?].

Origins of Christianity, R. Joseph Hoffmann, ed., Prometheus, 1985.

Paine, Thomas, 1737-1809: The National Union Catalog, Vol. 437: pages 633-688 (note: The Age of Reason, occupies 4 1/2 pages: 636-641).

Pals, Daniel L., The Victorian "Lives" of Jesus, Trinity, 1982. [a "Must See" book!] [See: Albert Schweitzer; Bruno Bauer; et al.] [compare 290.-294.].

Reynolds, Vernon & Ralph Tanner, The Biology of Religion, Longman, 1983.

Rosten, Leo, Religions of America Ferment and Faith in an Age of Crisis A New Guide and Almanac, Simon and Schuster, 1975 (1955) (1952?). [A Classic!].

Rypins, Stanley, The Book of Thirty Centuries, Macmillan, 1951.

[See: Superb Tables (351-377)].

PAGE 102

Seeberg, Reinhold [1859-1935], Text-Book of the History of Doctrines, 2 Vols. (in 1 Vol.), Baker, 1956 (See later editions) (Vol. 1, 1895; Vol. 2, 1898. Germany).

[A religious encyclopedia (Christian) of the history of superstitions, fictions, and hocus-pocus; power--politics, etc. (Dogma!). Vol. 1, see "logos", etc.].

[See also: works of Adolph Harnack (1851-1930), including: History of Dogma].

Seltman, Charles [1886-1957], The Twelve Olympians Gods and Goddesses of Greece, PAN-Books, 1952 Pb. [see later editions].

Shao-Yang, Lin, A Chinese Appeal to Christendom, G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1911.

[See: 283-284].

Shires, Henry, Finding the Old Testament in the New, Westminster, 1974.

Smith, William Benjamin, Ecce Deus Studies of Primitive Christianity, Open Court, 1912.

Stein, Gordon, God Pro and Con A Bibliography of Atheism, Garland, 1990.

[See: Paine, Thomas, 189-191; Jesus; etc.] [Tremendous Reference!].

Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Gerhard Kittel, ed., 10 Vols., Eerdmans, 1968 (antecedents to at least 1883).

Walker, Barbara, The Woman's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, Harper & Row, 1983.

[I thank my old friend (met 1958. flyers of Birmingham Roller Pigeons) P.I., Modesto, CA, for this reference.].

[See subjects: Isis (circa 2700 B.C.E. - 400 C.E.): Isis, and "eternal life"; Isis, and Mary; etc. Osiris (circa 3000 B.C.E. - 400 C.E.): Osiris, and Christ; Osiris, and Jesus; Osiris, and Messiah; Osiris, and the Bible; Osirian Trinities; etc.].

Wells, George Albert [1926- ] (from the Univ. of CA computer ["18 records at all libraries"]):

The Jesus of the early Christians: a study in Christian origins, Pemberton, 1971.

Did Jesus exist?, Elek, 1975.

The historical evidence for Jesus, Prometheus, 1982.

Did Jesus exist?, 2nd ed., rev., corr., and expanded, Pemberton, 1986.

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What's in a name?: reflections on language, magic, and religion, Open Court, 1993.

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Reference 287.]. From the dedication page:

"Dedicated In grateful appreciation To

Henry L. Mencken

Dean of American Letters and Critics

Theologian Emeritus of a Treatise on the gods"

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