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4

A few references from my researches, which reflect my discoveries.

Subjects and results:

Bible (Old Testament. New Testament.) (was)is Fiction ("historical Fiction", etc.).
Jesus (was)is a Fictional character (not "historical").
Paul (was)is a Fictional character. Etc.

Some principal foci in this presentation:

Paul
Saul, Paul, Apostle Paul, Saint Paul, etc.:
  • A. The canonical Pauline epistles ("letters") are considered (by many) the "historical Paul". [see 427., 475., etc.].
  • B. Acts of the Apostles is considered (by many) the "legendary Paul". [see 478., etc.].
  • C. The traditions of Paul are considered (by many) the "traditional Paul". [see 425., 453., etc.].

Tertullian
Marcion
van Manen

Fiction in Antiquity. Etc.

424.'Wherefore, O shipmaster of Pontus [Marcion, c. 100 - c. 165 C.E. (see 448.)],9 if you have never taken on board your small craft10 any contraband goods or smuggler's cargo, if you have never thrown overboard or tampered with a freight, you are still more careful and conscientious, I doubt not, in divine things; and so I should be glad if you would inform us under what bill of lading1 you admitted the Apostle Paul on board....He professes himself to be "an apostle"--to use his own words--"not of men, nor by man, but by Jesus Christ. "8 Of course, any one may make a profession concerning himself; but his profession is only rendered valid by the authority of a second person. One man signs, another countersigns;9 one man appends his seal, another registers in the public records.10 No one is at once a proposer and a seconder to himself....the Acts of the Apostles [Fiction!],6 at all events, have handed down to me this career of Paul, which you [Marcion] must not refuse to accept.'

[Tertullian c. 160 - c. 220 C.E. "Father of Latin Theology"] [see Reference 424.] [see 448.].

425. "We can find no proof of his [Paul] historic reality. The 'Acts of Paul and Thecla,' which contain a sketch of his personal appearance, are declared by Tertullian to be the work of an Asian presbyter and a fiction. Tertullian himself, while expressing the most audacious doubts as to Paul, turns the writings ascribed to him to the account of Catholicism, and endeavour[s] to force the Paul of the 'Acts of the Apostles' [Fiction!] upon his contemporaries. "

[Edwin Johnson 1842 - 1901].

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[426.-428. van Manen 1842 - 1905]

426. "Marcion [c. 100 - c. 165 C.E. (see 448.)] is the first in whom, as we learn from Tertullian, traces are to be found of an authoritative group of epistles of Paul. "

[Marcion! Tertullian is a "window" to Marcion. Marcion is a "window" to a "historical Paul"!] [see 424.-428., 448., 450., 451., 471., 496., 501.].

427. "With respect to the canonical Pauline epistles...none of them [were] by Paul; neither fourteen, nor thirteen, nor nine or ten, nor seven or eight, nor yet even the four [of F. C. Baur 1792 - 1860, et al.] so long 'universally' regarded as unassailable. They are all, without distinction, pseudepigrapha (this of course, not implying the least depreciation of their contents). The history of criticism, the breaking up of the group which began as early as 1520 [c. 240 (see 507.)], already pointed in this direction. "

[see 471., 475., 507., 542.] [see 147-149].

428. "The time seems to be approaching when the question as to 'genuineness'--in the sense now usually attached to the word--will no longer be discussed as regards any of the epistles that have come down from the first Christian centuries; it will be enough to be satisfied of their genuine antiquity. "

[repeat of 284.] [see 477.].

[429.-430. Edwin Johnson 1842 - 1901]

429. "One of the strongest pieces of evidence to our mind, negatively, that the Paul who has so long captivated our admiration and love is not historical, positively, that he is the product, like all similar figures, of religious passion and imagination [see 203.], is that Lucian [c. 117 - c. 180 C.E.], whose glance embraced the great seats of supposed Pauline activity, betrays no knowledge of any such vigorous personality as having left his mark upon the Christian communities from a century before his time.

Lucian on the other hand, is our best witness for the all-prevailing delight in the world of wonder which has anew in our time been laid bare in collections of folk-tales from Greece and the East. He himself with his cool head stands critically aloof, musing and moralising over the human appetite for lies, and the vainglorious love of notoriety. "

[see 413., 414.] [see Reference 546., 37].

430. "His [Justin Martyr, St. c. 100 - c. 165 C.E.] silence about Paul,1 when he had every reason to cite him in his anti-Judaistic reasonings, is a silence that speaks--a void that no iteration of unattested statements, no nebulous declamation, can ever fill. " [see 391.].

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• • •

431. "The great distinction between primitive and scientific thinking may be expressed in a sentence--the modern mind explains man by the world, primitive thought explained [explains] the world by man. " [432., 433.].

432.'It must never be forgotten that the entire theory of the existence of gods and of a "divine" or contranatural order of reality is not a hypothesis made necessary in the light of the contemporary scientific world view. All these ideas, on the contrary, are a heritage from the pre-scientific past when the only knowledge man had was of the order of the crude empiricisms of his workday world.' [see 431., 433.].

433. "To Xenophanes [6th century B.C.E.] all revelation is a pure fiction; the discovery of the invisible is to be made by the intellect of man alone. The vulgar belief which imputes to the Deity the sentiments, passions, and crimes of man, is blasphemous and accursed. "

[see 291., 431., 432.] [see Reference 453. ("80-81") ("182")].

434. "The conception that the pagan deities were real and that they were demons is as old as Paul".

435."St. Augustin's [354 - 430 C.E.] influence on Christian demonology was great and it occupied him much".

436. "No one did more than St. Augustin to communicate to medieval and modern times the superstitions of antiquity. "

437. "The phrase, 'Religion is the opium of the people,' comes, however, not from Marx [1818 - 1883] but from Bruno Bauer [1809 - 1882]. "

[see Reference 437.].

[438.-442. Paul Schmiedel 1851 - 1935.

Assume an historical Peter (Peter [was] is a Fictional character)]

438. "since the days of Baur [F.C. Baur 1792 - 1860]....Peter was never in Rome. It was merely the idea of the romance--that he had to follow 'Simon' everywhere--that led to the assertion of his having come to Rome also....it subserved churchly interests....The whole development, however, is seen to present a perversion of historical truth such as it would be almost impossible to surpass, and which throws a lurid light upon the hostility to history, as well as upon the power, of the idea of a Catholic church. "

[see Reference 438.] [see 183., 561.].

439. "That Peter never was in Rome has already been inferred from the NT and the Church fathers (õ 31). "

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440. "In truth the interest of the Catholic church succeeded very well, thanks to great skill, persistence, and unscrupulosity, in obscuring the actual facts ["That Peter never was in Rome"] of the case".

441. "Still, the whole question after all, is a purely historical [Fictional] one. A claim on the part of the bishop of Rome to supreme authority over the world would not be established even if it were a fact that Peter had been in Rome".

[see 183., 438., 561.].

442. "apostolical succession was not believed in till a date long after the lifetime of Peter...it is in itself an empty doctrine. "

443. "Similarly in Paul there is a complete silence about the empty tomb; and it is likely that Paul did not know of this tradition. In any case, he is more interested in the present reality and future significance of the resurrection than in the purely historical aspect of the event. "

444. "General comparative features of the post-Pauline letters are as follows:

1. Type. The basic type of letter established by Paul is continued. The letters are means of continuing a religious movement, especially shaping and regulating its activity. At least by conscious fiction a major apostolic [Ecclesiastical] writer extends information across physical distance to a person or a community. "

445. "Paul came to be considered the role model for those in authority over dispersed church communities, his model as a letter writer [Authority Impersonations! (see 543.)] was similarly copied. " [see 534.].

446. "it is characteristic of the post-Pauline writings that they are literary creations in their own right, and do not presuppose supplementation by an oral or another written message.5"

[And the Pauline writings? Literary creations!] [see 103.].

• • •

447. "And it is a joy to occupy oneself with a deeply religious man of intellectual purity [sic (non sequitur!)], one who rejects all syncretism [sic], allegory [sic], and sophistry [sic]. "

[Thus speaks Harnack (1851 - 1930) of Marcion, to many, the famous "arch-heretic"] [see 230., 240., 448., 449., 500., etc.].

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448."Marcion (d. c. 160), heretic. He was a native of Sinope [south, central shore of the Black Sea] in Pontus and a wealthy shipowner. Acc. to *Hippolytus (Syntagma ap. *Epiphanius [see 452.], Haer., 42) he was the son of a Bishop who excommunicated him on grounds of immorality. Making his way to Rome, c. 140, he attached himself to the local orthodox Church. In the next few years he worked out his system and began to organize his followers as a separate community; and in 144 he was formally excommunicated. From now on, apparently from Rome as a centre, he devoted his gifts as an organizer to the propagation of his views and established compact communities over a large part of the Empire which admitted converts of every age, rank, and background. " [see 424., etc.] [compare: "Paul"].

449. "Stones, as the proverb runs, are never thrown but at the fruit-laden tree....We know not how to account for the extreme irritation manifested against confessedly eminent [wealthy, etc.] men like Marcion, except by referring to their superior reach and audacity of speculation. " [see 447.].

450. "the body of eighty-two clearly established readings from the text available to Marcion [c. 100 - c. 165 C.E.] is an invaluable window into the state of the early second-century text of Paul's letters. Through it one can see for oneself the fluid state of the text of that time." [Fluid Fiction!] [see 496.].

451. "it is in connection with Marcion that we hear for the first time of Paul".

[see 426., 448.].

452. "In considering the background of Paul, I have returned to one of the earliest accounts of Paul in existence, that given by the Ebionites ["the poor"], as reported by Epiphanius. This account has been neglected by scholars for quite inadequate and tendentious reasons. "

[see 448., 453.] [see Addendum, 147-149, thanks to this Reference (Hyam Maccoby)].

["Epiphanius, St. (c. 315 - 403)....He showed intolerance to St. John Chrysostom and proclaimed Origen a heretic in 394. " (Cambridge Bio. Dict., 1990, 482)].

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453.'20Boulanger, in his "Life of Paul" ["written in French"] has collected from the ecclesiastical histories, and from the writings of the fathers, as they are called, several matters which show the opinions that prevailed among the different sects of Christians at the time the Testament, as we now see it, was voted to be the Word of God. The following extracts are from the second chapter of that work.

The Marcionists (a Christian sect) assumed that the evangelists were filled with falsities. The Manicheans, who formed a very numerous sect at the commencement of Christianity, rejected as false all the New Testament, and showed other writings quite different that they gave for authentic. The Cerinthians, like the Marcionists, admitted not the Acts of the Apostles. The Encratites, and the Sévénians, adopted neither the Acts nor the Epistles of Paul. Chrysostom, in a homily which he made upon the Acts of the Apostles, says that in his time, about the year 400, many people knew nothing either of the author or of the book. St. Irene, who lived before that time, reports that the Valentinians, like several other sects of Christians, accused the Scriptures of being filled with imperfections, errors and contradictions. The Ebionites, or Nazarines, who were the first Christians, rejected all the Epistles of Paul and regarded him as an impostor. They report, among other things, that he was originally a pagan, that he came to Jerusalem, where he lived some time; and that having a mind to marry the daughter of the high priest, he caused himself to be circumcised; but that not being able to obtain her, he quarreled with the Jews and wrote against circumcision, and against the observance of the Sabbath, and against all the legal ordinances. --Author.'

[footnote of Thomas Paine c. 1795]. [see 452.] [see Addendum, 147-149].

• • •

454. "And it is still a question whether 'Paul,' that figure which suddenly starts up in Gnostic company at the middle of the second century more 'hebraises,' or more 'hellenises,' or whether so-called 'Paulinism' be not a heterogeneous mixture of conservatism and innovation; whether the current portraits of this latest 'apostle' do not present variations irreconcilable with the hypothesis of a historic individual. "

[see 13., 297., 461., 462., 467., 487., 488., 534., etc.].

455. "Alternately Peter and Paul act as foils to each other. "

[Literary device] [see 203.].

456. "The Gnostic and Antinomian party, under the leadership of Marcion [c. 100 -c. 165 C.E.], were carrying on their polemic with the reactionary or Catholic party, represented by Justin [c. 100 - c. 165 C.E.], Irenaeus [c. 130 - c. 200 C.E.], and Tertullian [c. 160 - c. 220 C.E.]. "

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457. "The sequel most obviously demanded by the Book of Acts is some account of what became of Paul. Its narrative leaves him in prison, soon to go on trial for his life. "

["The sequel": "The Acts of Paul" ("and Thecla")] [Note: to research "Paul", research "Thecla"--extensively] [see 425.].

