Christianism ("Christianity"), Etc.


1

A few references from my researches, which reflect my discoveries.

Subjects and results:

Bible (Old Testament. New Testament.) (was)is Fiction ("historical Fiction", etc.).
Jesus (was)is a Fictional character (not "historical").
Paul (was)is a Fictional character. Etc.

Some principal foci in this presentation:

Fiction in Antiquity.
Forgery ("plagiarism", etc.).
Lies (lying, etc.). Etc.

1."1. Universalists believe in a god which I do not; but believe that their god...is nothing more than a chimera of their own imagination. 2. Universalists believe in Christ, which I do not; but believe that the whole story concerning him is as much a fable and fiction as that of the god Prometheus....3. Universalists believe in miracles, which I do not; but believe that every pretension to them is to be attributed to mere trick and imposture. 4. Universalists believe in the resurrection of the dead, immortality and eternal life, which I do not; but believe that all life is material, that death is an eternal extinction of life.8"

[Abner Kneeland 1774 - 1844].

2.'"Did you go yourself and examine this, or how do you know?"'

[Socrates 469 - 399 B.C.E.].

3."The history of the world is the history of fanaticism. "

4."Every man prefers belief to the exercise of judgment, says Seneca".

[Seneca the Younger 4 B.C.E.? - 65 C.E.].

5."the faithful gain prestige through managing to believe even more ridiculous things than their rivals succeed in believing. "

6."The sky hung low in the ancient world. Supernatural beings thronged the earth, crowding themselves uncomfortably into the society of mortals....Divinities were abundant and supernaturalism was rampant over the whole territory".

7. "The force of human imagination has not decayed since the first two centuries [and earlier]....In short, the whole mass of Jewish, Greek, Roman spiritual lore, the writings of Haggadists, of logographers, of poets, of calendarists and hagiographers down to the tellers of folk-tales by the winter fireside, form one vast monument of the powers of human imagination and belief....Images, fancies, teem like the products of a tropical clime in the literature of antiquity; they are brilliant, awful, inspiring. "

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8. "Faith is that quality which enables us to believe what we know to be untrue. " ["The Omnibus Boners"].

9.'In the "seventeenth" and "eighteenth" centuries the European recovered the use of his intellect'.

10. "The belief seems to be spreading that intellectuals are no wiser as mentors, or worthier as exemplars, than the witch doctors or priests of old. I share that skepticism. A dozen people picked at random on the street are at least as likely to offer sensible views on moral and political matters, as a cross-section of the intelligentsia....For intellectuals, far from being highly individualistic and non-conformist people, follow certain regular patterns of behaviour. Taken as a group, they are often ultra-conformist within the circles formed by those whose approval they seek and value. "

11. "It may be that in some cases the two great impulses of reliance and defiance have become assimilated. The ascetic ["believer"] who subjects himself utterly to the will of his god may simultaneously be seeking the power that derives from his omnipotent ally. If the same belief or delusion permits in this way the simultaneous resolution of both impulses, then the force of both will be combined. This may explain the tremendous strength of religious conviction. The will to power and the will to submission are perfectly combined in submission to omnipotence. "

12. "This is the big one, my friends. This is where we find out which is stronger--the intelligence you were born with, or a lifetime of brainwashing. You can make it. I did. "

13. "for one who is seeking historical truth...a record held sacred is for the most part fundamentally vitiated. " [Vitiated (Random House, Unabridged, 1973 [1966]): 1. spoiled; marred. 2. perverted; corrupted. 3. rendered invalid.].

14. "the universality of an opinion is no proof, nay, it is not even a probability, that the opinion is right....universal opinion is the opinion of two or three persons; and we should be persuaded of this if we could see the way in which it really arises. "

15. "Long before biblical Judaism was known, the people of Palestine shared in the universal rituals of the primeval cults of sun and moon, nature and symbol; and the successive waves of conquest, physical and mystical, have only transformed the primordial hallucination. "

16. "Such was [is] the power of the world's theocracies that, despite the publication of thousands of scholarly books and articles refuting every part of the Judaeo-Christian bible, to this day the existence of unchallengeable proof that the bible is a work of fiction is unknown to ninety percent of the population of Christian-dominated societies. "

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17. "The problem ["that faith and reason might conflict"] was starkly expressed by the Florentine historian Francesco Guicciardini [1483 - 1540]: 'to have faith is simply to believe firmly--almost as a certainty--things that are not reasonable.'41"

18. "oral tradition is by definition unstable, notoriously open to mythical, legendary, and fictional embellishment. "

19. "Mesopotamian literature, like its religion and law, has also affected the entire Western world. Genesis-the Creation, Paradise, the Flood, the Cain-Abel rivalry, the Babel of Tongues--all have Mesopotamian literary antecedents. Many a psalm in the Book of Psalms is reminiscent of Mesopotamian cultic hymns".