[Note: If a sequel is considered fiction, the "original" (in this example, "the Book of Acts") is considered fiction (until proven otherwise!)!] [see 270.].

458. "Aside from the fact that Barnikol mistakenly subsumes the seventeen year span of Galatians into a fourteen year period, thereby getting Paul into Damascus a little too late to have encountered Aretas' ethnarch, this is the most successful chronological scheme [of Paul] ever proposed....Although there is no detailed discussion of the individual journeys, of all the ascertainable dates, or the dating of the letters, this chronological framework would clearly correlate with several knowns: the Gallio inscription, the Claudius edict, the April 15, 57 departure from Philippi, the October, 59 departure from Fair Havens, the most probable date of the Festus/Felix tenure transition, and the time-span for Paul's execution. "

["Paul's execution"! More Fiction!] [see 84., 514., etc.].

459.[Early "Form" letters] "In this respect then, Romans and Ephesians are on a par: like the letters of Epicurus and of Hellenistic kings already referred to, they were both destined for more than one addressee. The blank in the addresses--surprisingly enough not entirely lost from the tradition--cannot but go back to the originals....Romans was sent to Rome with the place-name filled in; and so Ephesians to Ephesus. " [see 538., 539.].

[460.-461. Thomas Whittaker 1856 - 1935]

460. "After reading the celebrated article on 'Paul' [E. Hatch and W. van Manen] in the third volume of the Encyclopaedia Biblica [see Reference 486.], my thought was that, if the conclusions stated could be established by analysis, then Professor van Manen [1842 - 1905] must be regarded as the Copernicus of New Testament criticism. To place the Pauline writings, along with the rest of the New Testament, in the second century, would both remove an anomaly and make possible a consistent deduction of the process by which Christianity came into being. Study of his original work has, so far, confirmed my view. "

[see 65., 228., etc.].

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461. "The inconceivable complexity of such antitheses of doctrine led Julian [331-363 C.E. (Emperor)] to describe Paul as the prince of charlatans...[Greek phrase], but not to deny his authorship of the writings attributed to him. This purely general defence, however, loses its force when an attempt is made to apply it to the particulars. The arbitrary and inconsequent use of the particle...[Greek word], for example, does not seem adequately explained by the favourite resource of modern Protestant philosophical Paulinists--namely, the Apostle's supposed training under the unfortunate Rabbis. Van Manen's hypothesis of the use of sources really explains this peculiarity in the work of a "Greek-speaking and Greek-thinking writer," such as the author or redactor of the Epistle to the Romans undoubtedly was. And, as he [van Manen] observes elsewhere, no one has arrived at a psychology--any more than a logic--of Paul which has satisfied other students. " [Footnote]. [see 365., 462., 487.].

[462.-464. Julian 331 - 363 C.E. (Emperor)]

462. "Now I will only point out that Moses himself and the prophets who came after him and Jesus the Nazarene, yes and Paul also, who surpassed all the magicians and charlatans of every place and every time, assert that he is the God of Israel alone and of Judaea, and that the Jews are his chosen people. "

[see Reference 462.] [see 461., 463., 464., 498.].

463. "they ["Jesus or Paul"] never even hoped that you would one day attain to such power as you ["Galilaeans" (Christians)] have; for they were content if they could delude maidservants and slaves". [repeat of 164.] [see 465.].

464. "But if you can show me that one of these men ["Jesus or Paul"] is mentioned by the well-known writers of that time,--these events happened in the reign of Tiberius or Claudius,--then you may consider that I speak falsely about all matters. " [repeat of 165. (244.)].

465. "Among the factors contributing to the spread of Christianity not the least important was the social quality of the people to whom it offered its supernatural benefits. It numbered among its proselytes as many, if not more, women than men, and women were excluded from most of the privileges of Mithraism, its chief competitor. It openly appealed to the humble, the poor in spirit, slaves, paupers, freedmen, men of bad repute, all those whom other pagan sects with aristocratic tone engendered by age and experience were inclined to disdain. The pagans were quick to note this, and Celsus, about A.D. 180, jeered at the new cult for its extreme democracy: 'It is only the simpletons, the ignoble, the senseless, slaves and womenfolk and children whom they wish to persuade or can persuade.'"

[see Reference 465.] [see 463.].

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466. "the greatest contradiction concerning Jesus's sojourn on earth, if such be granted, lies in the various aliases he adopts or which are bestowed upon him. There is no consistency in his role or identity that emerges from the New Testament, and perhaps he was, like Paul, all things to all people. "

[repeat of 365.] [see 459., 539.].

467.'"Either this man [Paul] was never a Rabbinic Jew at all, or he has quite forgotten what Rabbinic Judaism was and is"'.

[Footnote (C.G. Montefiore, Jewish Quarterly Review, January, 1901)].

[see 468., 469., 522., 545., etc.].

468. "Kaufmann Kohler...the distinguished Talmudic scholar and editor of the Jewish Encyclopaedia, wrote in 1902 that 'nothing in Paul's writings showed that he had any acquaintance with rabbinical learning'--a judgement with which I entirely concur (see chapter 7). " [see 467., 469., 522., 545., etc.].

469. "So Paul's claim to expert Pharisee learning is relevant to a very important and central issue--whether Christianity, in the form given to it by Paul, is really continuous with Judaism or whether it is a new doctrine, having no roots in Judaism, but deriving, in so far as it has an historical background, from pagan myths of dying and resurrected gods and Gnostic myths of heaven-descended redeemers. Did Paul truly stand in the Jewish tradition, or was he a person of basically Hellenistic religious type, but seeking to give a colouring of Judaism to a salvation cult that was really opposed to everything that Judaism stood for?"

[see 467., 468., 522., 545., etc.].

470.'The only hypothesis that satisfactorily explains the peculiar agreement in the style of the whole collection, and at the same time the differences not merely between one Epistle and another, but between different parts of the same Epistle, is that which has been set forth [see 427.]--namely, that none [Pauline Epistles] were written by the Apostle Paul, but that all proceeded from one circle or "school. "' [see 427.].

471. "The Pauline Epistles generally are assigned to the period between 120 and 140. "

[see 257., 427., 450., 496.] [see Reference 484.].

• • •

472. "Paul was the greatest fantasist of all. He created the Christian myth by deifying Jesus".

473. "The myth [Jesus] adumbrated by Paul was then brought into full imaginative life in the Gospels, which were written under the influence of Paul's ideas and for the use of the Pauline Christian Church. " [see 453.] [see Reference 484.].

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474. "Whoever studies Romans closely will be convinced that here the true Paul speaks. " [The Catholic Encyclopedia] [see 489.].

475.[Epistles] "neither are nor every were 'letters' in any proper sense. They were, from the first, neither more nor less than treatises for instruction and edification, bearing witness to the character, aims, experiences, adventures, of persons, opinions, tendencies, in the form of letters written to one or more recipients, usually in a tone of authority, by men of name. These authors are thought of as still alive although they really belong to an earlier generation. Such letters therefore seemed to be, even in the circle of their first recipients, as voices from the past. Yet they bear unmistakable marks of having been written in the later time. " [see 427., 459., 477., etc.].

476.["Religious Fiction"] "Christian leaders of the second and third centuries, whether they held the standard or the schismatic type of belief, were alive to the values of fiction in religion. Not only was fiction useful in propagating their views of truth but it was valuable as a substitute for the romances current among Greeks and Romans. " [repeat of 51.].

477. "The epistolary form as a literary fiction, van Manen remarks...did not need to be invented by the Christian writers, since it had appeared already among Jews, Greeks, and Romans. " [repeat of 52.] [see 428., 535.].

478. "Luke [Acts] did for Paul what Artapanus had done for Moses. He is thereby revealed as a writer of historical fiction [repeat of 53.]. Since he used the methods of novelists, he may also have shared their intention.

Further observations confirm this view. As a dramatic writer Luke devoted great care to the creation of excitement and the generation of suspense. He [Luke] used the means of other dramatic authors, including withheld identity, retardation of the plot, interruptions, and last-minute reversals of fortune....

Luke's freedom permitted him to function as an omniscient author, able to leap from one time or place to another and enter closed chambers to listen in on private conversations and overhear in-camera proceedings. His [Luke] license extended to the composition of entire episodes and the invention of events. Justification of these procedures by reference to this piece from one ancient historian and that incident from another is not nearly so convincing as the assembly of stylistic, structural, narrative, characterizational, and incidental data from ancient popular novels.130...Luke's work was an inspiration for many Acts, but there is no reason to presume that the genre would not have taken root in Christian soil had Acts never been written. " [see 492.].

479. "Most of our extant examples [Prose Fiction] belong to the first three centuries AD, by which time it is felt that Latin literature as well as Greek is well on the way to irreversible decline". [repeat of 54.].

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480. "Part of the creative impulse of narrative fiction seems to have been diverted into Christian writings, where typical romance motifs occur in new systems of meaning....The relationship between fiction and religion is a highly significant and suggestive one. In a sense, they cater to the same need to reassure the individual of his personal worth and discover meaning in the tangled web of his daily experience. " [repeat of 57.].

481. "Middleton's [Conyers Middleton 1683 - 1750. see Reference 481.] Free Inquiry (1748) had argued the improbability of miracles, and asserted that the writers of the third century had habitually applauded falsehood and practiced wholesale forgery, that they had grossly falsified history and given themselves over to pious frauds to stimulate the devotion of the people. "

[see (Thomas Paine 1737 - 1809) 25., 82., 93., 555.].

[see Reference 481., 194-195 (Marcion: "Jesus...came down from heaven". "fifteenth year of Tiberius ["28/29 C.E. "]".)].

482.'In the "seventeenth" and "eighteenth" centuries the European recovered the use of his intellect'. [repeat of 9.].

483.'There is, as H.L. Mencken [1880 - 1956] so aptly put it5 "--the general feeling that religion itself is a highly complicated and enigmatical thing, with functions so diverse and sinister that plain men had better avoid thinking of them, as they avoid thinking about the Queen's legs or the King's death. "'

• • •

484."Paul quotes nothing that is found in our Gospels (Lk. 22, part of 19 and 20 being set aside as an interpolation) except the saying about (I Tim. 5 18) the 'labourer worthy of his hire'....But this is also found in the Didaché".

[caution: not as simple as reflecting on orthodox chronology of the writings of the New Testament].

[see Reference 484.] [see 427., 444., 471., 473., Addendum, 147-149, etc.].

485. "Books of the New Testament, dates of the: The determination of the dates of the various books of the N.T. is beset with difficulties and uncertainties. In the first place, none of these works is explicitly and definitely dated by its author. Nor does any writing contain unmistakable references by which it might be accurately dated. Further, it is highly probable that most of the authors are unknown to us, save for Paul, for apart from his letters the books in the New Testament are almost without exception either anonymous, or, what is worse, pseudonymous. Finally, the external attestation to their authorship and date is meager and as a rule unreliable. "

["save for Paul"? No! Another pseudonym!]. [repeat of 103.].

[see 427., 428., Addendum, 147-149, etc.].

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486. "The group [Pauline Epistles]...bears obvious marks of a certain unity--of having originated in one circle, at one time, in one environment; but not of unity of authorship".

[van Manen 1842 - 1905] [The Ecclesiastical Corporation--at work!].

[see 368., 470., etc.].

487. "No one can prescribe how Paul is to be discovered". [see 461.].

488. "The man [Paul] and his message are not identical with the letters. "

489. "What we have are those forms of Paul's letters which were prepared for church use long after Paul himself [see 474.] [another orthodox (Leander Keck) "romance"!] wrote them. " [see 493., 494., 495.].

490. "Did Paul dominate Christianity in his own time as much as he now dominates the NT? Or does Paul's place in the canon make him loom larger than he actually was?"

[Words encountered in relation to the "Pauline Epistles" ("Paul"): "in the form of letters"; "in a tone of authority"; "voices from the past" (475.); addition; "fluid state of the text" (450.); alterations (501.); interpolation; excursus; annotated; commentary; "manipulating his audience" (519.); "reconciling slaves to their lot and conniving at their exploitation" (523.); "rhetoric of deliverance and reconciliation", "domineer and divide" (526.); "apostolic authority" (537.); "oral address style" (538.); "offering spiritual advice" (541.); "disclosure formula" 542.); "creative letter writer" (544.); pseudonymous (485., 516.); "Paul was a city person" (545.); "silence about Paul" (387., 391., 430., etc.); "pagan deities were real and...demons" (434.); "more interested in the present reality and future significance" (443.); "conscious fiction" (444.); "issuing orders" (515.); "devious strategies of control" (519.); "Paul demands unity and obedience" (520.); "prepared to crucify" (521.); "Paul resorts to flattery and prayer to gain his ends" (524.); "blatantly manipulative function" (525.); "immense psychological power" (527.); "authority impersonations" (543.); "revised and expanded" (494.); "manufacturer of quibbles" (498.); "a priori construction" (241.); enlarged; version (496.); improved; "one environment", "not of unity of authorship" (486.); redacted; "altered, rewritten, and expanded" (493.); compiled; "surpassed all the magicians and charlatans of every place and every time" (462.); recension; translations; dictated; inserted; edited; embellished; "prepared for church use" (489.); "business and commercial metaphors" (491.); "literary creations" (446.); glosses; "Paul Easily Corrupted" (495.); borrowed (plagiarized) (536.); pseudepigrapha (427.); reworked (my favorite!); "Catholic forgery" (494.); "like Paul, all things to all people" (466.); heterogenous; 'all proceeded from one circle or "school"' (470.); "Ecclesiastical Corporation" (534.); etc.].

491."Paul, with his lively colloquial style and his many business and commercial metaphors".

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492. "When the content of Acts, with its high proportion of exciting episodes, legendary presentations, and brief speeches, is taken into account, the scale tilts even more sharply toward the historical novel." [see 478.].

493. "The problem concerning the Pauline literature consists in determining the exact manner in which it was altered, rewritten, and expanded before it was accepted by the Catholic Church. "

494. "The only reasonable conclusion is that, since Paul was the great Gnostic spokesman more than fifty years before his writings became orthodox, these were revised and expanded by a process of Catholic forgery. " [see 493.].

495. "Paul Easily Corrupted. It was particularly easy for the Catholics to revise and expand the Pauline literature since it was used very little outside the heretical communions until after 170. " [see 245.-246., 489., 494., etc.].

496."Marcion [c. 100 - c. 165 C.E.] accepted only ten Pauline epistles and that his version did not contain many of the passages found in our canonical. There can be no reasonable doubt [sic! (see 450., 501.)] that this was the actual corpus of Pauline literature as it existed late in the first century. "

[see 427., 428., 450., 471., 501.].

497. "for Marcion [c. 100 - c. 165 C.E.] denied that Christ was ever born, or arose from the dead, or appeared in a human body. " [see Reference 481., 194-195].

498. "That manufacturer of quibbles, St. Paul, if he wrote the books that bear his name".

[Thomas Paine 1737 - 1809] [see 427., 461., 462.].

499. "The study of theology, as it stands in Christian churches, is the study of nothing; it is founded on nothing; it rests on no principles; it proceeds by no authorities; it has no data; it can demonstrate nothing; and it admits of no conclusion....it is therefore the study of nothing. " [see 420.].

• • •

500. "Marcion's central thesis was that the Christian Gospel was wholly a Gospel of Love to the absolute exclusion of Law. This doctrine...led him to reject the OT completely. " [see 447.].

501. "for Marcion the only Canonical [sic (see 450., 496.)] Scriptures were ten of the Epp. of St. Paul [Marcion's versions (alterations by Marcion himself, are argued [see Reference 450., etc.])] (he either rejected or did not know the *Pastorals) and an edited recension of the Gospel of St. *Luke. " [see 496.].

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502. "Marcion's writings have all been lost; but it is possible to deduce a good deal about them and to reconstruct much of his Biblical text, esp. from Tertullian. "

• • •

503.'Jacob Burckhardt [1818 - 1897] wrote: "Power is of its nature evil, whoever wields it. It is not a stability but a lust, and ipso facto insatiable, therefore unhappy in itself and doomed to make others unhappy. "'

[Jacob Burckhardt, a severe critic of Eusebius (c. 264 - 340 C.E.)].

504. "Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely".

[Lord Acton 1834 - 1902].

505.'The remark of Goethe [1749 - 1832], "The man of action is essentially conscienceless," is endorsed by most observers of political affairs.'

• • •

506. "This endorsement--that religion is good--does not mean to say that religion in any form is necessary or that it is the most efficient or even the most satisfying invention of man for the uses to which it has been put. "

[see 282., 558., 561.-564.].

507. "Whether the fourteen epistles ascribed to Paul were written by him or not is a matter of indifference; they are either argumentative or dogmatical; and as the argument is defective and the dogmatical part is merely presumptive, it signifies not who wrote them.1"

[Thomas Paine 1737 - 1809] [see 427., etc.].

[Reference to authorship of Hebrews ("14th" epistle): Origen c. 185 - c. 254 stated: "God only knows" (The Anchor Bible Dict., 1992, Vol. 3, 97)].

508. "After going on to say that he does not believe in the creed proposed by any church that he knows of, Paine ends with the simple statement 'My own mind is my own church.'3

Paine's moral sentiments are unexceptionable. What remains in question is his deism itself. Does he supply us with any good reason for believing that God exists?"

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509.'He [Eusebius c. 264 - 340 C.E.]] tries to make the best of everything, and manifests a tendency to move churchmen as close as possible to the generation of the apostles...and to push their writings as far back as he can into the apostolic age, while he obscures the chronology of the heretics so that they appear to be more recent.91....In the same vein Eusebius is guilty of a serious misuse of the superlative (myrioi = "countless," pleistoi = "very many," pantes = "all," etc.) when he deals with the church, its size, its influence, its success, its champions, its sacrifices, and the like'.

[see 65., 83., 181., 184., 375., 376., 503.].

510. "It is now generally accepted that no Christian catacomb painting can be dated earlier than 200 CE. The artistic style of the catacomb paintings, it is agreed, is not a novel Christian creation, but represents a continuation of styles found somewhat earlier in late Roman catacomb art. Early Christian catacomb art is thus an extension or continuation of Roman art, albeit under Christian patronage, and not a radical, new departure. "

[Eusebius, Christianity, and Judaism] [see Reference 126.]

[see 65., 112., 228., 265., 376.].

511."Tertullian Quintus Septimius Florens (c. 160 - c. 225), African Church Father. Brought up in Carthage as a pagan....his [Tertullian] influence upon language and thought was sufficient to justify the title of Father of Latin theology. "

[see 512.-513.].

[512.-513. orthodox input]

512. "Montanists particularly professed Millenarianism, an error which maintained that the triumphant Christ would soon come to establish for a thousand years the kingdom foretold in the Apocalypse. The sect, with this Second Coming in view, preached a strict moral rigorism, which led astray even Tertullian ["Father of Latin Theology". Never sainted. A "Heretic"!], the only notable name which Montanism could boast, although it lasted until the eighth century, especially in the east. "

513.'The illustrious Origen [c. 185 - c. 254] himself strayed slightly into this error which is known as Subordinationism, which was to give birth to Arianism in the next century. But it was in the course of these theological researches that a new terminology was evolved which later enabled the most formidable heresies to be refuted.

Tertullian in particular is regarded as the creator of this new language in the west. He produced that excellent formula "three Persons in one only substance". The next chapter will show how the Church made use of this precious formula in a way in which even its author had not always quite understood it.' [see Reference 513.] [see 511.].

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• • •

514. "A map of the Mediterranean region showing the routes of the hero and heroine of a novel inevitably brings to mind the school-bible's map of the travels of St. Paul. Here Xenophon's Ephesian Tale is mapped. " [see 47.-51., 458., etc.].

515. "(When Paul is not talking about himself he is usually issuing orders about how everybody should behave.)"

516. "Despite the absence of printing, the written word had certain advantages as a means of communication. First, and most obviously, it was a means of communicating at a distance. Hence the emphasis on the letter. It is a curious fact, so familiar that we forget its oddity, that one-third [sic (see 535.)] of the sacred book [New Testament] of the Christians consists of letters. Second, and not so obvious, it made possible anonymous and pseudonymous publications. Everyone can see who is delivering a speech; no one can tell at a glance who has composed a writing. This is important for propaganda purposes. "

[see 127.-139., 475., 535., etc.].

517."group behavior is basically regressive. " [see 304.].

518. "Even a group of highly intelligent people usually acts at a lower level of intelligence than its individual members.64" [see 304.].

519."Paul's letters provide the starting point....He cannot resist manipulating his audience. He resorts to devious strategies of control. Yet the same man speaks of love and freedom".

520. "In the name of that Lord Paul demands unity and obedience. He is to be seen subduing critics, subjecting the faithful to his unsolicited censure, and giving firm rulings to their most intimate queries. It is a style that the officials of the Vatican can rightly claim as their own. " [which it (was) is!].

521. "There is a horrid suspicion that he [Paul] ultimately stands with those who were prepared to crucify in order to defend and preserve their position. "

522. "The responsibility of Paul for Christian anti-Semitism has been overlooked because of the settled prejudice that Paul came from a highly Jewish background. It seemed impossible that a 'Hebrew of the Hebrews', a descendant of the tribe of Benjamin, and a Pharisee of standing could be the originator of anti-Semitic attitudes. "

[see Reference 424.] [see 453. (Ebionites) (contrast, etc.)] [see 467.-469.].

523. "All the grand christological claims of [Paul] release and reconciliation end in practice by reconciling slaves to their lot and conniving at their exploitation. "

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524."Paul resorts to flattery and prayer to gain his ends".

525. "The Pauline prayers, for instance, are not simply an early chapter in the history of Christian spirituality: in their context they have a blatantly manipulative function. The eschatological phantasies of the early believers are consistently exploited to inculcate an anxiety which only membership of the apostle's privileged community can allay. " [see 554.].

526."Paul uses the rhetoric of deliverance and reconciliation; at the same time he often acts in ways which domineer and divide. "

527. "So long as physical death could be seen as God's punishment of sinful mankind, the Pauline picture possessed immense psychological power. "

[see Reference 555.].

528. "When Rome was at the apogee of its power, it became infected by the lethal virus of the Jewish heresy--which had been imported by St. Paul, and others of his ilk who might be compared to plague vectors. What Xenopsylia cheopis (the flea), most commonly incriminated as a plague vector, did to humanity pales into relative insignificance compared to what St. Paul did to the Roman empire and to civilization in general. " [see 552., etc.].

529. "Leaving Christianity" (excerpted comments):

"The first stage is denial. "

"The next stage is grief. "

"The third stage is anger. "

"The final stage, the best stage, is acceptance. "

"Eventually, after a critical mass of information has been imparted to the Christian, it will hit her/him that Christianity really isn't true. "

"A person who has been raised in Christianity an entire lifetime has been effectively brainwashed. "

"I don't know if a person can ever totally break free of psychological cues buried in their brain. While these cues may diminish over time, I don't think they are ever eradicated. "

"The real hope lies in the next generation. "

[see 12., 204., 528., 530., 564., etc.].

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530.'As Freud [1856 - 1939] once wrote: "There exists in psychic life a repetition compulsion that goes beyond the pleasure principle. " And again, "The Unconscious never forgets. " A profound truth lies hidden behind these teleological and mystical statements. In simpler language it is just this: the effects of a habit once acquired are never completely eliminated. In that experimentally simple form of learning known as "conditioning" this principle is clearly demonstrable.' [see 204., 529.].

531. "St. Paul of Tarsus--of whom it is doubted was no [has been (ha sido)] more than a legend. "

• • •

532. "It had fallen to the lot of the Gadarene pigs [see Reference 532.] [see arguments of Huxley, Wace, Gladstone, et al. (392-395)] to reduce the argument of the sanctity of the scriptural texts to the ridiculous. Orthodox and non-orthodox had come to see that the book that has so long served to negate reason and obstruct intellectual advance, that for nearly two thousand years had been the source of such bloodlettings, bonfires, imprisonments, tortures, persecutions, wars of 'conversion' and mad crusades as would have astonished a pagan people, was a collection of myths, anecdotes and genealogies, with but a few credible fragments of history interspersed, compiled in a grossly superstitious age and laden with the superstition of its time. It had been written not to edify historians of the future but to gain converts to the new faith or confirm the convictions of those already won. By current literary rules no moral compunctions had restrained its authors from presenting their work under the name of some distinguished character in history or legend, or from interpolating in the works of others. As literature, its best portions had been exceeded in quality, as Gibbon had emphasized, by much in the literature of the Greeks, and as latterly was being discovered, at least equalled by the still more ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic, while many if not most of its estimable moral precepts were the heritage of pagan or Jewish thought. "

[see 16., 26., 33.-39., 71., 83., 88., 89., 91., 93., 282., 284., 395., 420., etc.].

533. "The figure in this creed ["Apostles' Creed"] is a mythical or heavenly figure, whose connection with the sage from Nazareth is limited to his suffering and death under Pontius Pilate. Nothing between his birth and death appears to be essential to his mission or to the faith of the church. Accordingly, the gospels may be understood as corrections of this creedal imbalance, which was undoubtedly derived from the view espoused by the apostle Paul, who did not know the historical Jesus [repeat of 345.]. For Paul, the Christ was to be understood as a dying/rising lord, symbolized in baptism (buried with him, raised with him), of the type he knew from the hellenistic mystery religions. In Paul's theological scheme, Jesus the man played no essential role. " [see 473.].

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534.'The specific character of Paul's authoritative presence is communicated by Paul's description of himself as "apostle"'.

[see 405., 406., 424., 445., 543., etc.].

[Note: For "Paul" ("Apostle Paul", "Saint Paul", etc.), read: Ecclesiastical Corporation (writers, etc.) (my expression, handout of 7/4/93)!].

[see Reference 425., 438.] [see 561.].

535. "it is surely significant that twenty-one of the twenty-seven NT documents are more or less in epistolary form....By contrast, there are no complete OT works in the form of a letter. This fact is especially significant, when it is considered that the NT presupposes [see 81.] the authority and analogy of Jewish Scripture. "

[see 475., 477., 516., 536., 543., etc.].

536. "If all the O.T. influences were to be removed from the N.T., the latter would in many areas consist of little but meaningless shreds. Where the O.T. is not actually quoted, its content and ideas provide subject matter and structure for the Christian author. " [repeat of 88. (298.)].

537. "Why did the letter become such a significant medium of apostolic authority? John Schütz has suggested in a recent work on the institutionalization of apostolicity [Ecclesiastical Corporation--at work!] that the Apostle Paul [Ecclesiastical Corporation] played a central, if not a singular, role.4"

[see 445., 516., 540.].

538. "So far as the NT literature is concerned, the so-called Catholic Epistles partake of the oral address style in their interpretation of Scripture and the Christian tradition. Portions of Paul's letters, in which he engages extensively in scriptural exegesis, notably in Galatians and Romans, and portions of tightly-knit theological passages elsewhere also partake of the character of the oration.10" [see 459., 539.].

539.[Early "Form" letters] "CATHOLIC EPISTLES, The. A title used properly of the NT Epp. of Jas., 1 and 2 Pet., 1 Jn., and Jude, because they were 'general' (i.e. universal) epistles, and (unlike [sic! (see 459.)] those of St. *Paul) not addressed to specified Churches or individuals. " [see 538.].

540. "Paul [Ecclesiastical Corporation] was the first to popularize the letter as an authoritative form of communication within Christianity".

[see 445., 537., etc.].

541. "Paul [Ecclesiastical Corporation] is always offering spiritual advice and direction to Christian congregations....Regarding the similarity of social setting, the body of the letter seems always to have been conceived as a substitute for Paul's oral presence [the "scam"! no Paul no "presence"!] with the congregation. "

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542.[Footnote] '14It is worth noting, however, that Paul seems to prefer a disclosure formula (e.g., "I want you to know, brethren,... ") as his primary means of introducing the letter-body. This is the case in five of the seven [13 accepted previously (plus Hebrews, for some)] letters universally attributed to him [see 427., 507.; see Additional References, Morton and McLeman; etc.]. In the two remaining letters, he introduces the body, or message, of the letter with a request phrase, "I appeal to you, brethren (brother).... "'

543. "almost all of the twenty-one New Testament letters purport to be written by an apostle. " [Authority Impersonations!] [see 445., 534., 535.].

544.'even a creative letter writer like Paul had to express himself by means of recognizable conventions. He may have altered epistolary formulas in a creative fashion but he certainly did not ignore them....Paul replaces the typical word of salutation, chairein (i.e, "the sender to the recipient, 'greeting.'"), with a fuller, separate, phrase, "Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. "' [the hocus-pocus of power pursuits!].

545. "Paul [Ecclesiastical Corporation] was a city person. The city breathes through his language....he seems more at home with the clichés of Greek rhetoric, drawn from gymnasium, stadium, or workshop.1" [see 384., 385.].

• • •

546. "The world is so untruthful, so accustomed to lying, that the truth sounds unbelievable. " [see Reference 546.].

547. "the Church brutalized the breed of our forefathers...She [paraphrase]...aimed at creating ferocious, currish and stupid natures....It is enough to make the blood boil...to be the heirs of such hateful ancestry".

[Sir Francis Galton 1822 - 1911] [see 408.-410.].

548. "it is we Christians who have been the persecutors, the executioners, the assassins. And who were our victims? Our brothers. "

549.'"Ruin the world, if need be; it is the spirit of the Church. "' [see 169.].

• • •

550. "Emerson [Ralph Waldo Emerson 1803 - 1882] abandoned the Unitarian pulpit in 1832 because he was deficient in the dogma of even that attenuated faith, and he dared tell a large audience in his essay on 'Self-Reliance' that 'As men's prayers are a disease of the will, so are their creeds a disease of the intellect.'"

[see 198.].

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551. "We may all, in this country, laugh at Mohammedanism, or Hinduism, or the religious beliefs of primitive people. In other countries we might just as freely laugh at Christianity. " [repeat of 415.].

552. "The patient ["believer", etc.] may notice that the particular convictions that he holds, while having nothing to do with evidence, do seem to owe a great deal to epidemiology....If you have a faith, it is statistically overwhelmingly likely that it is the same faith as your parents and grandparents had....by far the most important variable determining your religion is the accident of birth. The convictions that you so passionately believe would have been a completely different, and largely contradictory, set of convictions, if only you had happened to be born in a different place. Epidemiology, not evidence. "

[see 381., 528.].

553. "In my Future of an Illusion [1927 c] I was concerned much less with the deepest sources of the religious feeling than with what the common man understands by his religion--with the system of doctrines and promises which on the one hand explains to him the riddles of this world with enviable completeness, and, on the other, assures him that a careful Providence will watch over his life and will compensate him in a future existence for any frustrations he suffers here. The common man cannot imagine this Providence otherwise than in the figure of an enormously exalted father. Only such a being can understand the needs of the children of men and be softened by their prayers and placated by the signs of their remorse. The whole thing is so patently infantile, so foreign to reality, that to anyone with a friendly attitude to humanity it is painful to think that the great majority of mortals will never be able to rise above this view of life. It is still more humiliating to discover how large a number of people living today, who cannot but see that this religion is not tenable, nevertheless try to defend it piece by piece in a series of pitiful rearguard actions. " [Sigmund Freud 1856 - 1939].

[see 7., 182., 184., 314., etc.] [compare 556., etc.].

554."Radcliffe-Brown [Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown 1881 - 1955], the anthropologist, has pointed out the circular character of religious fear:

...and if it were not for the existence of the rite and the beliefs associated with it, the individual would feel no anxiety,...the psychological effect of the rite is to create in him a sense of insecurity or danger....Thus, while one anthropological theory is that magic and religion give men confidence, comfort and a sense of security, it could equally well be argued that they ["magic and religion" (see Reference 483.)] give men fears and anxieties from which they would otherwise be free.8" [see 525.] [compare 559., etc.].

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555. "Of all the systems of religion that ever were invented, there is none more derogatory to the Almighty, more unedifying to man, more repugnant to reason, and more contradictory in itself, than this thing called Christianity. Too absurd for belief, too impossible to convince, and too inconsistent for practice, it renders the heart torpid, or produces only atheists and fanatics. As an engine of power, it serves the purposes of despotism; and as a means of wealth, the avarice of priests; but so far as respects the good of man in general, it leads to nothing here or hereafter.1" [Thomas Paine 1737 - 1809] [see Reference 555.].

556.'Jung [1875 - 1961] defines the religious experience as that of being seized by a power outside of ourselves which is not the product of an act of will [see 559.]. Hence it must come out of the "unconscious" which for Jung is already a more or less "religious" entity. Freud [1856 - 1939], on the other hand, considers a feeling of powerlessness to be the opposite of a religious feeling, which is instead a feeling of independence and an awareness of one's powers.'

[see 557.] [compare 553., 559., etc.] [see Reference 173., 175.].

557. "It may be that in some cases the two great impulses of reliance and defiance have become assimilated. The ascetic ["believer"] who subjects himself utterly to the will of his god may simultaneously be seeking the power that derives from his omnipotent ally. If the same belief or delusion permits in this way the simultaneous resolution of both impulses, then the force of both will be combined. This may explain the tremendous strength of religious conviction. The will to power and the will to submission are perfectly combined in submission to omnipotence. "

[repeat of 11.] [see Reference 173., 175.].

558. "religions are historically a trial-and-error product exactly like every other element in our culture, and, as such are proper subjects for objective analysis and study. It is high time they are one and all stripped of their pretenses of having some special, transcendental character. They are but behavior; human, all too human!"

[End of text] [see 282., 506., 561., etc.].

559.'Ultimately, belief in God may be a genetically determined characteristic of human beings. Sociobiologist Edward O. Wilson thinks that belief in God is a coping mechanism, fundamental to the very nature of our species: "Beliefs are really enabling mechanisms for survival. Religions, like other human institutions, evolve so as to enhance the persistence and influence of their practitioners. "6'

[Homo sapiens--behavior!]. [repeat of 194.] [see 557.] [compare 554., etc.].

[560.-563. John William Draper 1811 - 1882]

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560. "The facility with which gods were thus called into existence had a powerful moral effect. The manufacture of a new one cast ridicule on the origin of the old. Incarnation in the East and apotheosis in the West were fast filling Olympus with divinities. In the East, gods descended from heaven, and were made incarnate in men; in the West, men ascended from earth, and took their seat among the gods. It was not the importation of Greek skepticism [see 433., etc.] that made Rome skeptical. The excesses of religion itself sapped the foundations of faith. "

[see 177. (descent and ascension), 248. ("Ascension")].

[see Reference 453., 80-81] [see 553.].

561.["Human origin of the papacy"] "No one can study the development of the Italian ecclesiastical power without discovering how completely it depended on human agency, too often on human passion and intrigues; how completely wanting it was of any mark of the Divine construction and care--the offspring of man, not of God, and therefore bearing upon it the lineaments of human passions, human virtues, and human sins. "

[first saw this book 7/14/95] [see Reference 425., 438.] [see 282., 438.-442., 506., 534., 558., etc.].

562. "For it is with the papacy as with a man [see 564.]. It has passed through the struggles of infancy, it has displayed the energies of maturity, and, its work completed, it must sink into the feebleness and querulousness of old age. Its youth can never be renewed....

Will modern civilization consent to abandon the career of advancement which has given it so much power and happiness?...

Will it submit to the dictation of a power, which, claiming divine authority, can present no adequate credentials of its office; a power which kept Europe in a stagnant condition for many centuries, ferociously suppressing by the stake and the sword every attempt at progress; a power that is founded in a cloud of mysteries; that sets itself above reason and common-sense; that loudly proclaims the hatred it entertains against liberty of thought and freedom in civil institutions; that professes its intention of repressing the one and destroying the other whenever it can find the opportunity".

[see 169., 564., etc.].

563. "The extinction of a religion is not the abrupt movement of a day, it is a secular process of many well-marked stages--the rise of doubt among the candid; the disapprobation of the conservative; the defence of ideas fast becoming obsolete by the well-meaning, who hope that allegory and new interpretations may give renewed probability to what is almost incredible. But dissent ends in denial at last. "

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564. "Catholicism, which has become Romanism, can no longer evolve. It turned aside as from a deadly peril from the enticements in that direction offered by the Reformation and then deliberately destroyed all the bridges between the living world and itself. What then will be the issue of the crisis to which its lengthened existence has led it? Logically, as well as historically, it does not seem as if it will find any other fate than that which remains for us all when we have used up our strength and filled out the number of our days--to break up and die, to return to Nature the elements lent by her, that she may use them again according to her good pleasure.

            It is thus, moreover, that all religions end, religions which, like living organisms, are born of a need, nourished upon death, die day by day of life, and finally lapse again into the eternal crucible. " [End of book].

REFERENCES

424.Ante-Nicene Christian Library: Translations of The Writings of the Fathers Down to A.D. 325, Rev. Alexander Roberts, D.D., and James Donaldson, LL.D., eds., T. & T. Clark, MDCCCLXVIII, Vol. VII, "Tertullianus Against Marcion", Tr. Peter Holmes, 369-371.

from 370-371: 'Now if any one can pretend that he is Christ, how much more might a man profess to be an apostle of Christ!...Let there be a Christ, let there be an apostle, although of another god; [but what matter?] since they are only to draw their proofs out of the Testament of the Creator [see 536.]. Because even the book of Genesis so long ago promised me [the Apostle] Paul. For among the types and prophetic blessings which he pronounced over his sons, Jacob, when he turned his attention to Benjamin, exclaimed, "Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf; in the morning he shall devour the prey, and at night he shall impart nourishment. "1 He foresaw that Paul would arise out of the tribe of Benjamin, a voracious wolf, devouring his prey in the morning: in other words, in the early period of his life he would devastate the Lord's sheep, as a persecutor of the churches; but in the evening he would give them nourishment, which means that in his declining years he would educate the fold of Christ, as the teacher of the Gentiles....Should you, however, disapprove of these types,5 the Acts of the Apostles [Fiction],6 at all events, have handed down to me this career of Paul, which you [Marcion (Tertullian is reviling a dead man (Marcion))] must not refuse to accept [a common denominator in Christianism ("Christianity")! Power Pursuits! (see 503., 504.; see Reference 546. ("37"); etc.)].'

[see 75., 79., 92., 203., 469., etc.].

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425.[Edwin Johnson 1842-1901] [published anonymously], Antiqua Mater [see below]: A Study of Christian Origins, London: Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1887, 240-241.

"the modern quest of the 'ancient Mother' [ANTIQUA MATER] means the renewed study, not so much of the antiquities of this or that people, as of the common heart of Humanity which throbs in all. "

[xx] [Edwin Johnson 1842-1901].

[for biography of Edwin Johnson, see: The Rise of English Culture, Edwin Johnson, Williams and Norgate/G.P. Putnam, 1904, xvii - lii (see xxv: "secret literary society" [reference to his findings in his book: The Pauline Epistles (rare. not seen.)]. My Ecclesiastical Corporation, was in a handout [see 534.], one month prior to receiving this [or Antiqua Mater] book [Interlibrary loans])].

I thank Willem Christiaan van Manen [1842-1905], Encyclopaedia Biblica, 1902, Vol. III, 3632 for (this reference): "For doubting, as is done by E. Johnson, the formerly anonymous writer of Antiqua Mater (1887), the historical existence of Paul and his activity as an itinerant preacher outside the limits of Palestine, there is no reason [apologies follow] [exact sources for this commentary? accuracy? Why did not van Manen indicate the expressions of 425., 429., 430., etc.?] [Probably a classic case of NEGATION (see Sigmund Freud, et al.)!]. "

426.Encyclopaedia Biblica, T. K. Cheyne, J. Sutherland Black, eds., "PAUL" [A Classic!], E. Hatch and W. van Manen [1842-1905], Adam and Charles Black, 1902, Vol. III, 3634.

427.See 426., 3625.

I thank Joseph Wheless (Forgery in Christianity) (see Reference 287., etc.) for this classic reference.

I thank H. H. Waldo Bookseller (Robb Marks), for Joseph Wheless (Forgery in Christianity) as a reference.

I thank Bonnie Lange, the "Truth Seeker", San Diego, for H. H. Waldo Bookseller, as a source.

I thank Chuck Valverde, owner, Wahrenbrock's Book House, San Diego, for encouraging me to visit the office of the "Truth Seeker" [1992].

428.Encyclopaedia Biblica A Critical Dictionary of the Literary Political and Religious History The Archaeology Geography and Natural History of the Bible, T.K. Cheyne, J. Sutherland Black, eds. "OLD-CHRISTIAN LITERATURE", Willem Christiaan van Manen [1842-1905], "Professor of Old-Christian Literature and New Testament Exegesis, Leyden" (xv), 4 Vols., Adam and Charles Black, 1902, Vol. III, 3482. [A Classic!].

429.[Edwin Johnson 1842-1901] [published anonymously], Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins, London: Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1887, 253-254.

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430.See 429., 35.

431.Chapman Cohen [1868-1954], Religion & Sex Studies in the Pathology of Religious Development, T.N. Foulis, 1919, 41.

432.George B. Vetter, New York University, Magic and Religion Their Psychological Nature, Origin, and Function, Philosophical Library, 1958, 309.

[Vetter, 308-309, lauds Homer W. Smith (see Reference 532.)].

[I thank Newton Joseph, "The Freethought Exchange", July/August 1995, 44, for reminding me of this excellent book.].

433.John William Draper [1811-1882], M.D., LL.D., Professor of Chemistry in the University of New York, Author of a "Treatise on Human Physiology," "Civil Policy of America," "History of the American Civil War," &c., History of the Intellectual Development of Europe., Revised Edition, in two volumes, Harper & Brothers, 1876 (1863), Vol. 1, 119.

434.Henry Charles Lea [1825-1909], Materials Toward A History of Witchcraft,

3 Vols., Thomas Yoseloff, 1957, Vol. 1, 41.

435.See 434., 53.

436.See 434., 122.

437.Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Complete and Unabridged Fully Annotated, Reynal & Hitchcock, 1939, 441. [Editorial annotation].

["his [Marx's] (then) friend and mentor ["intellectual mentor"] Bruno Bauer was fired from Bonn [Univ.] for his liberal beliefs. " (Karl Marx, Richard Appelbaum, Sage, 1988, 24, 25].

438.Enclyclopaedia Biblica, Eds. T.K. Cheyne and J. Sutherland Black, "Simon Peter", Paul Schmiedel [1851-1935], Adam and Charles Black, 1903, Vol. IV, 4621.

from: An Encyclopedia of Religion, Vergilius Ferm, ed., Philosophical Library, 1945, 241:

["church"] 'ecclesia: The N. T. denotes the local and universal fellowship of the Christians with the word, ekkl_sia. The Latin Christians took it over in its original Greek form (ecclesia). The word means a "specially called assembly of people". It received a religious meaning when the translators of the Septuagint* adopted it in order to render the Hebrew words referring to Israel as the people of God and the people before God (the "true Israel") into the Greek. When the Christian community applied this name to itself, it therefore appropriated [see 81., 169., 171., 215., 405.-407., 424., 536., 544., etc.] for itself the claim of being the "true Israel", "God's holy nation", the messianic fellowship.

The English translation of ecclesia is "church"'.

439.See 438., 4626.

440.See 438., 4626.

441.See 438., 4626.

442.See 438., 4627.

PAGE 130


443.Origins of Christianity, R. Joseph Hoffmann, ed., "The Story of the First Easter", J. K. Elliott, Prometheus, 1985, 318.

444.William G. Doty, Letters in Primitive Christianity, Fortress, 1973, 67.

445.See 444., 67.

446.See 444., 68.

447.Adolf von Harnack [1851-1930], Marcion The Gospel of the Alien God,

Tr., John E. Steely and Lyle D. Bierma, Labyrinth Press, 1990 (1921 Germany) (origins 1870 ["ix"]), "ix".

448.The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone, eds., Oxford, 1974 (1957), 870.

449.[Edwin Johnson 1842-1901] [published anonymously], Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins, London: Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1887, 213.

450.The Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series, "A Lost Edition of the Letters of Paul A Reassessment of the Text of the Pauline Corpus Attested by Marcion", John J. Clabeaux, 1989, 5-6.

451.[Edwin Johnson 1842-1901] [published anonymously], Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins, London: Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1887, 215.

452.Hyam Maccoby, The Mythmaker Paul and The Invention of Christianity,

Harper & Row, "1987" Pb. (c1986), xii. [first made notations 8/5/95].

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453.Thomas Paine [1737-1809], The Age of Reason, Citadel, 1974 (1948) (1794 Paris), 173.

from 80-81 (footnote of Thomas Paine): "thousands of other gods and demi-gods were imaginarily created, and the calendar of gods increased as fast as the calendar of saints and the calendars of courts have increased since. [see 560.]

All the corruptions that have taken place in theology and in religion have been produced by admitting of what man calls revealed religion. The Mythologists pretended to more revealed religion than the Christians do. They had their oracles and their priests, who were supposed to receive and deliver the word of God verbally, on almost all occasions.

Since then, all corruptions, down from Moloch to modern predestinarianism, and the human sacrifices of the heathens to the Christian sacrifice of the Creator [?], have been produced by admitting of what is called revealed religion. "

from 182: "The most detestable wickedness, the most horrid cruelties, and the greatest miseries that have afflicted the human race have had their origin in this thing called revelation, or revealed religion. It has been the most dishonorable belief against the character of the Divinity, the most destructive to morality and the peace and happiness of man that ever was propagated since man began to exist. "

from 182: "Whence arose all the horrid assassinations of whole nations of men, women and infants, with which the Bible is filled, and the bloody persecutions and tortures unto death, and religious wars, that since that time have laid Europe in blood and ashes--whence rose they but from this impious thing called revealed religion, and this monstrous belief that God has spoken to man? The lies of the Bible have been the cause of the one, and the lies of the Testament of the other. "

from 187 (footnote of Thomas Paine): "25The book called the book of Matthew says (chap. iii, verse 16), that the Holy Ghost descended in the shape of a dove. It might as well have said a goose; the creatures are equally harmless, and the one is as much of a nonsensical lie as the other. The second of Acts, ver. 2, 3, says that it descended in a mighty rushing wind, in the shape of cloven tongues, perhaps it was cloven feet. Such absurd stuff is only fit for tales of witches and wizards. --Author"

PAGE 132


from 156: "I have now gone through the Bible [OT], as a man would go through a wood with an axe on his shoulder and fell trees. Here they lie; and the priests, if they can, may replant them. They may, perhaps, stick them in the ground, but they will never make them grow. I pass on to the books of the New Testament. "

from 42 (biographical introduction: Philip S. Foner): '"No writer," Jefferson [Thomas Jefferson 1743-1826] observed in 1821, "has exceeded Paine in ease and familiarity of style, in perspicuity of expression, happiness of elucidation, and in simple and unassuming language. "'

454.[Edwin Johnson 1842-1901] [published anonymously], Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins, London: Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1887, 233-234.

455.See 454., 241.

456.See 454., 253.

457.Edgar J. Goodspeed, A History of Early Christian Literature, Revised and Enlarged by Robert M. Grant, U. Chicago, 1966 (1942), 65.

458.Robert Jewett, A Chronology of Paul's Life, Fortress, 1979, 81.

459.G. Zuntz, The Text of the Epistles A Disquisition Upon the Corpus Paulinum, The Schweich Lectures of the British Academy 1946, Oxford, 1953, 276-277. [See chart: "An attempt at a graphic presentation of the 'Stream of the Tradition'"; 265].

460.Thomas Whittaker [1856-1935], The Origins of Christianity with An Outline of Van Manen's Analysis of the Pauline Literature, "3rd. " edition, Watts, 1914, xxix.

461.See 460., 103.

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462.The Works of the Emperor Julian [331-363 C.E. (spear!)], Tr. Wilmer Cave Wright, 3 vols., Heinemann, 1990 (1913), vol. III, 341 ["Against the Galilaeans" (Christians)].

from 343, 345: 'But that from the beginning God cared only for the Jews and that He chose them out as his portion, has been clearly asserted not only by Moses and Jesus but by Paul as well; though in Paul's case this is strange. For according to circumstances he keeps changing his views about God, as the polypus changes its colours to match the rocks,2 ["2For this proverb, derived from Theognis, cf. Misopogon 349D, Vol. 2"] and now he insists that the Jews alone are God's portion, and then again, when he is trying to persuade the Hellenes to take sides with him, he says: "Do not think that he is the God of Jews only, but also of Gentiles: yea of Gentiles also. "3 ["3 Romans 3.29; Galatians 3.28. "] Therefore it is fair to ask of Paul why God, if he was not the God of the Jews only but also of the Gentiles, sent the blessed gift of prophecy to the Jews in abundance and gave them Moses and the oil of anointing, and the prophets and the law and the incredible and monstrous elements in their myths? For you hear them crying aloud: "Man did eat angels' food. "4 ["4 Psalms 78.25. "] And finally God sent unto them Jesus also, but unto us no prophet, no oil of anointing, no teacher, no herald to announce his love for man which should one day, though late, reach even unto us also. Nay he even looked on for myriads, or if you prefer, for thousands of years, while men in extreme ignorance served idols, as you call them, from where the sun rises to where he sets, yes and from North to South, save only that little tribe which less than two thousand years before had settled in one part of Palestine. For if he is the God of all of us alike, and the creator of all, why did he neglect us? Wherefore it is natural to think that the God of the Hebrews was not the begetter of the whole universe with lordship over the whole, but rather, as I said before, that he is confined within limits, and that since his empire has bounds we must conceive of him as only one of the crowd of other gods. Then are we to pay further heed to you because you or one of your stock imagined the God of the universe, though in any case you attained only to a bare conception of Him? Is not all this partiality [Nationalism! see Reference 225., x (foreword by Albert Einstein)]? God, you say, is a jealous God. But why is he so jealous, even avenging the sins of the fathers on the children?1'

["1 Exodus 20.5. "]. [see Reference 465.].

463.See 462., 377.

464.See 462., 377.

PAGE 134


465.Homer W. Smith, Physiologist (authority on human kidney), author, etc., Man and His Gods, Foreword by Albert Einstein, Little, Brown, 1952, 202-203.

from 203: "'I speak bitterly about this,' he [Celsus c. 180 C.E.] says, 'because I feel bitterly. When we are invited to the Mysteries the masters use another tone. They say, "Come to us ye who are of clean hands and pure speech, ye who are unstained by crime, who have a good conscience towards God, who have done justly and lived uprightly. " But let us hear what sort these people [the Christians] invite; "whosoever is a sinner or unintelligent, or a fool, in a word, whosoever is god-forsaken, him the kingdom of God will receive. " Now whom do you mean by the sinner but the wicked, thief, housebreaker, poisoner, temple robber, grave robber? Whom else would a brigand invite to join him?...Jesus, they say, was sent to save sinners; was he not sent to help those who have kept themselves free from sin? They pretend that God will save the unjust man if he repents and humbles himself. The just man who has held steadily from the cradle in the ways of virtue he will not look upon.'"

[see 217., 463., 465.] [see Reference 462.].

466.Ruth Hurmence Green, The Born Again Skeptic's Guide to the Bible, Freedom From Religion Foundation, 1992 (1979), 144.

467.Thomas Whittaker [1856-1935], The Origins of Christianity with An Outline of Van Manen's Analysis of the Pauline Literature, "3rd. " edition, Watts, 1914, 125.

468.Hyam Maccoby, The Mythmaker Paul and the Invention of Christianity,

Harper & Row, "1987" Pb. (c1986), 209.

469.See 468., 13.

470.Thomas Whittaker [1856-1935], The Origins of Christianity with An Outline of Van Manen's Analysis of the Pauline Literature, "3rd. " edition, Watts, 1914, 136.

471.See 470., 148 (footnote).

472.Hyam Maccoby, The Mythmaker Paul and the Invention of Christianity,

Harper & Row, "1987" Pb. (c1986), 204.

PAGE 135


473.See 472., 205.

from 206: "The history of New Testament scholarship may be summarized as follows. Though some sporadic efforts had been made (by Jewish scholars in the Middle Ages and by English and German Deists in the eighteenth century) to apply scientific principles to the study of the New Testament, this was begun in a massive way only in the nineteenth century. The religious dogma of scriptural infallibility was abandoned, and it was fully acknowledged that contradictions and inconsistencies in the narratives should not be 'harmonized' away, but should be treated as the outcome of human fallibility. It was recognized that the books of the New Testament were derived from various sources, stitched together as best the editors could manage, and that the editors had been much affected by considerations of bias and propaganda in their work, suppressing or altering what did not suit their religious standpoint in the controversies of the early Church. " [see 282., 481., 532., Addendum, 147-149, etc.].

from 207: "In the twentieth century, however, an ingenious way was found to halt this unpalatable trend ["that Jesus himself and his earliest followers in the 'Jerusalem Church' were very Jewish figures". (206)]. This was to cast doubt on whether the New Testament contains any material of historical value at all. The school of 'form criticism', of which Rudolf Bultmann became the leading exponent, denied that there was any underlying historical layer in the New Testament at all, since the narrative framework was merely a device for linking together items which served various functions in the life of the Church of the late first century and second century. This intensified scepticism served a pious purpose, for, by removing Jesus from historical enquiry, it was possible to prevent him from assuming too Jewish an outline. Instead of defending the traditional Jesus by attempting to reassert the editorial standpoint of the Gospels (a trap into which nineteenth-century apologists had fallen) it was now possible to defend an orthodox standpoint through the ultra-scepticism of declaring the quest for the historical Jesus to be impossible. All the evidence of Jesus' Jewishness in the Gospels could simply be ascribed to a phase of "re-Judaization" in the history of the Church: this too served a Church function. Though the historical Jesus was beyond a historical approach, he could still be reverently guessed at through faith; and the guess generally made was that he must have had some affinity with the doctrines at which the Church eventually arrived. So, by a tour de force, the ultra-sceptics found themselves thankfully back at square one. " [see 184., 294.].

474.The Catholic Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia Press, 1913 (1912), 159.

475.Encyclopaedia Biblica A Critical Dictionary of the Literary Political and Religious History The Archaeology Geography and Natural History of the Bible, T. K. Cheyne, J. Sutherland Black, eds., "OLD-CHRISTIAN LITERATURE", Willem Christiaan van Manen [1842-1905], Adam and Charles Black, 1902, Vol. III, 3480-3481.

476.Edgar J. Goodspeed, A History of Early Christian Literature, Revised and Enlarged by Robert M. Grant, U. Chicago, 1966 (1942), 64.

PAGE 136


477.Thomas Whittaker [1856-1935], The Origins of Christianity with An Outline of Van Manen's Analysis of the Pauline Literature, "3rd. " edition, Watts, 1914, 136 (footnote).

478.Richard I. Pervo, Profit With Delight The Literary Genre of the Acts of the Apostles, Fortress, 1987, 135.

479.Graham Anderson, Ancient Fiction The Novel in the Graeco-Roman World, Croom Helm/Barnes & Noble, 1984, 1.

480.Greek Fiction The Greek Novel in Context, J. R. Morgan and Richard Stoneman, eds., Routledge, 1994, 8.

481.Homer W. Smith, Man and His Gods, Foreword by Albert Einstein, Little, Brown, 1952, 383.

[Conyers Middleton 1683-1750, Cambridge B.A. 1702-3, M.A. 1707, elected Fellow 1706. Prolific writer, etc. See: Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. XIII, 343-348].

[See: Conyers Middleton: Thomas Paine The Age of Reason Part Three Examination of the Prophecies, Edited and annotated by Frank Zindler, American Atheist Press, 1993 (1807), 68-73, 76, 80].

from 164: [Plato c. 428 - c. 348 B.C.E. (influence on Christianism)] "who disdained any investigation of nature in favor of his hypostasized ideas, who conceived man as an immortal soul temporarily inhabiting an inconsequential house of clay, who dismissed the world of material realia for a world of dreams, who did not believe in the gods himself but who recommended imprisonment for the skeptic who out of religious disquietude questioned their authority, and death for the atheist who denied their very existence (except for the Plato who made of all philosophy a living lie). " [see 411.].

from 194-195: "The most novel feature of Marcion's [Marcion c. 100 - c. 165 C.E.] teaching was contained in the opening sentence of his gospel: 'Now, in the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar [see 102.], Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, Jesus, the Son of God, came down from heaven and appeared at Capernaum, a town in Galilee.' Here, for the first time, is recorded a specific date [see 102.] for Jesus's appearance on earth, but Marcion's Jesus was not truly of the flesh, but a spiritual apparition who appeared suddenly as an adult and had only the semblance of a man.

[Source for the above quote? See: 138-139 (Tertullian. The Gospel of the Lord.)]

PAGE 137


The belief that Jesus had actually (or seemingly) appeared on earth, at a relatively recent time, and had actually (or seemingly) been crucified, was possibly one which was prevalent in the Asiatic provinces where Marcion lived. The Roman Christians, to judge from the writings of Hermas, apparently never entertained such a notion. However, Marcion had come upon the idea, the reference to the erection of Paul's Cross on earth in the historic time of Pilate strongly fortified the whole Christian argument. All the churches were prepared to accept without debate Marcion's introductory assertion concerning the historicity of Jesus's crucifixion and its date; otherwise, they [churches] rejected his beliefs and revised his [Marcion's] gospel according to their local preferences, the product which received favor in Rome appearing about 135 under the name of Mark. Mark still has the adult Jesus appear suddenly on earth at the beginning of his ministry, but he no longer functions in a purely mystical manner as does Marcion's Jesus: he uses his spittle to cure a blind man, puts his fingers into ear holes, touches tongues, lays on hands, looks up to heaven, heaves, sighs and utters abracadabra in the manner of all professional exorcists.

In Asia Minor about 140, a Christian scribe, who was a converted rabbi, and wrote under the name of a legendary "Matthew," noted how much of Marsion's [sic] gospel had been omitted from Mark's account, and disliking Marcion's anti-Yahwism, rearranged the material in such a manner as to controvert Marcion and yet make Jesus a Jew. He set out to show that Jesus was the Messiah, the Prince of Yahweh who had been promised by the prophets of Israel, and to accomplish this he ["Matthew"] pieced together a pseudobiographical story in which every syllable of prophecy in the Old Testament was fulfilled in Jesus's life, inventing to this end Jesus's miracles, his intentional obscurity, the obtuseness of his hearers, his employment of parables, his entry into Jerusalem, his betrayal, desertion and arrest, even the use made of the price of his betrayal. "

[see 368.-370., 536., Addendum, 147-149, etc.] [see Reference 473.] [see "Marcion, Gospel of", Robert M. Grant, The Anchor Bible Dictionary, 1992, Vol. 4, 516-520].

from Reference 424. (Tertullian), 190, 191:

'In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius9 (for such is Marcion's proposition) he [Christ] "came down to the Galilean city of Capernaum," of course meaning10 from the heaven of the Creator, to which he had previously descended [apparently, from higher than "the heaven of the Creator"] from his own [own heaven].'

"It is, in short, too bad8 that Romulus should have had in Proculus an avoucher of his ascent to heaven, when the Christ of [this] god could not find any one to announce his descent from heaven; just as if the ascent of the one and the descent of the other were not effected on one and the same ladder of falsehood!" [Tertullian rejects both tales].

[(8/21/98) See: #23, 475; Encyc. Biblical Errancy, 44-45; etc.].

PAGE 138


from: The Gospel of the Lord: an early version which was circulated by Marcion of Sinope as The Original Gospel, Tr. [Greek] James Hamlyn Hill, Cambridge, reprint [AMS Press 1980] of the 1891 ed. published for J. Whitehead, Guernsey, "1" (quotation marks omitted):

THE GOSPEL OF THE LORD.

-•- S. Luke.

III.

1 In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, 1

IV.

2 [Pontius Pilate being the Governor of Judaea,] Jesus 31

came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee, and was

3 teaching on the sabbath days: and they were astonished 32

at his doctrine: for his word was in authority.

482.[Edwin Johnson 1842-1901] [published anonymously], Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins, London: Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1887, lii.

483.George B. Vetter, New York University, Magic and Religion Their Psychological Nature, Origin, and Function, Philosophical Library, 1958, 13.

484.Encyclopaedia Biblica, T. K. Cheyne, J. Sutherland Black, eds., "GOSPELS" [A classic!], Paul Schmiedel [1851-1935], Adam and Charles Black, 1901, Vol. II, 1825.

Impressions: early (dates of earliest [oral. written.] versions?) versions of the Pauline epistles, and the Gospels, had an overlapping chronology, in the 2nd century.

[compare 46.: "(novels can have long history)".

compare 47.: "one is inclined to put the novel [Ephesian Tale] in the second century AD, the great century of this genre. "].

[see 40., 41., 44., 46., 47., 54., 63. 65., 103., 228., 257., 471., 473., 479., 496., etc.] [see Reference 473., 514., Addendum, 147-149, etc.].

485.An Encyclopedia of Religion, Vergilius Ferm, ed., Philosophical Library, 1945, 83.

486.Encyclopaedia Biblica, T. K. Cheyne, J. Sutherland Black, eds., "PAUL" [A classic!], E. Hatch and W. van Manen [1842-1905], Adam and Charles Black, 1902, Vol. III, 3626.

487.Leander Keck, Paul and His Letters, Fortress, 1979 (First Edition) (1988), vii.

488.See 487., vii.

489.See 487., 14.

490.See 487., 3.

491.Northrop Frye [1912-1991], The Great Code The Bible and Literature, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1982 (1981), 213.

PAGE 139


492.Richard I. Pervo, Profit With Delight The Literary Genre of the Acts of the Apostles, Fortress, 1987, 137.

493.Martin A. Larson, The Story of Christian Origins or The Sources and Establishment of Western Religion, Village Press, 1977, 437.

494.See 493., 438.

495.See 493., 438.

496.See 493., 524.

497.See 493., 529.

498.Thomas Paine [1737-1809], The Age of Reason, Citadel, 1974 (1948) (1794 Paris), 65.

499.See 498., 187.

500.The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone, eds., Oxford, 1974 (1957), 870.

501.See 500., 870.

502.See 500., 870.

503.John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, First Baron Acton [1834-1902], Essays on Freedom and Power, Beacon, 1949, xlvi.

504.See 503., xv.

505.See 503., xlvii.

506.Edward Norbeck, Rice University, Religion in Primitive Society, Harper & Row, 1961, 280.

507.[Sir] A. J. Ayer, Thomas Paine, U. Chicago, 1988, 150.

508.See 507., 152.

509.Walter Bauer [1877-1960], Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity, translated by a team from the Philadelphia Seminar on Christian Origins, Fortress, 1971 (1934 German), 191.

510.Eusebius, Christianity, and Judaism, Harold W. Attridge and Gohei Hata, eds., "Early Christian and Jewish Art", Joseph Gutman, Wayne State U., c1992, 270.

[more "serendipity" (see Reference 126.). found 8/6/95, University of San Diego, on a desk].

511.The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone, eds., Oxford, 1974 (1957), 1352.

512.Léon Cristiani, Msgr., Heresies and Heretics, Edited by Henri Daniel-Rops of the Académie Francaise, Tr. Roderick Bright, Nihil Obstat, M.T. Barton, S.T.D., L.S.S., Censor Deputatus, Imprimatur, E. Morrogh Bernard, Vicarius Generalis, Westmonasterii die XVI Januarii MCMLIX, Hawthorn, 1959, 16.

PAGE 140


513.See 512., 18.

from 29 (orthodox input): "It was the glory of the great emperor Theodosius [Theodosius I 346-395. "A pious and intolerant Christian". (Cambridge Bio. Dict., 1990, 1448)] that he put a final stop to these harassing controversies, in the course of which, nevertheless, the theology of the Trinity had maintained a remarkable stability. Theodosius, ever since his baptism, received as an adult, had expressed the wish to conform in all things, particularly in the matter of the Trinity, with the opinions of the bishop of Rome and with the faith publicly professed by the pope and by Athanasius of Alexandria. But having become emperor he appreciated that the orientals entertained some susceptibility with regard to the pope and to the successor of Anthanasius. Skilfully he summoned a council at Constantinople comprising scarcely any but orientals. Gregory Nazianzen [c. 330 - c. 389 C.E.], a great orator, theologian and a true saint [(Met) ignored by Julian (331-363 C.E.). After Julian's death, an acid critic of Julian (see Additional References: Athanassiadi, Polymnia, Julian An Intellectual Biography, 127)], had recently become bishop of that city. The emperor began by restoring to the Catholics all the churches of the city which had been occupied by Arians. Then, in agreement with Gregory Nazianzen, he summoned the eastern bishops, one hundred and eighty-six of whom came, thirty-six of these being Macedonians. The council was presided over successively by Meletius of Antioch, by St. Gregory Nazianzen, and after the resignation of the latter by his successor Nectarius. This council definitely approved the doctrines of the Council of Nicaea, hurled an anathema against Arianism and Semi-Arianism, particularly the heresies of the Anomoeans and Homoeans, as well as the Homoiousians. Lastly, the council proclaimed the divinity of the Holy Spirit as equal with that of the Word and of the Father. The Macedonians were thus rejected from the Church and so the Creed of Nicaea was completed [complex history, see: Oxford Dict. of The Christian Church, 1974, 968]; Arianism survived until the seventh century only amongst the barbarians. "

[See: 141-142 (Through the Looking Glass. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers.)].

from: Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass, Lewis Carroll [Charles Dodgson 1832-1898], Illustrated by John Speirs, Messner, "1983" (1978 Schocken), 198 (Through the Looking Glass):


'"When I use a word," Humpty Dumpty said in
rather a scornful tone, "it means just what I choose
it to mean--neither more nor less. "
"The question is," said Alice, "whether you can
make words mean different things. "
"The question is," said Humpty Dumpty,
"which is to be master--that's all. "'

PAGE 141


from: A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Philip Schaff and Henry Wace, eds., Eerdmans, [n.d.] [1893?], Vol. VII, "457":

[Note: Caesarius, brother of Gregory Nazianzen, upon the death of the Emperor Constantius [361 C.E.], was retained by Julian (successor), at Court. Gregory wrote to Caesarius, to dissuade him from the influence of Julian.].

[excerpt] "Our venerable Father is very much distressed by all that he hears, which even disgusts him with life. I console and comfort him as best I can, by making myself surety for your mind, and assuring him that you will not continue thus to grieve us. But if our dear Mother were to hear about you (so far we have kept her in the dark by various devices), I think she would be altogether inconsolable; being, as a woman of a weak mind, and besides unable, through her great piety, to control her feelings on such matters. If then you care at all for yourself and us, try some better and safer course. "

[Caesarius "withdrew to Nazianzus"].

514.Tomas Hägg, The Novel in Antiquity, U. California, 1983 (1980 Sweden), map [end papers].

515.Robert Carroll, Wolf in the Sheepfold The Bible as a Problem for Christianity, SPCK, 1991, 123.

516.Propaganda and Communication in World History, Harold D. Lasswell, Daniel Lerner, Hans Speier, eds., 3 Vols., U. Hawaii, 1979, Vol. I, 289-290.

517.See 516., 434.

518.See 516., 436.

519.Graham Shaw, Chaplain of Exeter College, Oxford, The Cost of Authority Manipulation and Freedom in the New Testament, SCM, 1983, back cover.

520.See 519., 62.

521.See 519., 125.

522.Hyam Maccoby, The Mythmaker Paul and The Invention of Christianity,

Harper & Row, "1987" Pb. (c1986), 203.

523.Graham Shaw, Chaplain of Exeter College, Oxford, The Cost of Authority Manipulation and Freedom in the New Testament, SCM, 1983, 135.

524.See 523., 179.

525.See 523., 181.

526.See 523., 183.

527.See 523., 280.

528.Soledad De Montalvo, Women, Food and Sex In History, 4 Vols., American Atheist, 1988, Vol. II, 448. [Non Pareil!].

529.Rhonda Diane Jockisch, "The Freethought Exchange", July/August 1995,

47-48. [I thank the author, for agreeing to this presentation.].

530.George B. Vetter, Magic and Religion Their Psychological Nature, Origin, and Function, Philosophical Library, 237-238.

531.Eduardo del Rio Garcia, aka RIUS, Manual of a Perfect Atheist, American Atheist Press, 1984 (1981 Spanish), 84.

PAGE 142


532.Homer W. Smith, Man and His Gods, Foreword by Albert Einstein, Little, Brown, 1952, "396". [See: Mt. 8:28-34; Mk. 5:1-20; Lk. 8:26-39].

[I thank Nicholas Carter, The Christ Myth, 1993, 149-150, for this reference, and for stimulating my interest in Homer Smith.].

533.The Five Gospels The Search for the Authentic Words of Jesus, Robert Funk, Roy Hoover, The Jesus Seminar, Macmillan, 1993, 7.

534.John L. White, Light From Ancient Letters, Fortress, 1986, 219.

535.the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, "Saint Paul and Apostolic Letter Tradition",

John L. White, Vol. 45, No. 3 / July, 1983, 434.

536.Henry Shires, Finding the Old Testament in the New, Westminster, 1974, 15. [See: Superb Tables (183-206)].

537.the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, "Saint Paul and Apostolic Letter Tradition",

John L. White, Vol. 45, No. 3 / July, 1983, 434.

538.See 537., 436.

539.The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingstone, eds., Oxford U., 1974 (1957), 255.

540.The Catholic Biblical Quarterly, "Saint Paul and Apostolic Letter Tradition",

John L. White, Vol. 45, No. 3 / July, 1983, 436.

541.See 540., 439.

542.See 540., 439.

543.John L. White, Light From Ancient Letters, Fortress, 1986, 19.

544.See 543., 20.

545.Wayne Meeks, The First Urban Christians The Social World of the Apostle Paul, Yale U., 1983, "9".

546.Max J. Friedländer [1867-1958], assistant of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum (Berlin), author, etc., Reminiscences and Reflections, Edited from the literary remains and with a foreword by Rudolf M. Heilbrunn, Tr. Ruth S. Magurn, New York Graphic Society, 1969 Pb. (c1967 Germany), 82.

[I found this book (author) 7/16/95, University of San Diego library sale ($0.25)].

PAGE 143


 

Reminiscences and Reflections

from 32-33: 'One has little prospect of saying something new, and at the same time accurate--"that former ages have not already thought of. " Therefore every effort must be made to say clearly, intelligibly, what one may have to say, without the ambition of saying something new.'

from 34: "Wise thoughts of famous authors become quoted. For the most part it may be pointed out that the thought is older, that the quoted author has simply formulated it tersely, has made it understandable to us, and give[s] it felicitous expression. "

from 36: "The authors who set out to say something that no one has said before--a difficult task, considering the millions of books that have been written--are to be regarded with mistrust. With the choice of saying something accurate, what they consider accurate, or of saying something that has not yet occurred to anyone, they will always choose the second. Thus particularly Chesterton, but also Nietzsche and Shaw. Therefore a phenomenon of the times. Schopenhauer was still free from this tendency. He is full of wit in order to make something pictorially clear, but never at the cost of veracity. "

from 37: 'Whoever wants to get along with his fellow men should never forget that each one, whatever else he is, considers himself the center of the world. Not so much what he thinks and says, but what he feels, the will and instinct that determine his actions, are egocentric.

"Tact" is the capacity to take into consideration the egoism of others, to reckon with it.' [see 194.] [see Reference 173., 175.].

from 40: "He expects so little of men, that he does not come to the point of despising anyone at all. He has such slight regard for all, that he does not despise the individual. General contempt for mankind is linked with tolerance for the individual man. " [?].

from 55: "Since one has no prospect of saying something that someone else has not already said, one takes pains to say it well. "

from 69: "Have been reading Mauthner's History of Atheism, only the last volume, his critique of language. One who can, with astonishing erudition, write four thick volumes on atheism has not yet freed himself from "faith. " Polemic literature can no longer interest a genuine unbeliever. "

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from 70-71: "Statistics would be interesting on the share of working time scholars spend in reading. I suppose by far the greater portion. They think the thoughts of others who, on their part, have thought the thoughts of still others. This, however, is not thinking in the true sense. Out of boredom and ambition they read critically, that is, contradict. But even this is not thinking in the true sense. The rare, the new, thought occurs only when an individual mind creates it out of impression and contemplation[?]. "

from 82: "With the invention of book printing [now: skyscrapers, television, photocopiers, computers, etc.], the way was prepared for the Reformation, and indirectly for the dissolution of Christian doctrine. "

from 83: "There may have existed, or at least there could have existed, significant literature which does not exist. An author who was in advance of his time could not count upon understanding and acceptance, therefore found no publisher. Only books whose authors think and feel in some degree in accord with their time, at least with a minority of their contemporaries, come to light. Thus Stendhal, had he been born forty years earlier, would not have found publication, and U. Sinclair just as little. Thoughts which were expressed for the first time about 1900 could have stirred much earlier, provided someone--even in a monologue--dared to utter them. From this it is to be concluded that the freest and greatest minds may not have found expression in words. "

547.[Sir] Francis Galton [1822-1911], Hereditary Genius, Appleton, 1883 (1869), 357, 358.

548.A Treatise on Toleration and Other Essays Voltaire [1694-1778], Tr. Joseph McCabe, Prometheus, 1994, 185.

549.See 548., 73.

550.Homer W. Smith, Physiologist (authority on human kidney), author, etc., Man and His Gods, Foreword by Albert Einstein, Little, Brown, 1952, 401.

551.Chapman Cohen [1868-1954], Essays in Freethinking, 2 Vols., American Atheist, 1987 (1923), Vol. 1, 186.

552.Free Inquiry, Title of this issue: "Is Religion a Form of Insanity?", Summer 1993, "Viruses of the Mind", Richard Dawkins, 40.

553.Sigmund Freud [1856-1939], Civilization and its Discontents, Tr. James Strachey, Norton, 1961 (1930) (1930 German), 21.

[I thank Charles Schisler, "The Freethought Exchange", March/April 1995, 89, for presenting this excellent expression of Sigmund Freud, and for agreeing to this re-presentation.].

554.Marina Warner, Alone of All Her Sex The Myth and the Cult of the Virgin Mary, Knopf, 1976, 337. [See: "Chronology" 347-364].

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555.[Sir] A. J. Ayer, Thomas Paine, U. Chicago, 1988, 150-151.

from: Arthur Schopenhauer [1788-1860] Essays and Aphorisms, Selected and Translated with an Introduction by R.J. Hollingdale, Penguin, c1970, 180-181:

"Revelation. The ephemeral generations of man are born and pass away in quick succession; individual men, burdened with fear, want and sorrow, dance into the arms of death. As they do so they never weary of asking what it is that ails them and what the whole tragi-comedy is supposed to mean. They call on Heaven for an answer, but Heaven stays silent. Instead of a voice from Heaven there come along priests with revelations.

But he is still in his childhood who can think that super-human beings have ever given our race information about the aim of its existence or that of the world. There are no other revelations than the thoughts of the wise, even if these--subject to error, as are all things human--are often clothed in strange allegories and myths and are then called religions. To this extent, therefore, it is all one whether you live and die trusting in your own thoughts or in those of others, for you are never trusting in anything but human thoughts and human opinion. Yet as a rule men have a weakness for putting their trust in those who pretend to supernatural sources of knowledge rather than in their own heads; but if you bear in mind the enormous intellectual inequality between man and man, then the thoughts of one may very well count with another as a revelation.

The fundamental, secret and primal piece of astuteness of all priests, everywhere and at all times, whether Brahmin or Mohammedan or Buddhist or Christian, is as follows. They have recognized and grasped the enormous strength and the ineradicability of the metaphysical need of man: they then pretend to possess the means of satisfying it, in that the solution to the great enigma has, by extraordinary channels, been directly communicated to them. Once they have persuaded men of the truth of this, they can lead and dominate them to their heart's content. The more prudent rulers enter into an alliance with them: the others are themselves ruled by them. If, however, as the rarest of all exceptions, a philosopher comes to the throne, the whole comedy is disrupted in the most unseemly fashion. "

[see 411.-419., 525., 554., etc.].

556.George B. Vetter, New York University, Magic and Religion Their Psychological Nature, Origin, and Function, Philosophical Library, 1958, 313.

557.G.A. Wells, Belief and Make-Believe Critical Reflections on the Sources of Credulity, Open Court, 1991, 61-62.

558.George B. Vetter, New York University, Magic and Religion Their Psychological Nature, Origin, and Function, Philosophical Library, 1958, 522.

559.Joseph L. Daleiden, The Final Superstition A Critical Evaluation of the Judeo-Christian Legacy, Prometheus, 1994, 390.

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560.John William Draper [1811-1882], M.D., LL.D., Author of a Treatise on Human Physiology, History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, History of the American Civil War, Etc., History of the Conflict between Religion and Science, Appleton, 1898 (c1874), 35.

561.John William Draper [1811-1882], M.D., LL.D., Professor of Chemistry in the University of New York, Author of a "Treatise on Human Physiology," "Civil Policy of America," "History of the American Civil War," &c., History of the Intellectual Development of Europe., Revised edition, in two volumes, Harper & Brothers, 1876 (1863), Vol. 1, 382.

562.See 560., 365-366.

563.See 561., 39.

564.Charles Guignebert [1867-1939] [Professor of the History of Christianity in the Sorbonne], Ancient, Medieval and Modern Christianity, The Evolution of a Religion, University Books, 1961 (1927) (1921-1922 French), 507.

[From the conclusion of my handout (see Reference 200.) of 3/30/92].

Addendum

The Nazarene Gospel Restored, Robert Graves and Joshua Podro, eds., Doubleday, "[1953?]":

from the Foreword (xi): "The attitude of the Roman Church towards the New Testament is that the Canon has long been fixed: it is complete, consistent, and historical, and the interpretation of every text has been laid down in such irrefutable detail by a long line of Popes that devout Catholics need only read what they are told to read, interpret as they are told to interpret, make a personal effort of faith and repentance, and they will then be assured of salvation....Protestants who, not being forbidden to search the Scriptures for themselves and interpret what they find as best they may, have come to realize that the text of the New Testament is sadly inconsistent and strewn with anachronisms.

(b) Gospels written by members of the various Gentile Churches, after the Destruction of the Temple in 70 A.D. [see Reference 484.], to support local doctrine, were piously attributed to the Apostles Matthew, John, James the Less, Peter, Thomas, Bartholomew, Andrew, and 'The Twelve'. Of these, the first two alone, with the addition of Luke and Mark, have become canonical, and then only after continuous drastic revision. Of the rest, some survive whole, some in part, some have been suppressed as heretical; and fragments of several other named and unnamed Gospels are extant [see Additional References]. But none of these, whether canonical or uncanonical, can have been written by the author to whom it is ascribed [see 427., 485., etc.]. The introduction to Luke and the accounts quoted by Eusebius from the early second-century writer Papias (see Introduction iv.g) show that all the Gospels, except the patently fictitious ones, were based on notes taken by Greek-speaking converts from the Aramaic Gospel orally current among the Nazarenes; and that each evangelist [story-teller, etc.], as Papias reports: 'interpreted them as best he could'--that is to say, uncritically and, in general, with studied ignorance of their historical background. "

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from the Foreword (xiii-xiv): "All available evidence goes to show that the original Nazarene Gospel was terse, factually accurate and intellectually satisfying to those chosen students of the Law and the prophets for whom it was primarily intended. But Gentile heretics pirated it, mistranslated it into pedestrian Greek, recast it, and then subjected it to a century-long process of emendation and manipulation. The glamour of the early Jacobean prose in which the Gospels are now clothed, and their judicial authority, are most deceptive. Judged by Greek literary standards, they are poor [see 354., etc.]; by historical standards, unreliable [see 181., etc.]; and their doctrine is confused and contradictory [see 91., 93., etc.]. The late-Victorian atheist (was it Bradlaugh?) may be excused for remarking that they [Gospels] read as though 'concocted by illiterate, half-starved visionaries in some dark corner of a Graeco-Syrian slum.'

(g) A number of processes are distinguishable by which the original tradition ["Gospels"] became so sadly distorted. Some of these reflect editorial carelessness; some, doctrinal piety or perversity; others, polemical shrewdness. At times these categories overlap.

Editorial carelessness covers such cases as the following:


(1)Miscopying; with accidental omissions or duplications.
(2)Misunderstanding of the Aramaic original ["orally current" (see b) (see 398.-401.)].
(3)Infiltration of marginal glosses into the text.
(4)Misreading of the Nazarene subject-arrangement for a chronological one.
(5)Choice of inappropriate contexts for sayings which bore no indication of context.
(6)Running together of such sayings into a single confused argument.
(7)Inclusion of anecdotes based on a misinterpretation of sacred pictures.
(8)Ill-considered stylistic improvements.
(9)Clumsy attempts to correct obvious absurdities or contradictions.
(10)Mistaking of figurative or ironical sayings for straightforward ones--and vice versa.

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(h) Doctrinal piety or perversity covers such cases as the following:


(1)Identification of Jesus with the Second Person of the Gnostic Trinity: a process which involved the substitution of 'I' for 'God' in many of his sayings, and the omission of his prayers to God whenever he performed works of healing.
(2)Conversion of his symbolic acts into miracles; and attempts to make him rival or surpass the recorded feats of Moses, Elijah, Elisha and Apollonius of Tyana.
(3)Disguise of the motives which guided him during Passion Week.
(4)Removal of references to his humanity.
(5)Invention of miracles wherever he might have been expected to perform them.
(6)Borrowings from the Pauline Epistles, or from Church liturgy, in order to identify his message with Paulinism.
(7)Invention of sayings and incidents which would authorize second-century Church practice.
(8)Attempts to prove that he preferred the poor, sick, and outcast to the rich, healthy, and established. [see Reference 465.].
(9)Disguise of his asceticism, but particularly of his insistence on complete sexual chastity.

(i) Polemical shrewdness covers such cases as the following:


(1)Attempts to dissociate Jesus from Judaism by omitting nearly all his quotations from the Law and prophets.
(2)Suppression or manipulation of any act or saying likely to offend the Roman authorities.
(3)Attempts to prove that he deliberately flouted the Mosaic Law.
(4)Attempts to prove that he rejected the Oral Law as an impossible burden.
(5)Attempts to fasten the blame for his death on the Jews.
(6)Attempts to prove that he debarred the Jews from the Kingdom of God in favour of the Gentiles.
(7)Pro-Samaritan, pro-Grecian or pro-Phoenician tamperings with the text.
(8)Deliberate misdirection against the Pharisees of denunciations originally intended for the Herodians and Sadducees.
(9)Misdirection against the Pharisees of denunciations intended for the 'feigned Pharisees'.

These lists are by no means comprehensive. "

[see 127.-139., 216., 452., 453., 490., 532., etc.].

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ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

Regarding my contributions to "The Freethought Exchange":

I thank TFE for the opportunity and encouragement.

I thank Jesse Bailey (Birmingham, Alabama), for repeatedly encouraging me to contribute to TFE.

See: 12., 13., 53., etc. / 103., 139., 164., 165., 173., 174., 175., 181., 182., 193., 194., etc. / 213., 220., 239.-241., 368., 391., etc.

Anderson, Graham, Ancient Fiction The Novel in the Graeco-Roman World, Croom Helm/Barnes & Noble, 1984.

The Apocryphal New Testament Being The Apocryphal Gospels, Acts Epistles, and Apocalypses With Other Narratives and Fragments, Tr. Montague Rhodes James, ed., Oxford, 1969 (1924).

Athanassiadi, Polymnia, Julian An Intellectual Biography, Professor of Late Antique History at the University of Athens, 1992 (1981).

Bok, Sisella, Lying Moral Choice in Public and Private Life, Pantheon, 1978.

Carroll, Robert, Wolf in the Sheepfold The Bible as a Problem for Christianity, SPCK, 1991.

Clark, George Luther, A Lawyer Looks at the Bible, Vantage, 1956.

Clifton, Chas S., Encyclopedia of Heresies and Heretics, ABC-CLIO, 1992.

[See end papers: chart: "Heresies and Heretics"; "World Events"].

Conybeare, The Rev. W.J. [1815-1857], M.A., Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and The Very Rev. J.S. Howson [1816-1885], D.D., Dean of Chester, The Life and Epistles of St. Paul, Eerdmans, 1978 (fifteenth printing) (1851). [An orthodox Classic!].

Drews, Arthur [1865-1935], The Witnesses To The Historicity Of Jesus, Tr. Joseph McCabe, Arno, 1972 (1912 Watts).

[Preface lauds J.M. Robertson; W.B. Smith; Dupuis.] [A Classic!].

Elliott, J.K., The Apocryphal New Testament A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in an English Translation, Oxford, 1993.

[see 19., 20., by J.K. Elliott].

Evans, Ernest, Tertullian's Treatise on the Incarnation, S·P·C·K·, 1956.

Goodspeed, Edgar J., Famous "Biblical" Hoaxes, originally entitled, Modern Apocrypha,Baker, 1956 (1931).

Goodspeed, Edgar J., A History of Early Christian Literature, Revised and Enlarged by Robert M. Grant, U. Chicago, 1966 (1942).

Greek Fiction The Greek Novel in Context, J.R. Morgan and Richard Stoneman, eds., Routledge, 1994.

Hägg, Tomas, The Novel in Antiquity, U. California, 1983 (1980 Sweden).

Jaeger, Werner [1888-1961], The Theology of the Early Greek Philosophers,

The Gifford Lectures 1936, Oxford, 1964 (1947).

Koester, Helmut, Ancient Christian Gospels Their History and Development, SCM/Trinity, 1990.

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Lies and Fiction in the Ancient World, Christopher Gill and T.P. Wiseman, eds., U. Texas, 1993.

Maccoby, Hyam, The Mythmaker Paul and the Invention of Christianity, Harper & Row, "1987" Pb. (c1986). [see 351. (Maccoby)].

Morton, A. Q. and James McLeman, Paul, The Man and the Myth A Study in the Authorship of Greek Prose, Harper & Row, 1966. [computer analyses].

New Testament Apocrypha [Edgar Hennecke], Wilhelm Schneemelcher, ed., Tr. R. McL. Wilson, 2 Vols., Westminster, 1963 (c1959 Germany).

New Testament Apocrypha, revised edition, Wilhelm Schneemelcher, ed., Tr. R. McL. Wilson, "2" Vols., James Clark & Co Westminster/John Knox Press, 1991 (c1990 Germany). [Note: I have only seen Vol. I. Availability of Vol. II?].

Schweitzer, Albert, Paul and His Interpreters, A Critical History, Macmillan, 1951 (1912) (1912 German). [See: Bruno Bauer; van Manen; et al.].

Shires, Henry, Finding the Old Testament in the New, Westminster, 1974.

[See: Superb Tables (183-206)].

Smith, Homer W., Physiologist (authority on human kidney), author, etc., Man and His Gods, Foreword by Albert Einstein, Little, Brown, 1952.

[first studied 7/27/95] [lauds J. M. Robertson (477-480, etc.), et al.]

[A Classic!].

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