20. "in the earlier millennia of their history the Egyptians were the exact antithesis to this ["Chinese...of antiquity...strange people...ossified"] popular conception--a gifted people, intellectually alert, and already awake when other nations still slumbered; indeed, their outlook on the world was as lively and adventurous as was that of the Greeks thousands of years later. That is plainly to be seen in their vast technical achievements, and still more so in their plastic art, which reproduces life so joyously and with so sure a touch. "

21. "Palestine was so closely linked geographically with Egypt that the influence of that great civilization must have been immense on the smaller and less civilized country. But to the jealous and barbarian Hebrews the splendour of Egypt was an offence, though they borrowed largely from the ideas and ideals, and even the very language, of the Egyptians. Yet in spite of hatred and malice, the influence of Egypt on the religion of both the Canaanites and Hebrews can be clearly seen, and through the Hebraic Scriptures that influence is found in the later religions, Christianity and Islam. "

22.'The Persian postal service dates to the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus set up a pony express system with relay stations at intervals that could be covered by a running horse in one day....Herodotus' [c.485 - c.425 B.C.E.] admiration for the Persian relay service was so glowing that it is retained and applied to the modern post: "Neither rain nor snow nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds."125 The Greek general, Xenophon, spoke with equal praise when he said the Persian courier covered his course more swiftly than cranes could fly the route.126'

23. "The best organized postal system in antiquity was the Roman cursus publicus established by the first emperor, Augustus [Octavian: reign 27 B.C.E. - 14 C.E.]....He introduced relay stations which provided horses for mounted couriers so that a single messenger could cover the whole distance. Later, couriers thundered down highways in chariots and all other travelers had to give up the right of way. "

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24. "To the victor belong the spoils--and the history....a historical reconstruction is still largely dependent on what has survived, or more precisely on what the victors have permitted to survive and what their successors have gone on to edit and collect. "

25. "The books of the Bible, Paine concludes, were made to promise far more than was ever intended at first and were made to perpetuate false beliefs for the purpose of controlling human minds and maintaining a tyrannical state. "

26. "The Bible is, first of all--to use a word no less accurate for being a fashionable term--a mosaic: a pattern of commandments, aphorisms, epigrams, proverbs, parables, riddles, pericopes, parallel couplets, formulaic phrases, folktales, oracles, epiphanies, Gattungen, Logia, bits of occasional verse, marginal glosses, legends, snippets from historical documents, laws, letters, sermons, hymns, ecstatic visions, rituals, fables, genealogical lists, and so on almost indefinitely. "

27. "The production of scrolls was a tiresome and tedious business prone to many mistakes (a glance at a Qumran scroll will prove this point)".

28. "Just as the Bible contains numerous parallels to romance, from the slaying of the dragon at creation to the miracles of Jesus, so does it correspond at many points to the popular folktale. "

29. "the five books of Moses were the divisions into which the Greek translators in the third century B.C. broke up the inordinate length of the Hebrew Torah, substituting what the Greek publishing world regarded as scrolls of practical length--twenty-five to thirty feet....In breaking the Hebrew Torah up into five such convenient units the Greeks gave names to each scroll--Genesis, Exodos, Levitikon, Arithmoi, Deuteronomion--aptly indicative of the contents of each. "

30. "Theodore of Mopsuestia (d. 428), the most critical mind among the teachers of the ancient church, denounced Job as an imitation of a Greek tragedy....Theodore therefore excluded Job from his Bible as a work of fiction. Theodore's opinion was condemned at the Council of Constantinople in 553. "

31. "Two books, still current, contain enough scholarly dynamite to blow all Christian orthodoxy to oblivion--Walter Kaufmann's Critique of Religion and Philosophy and Jabez Sunderland's The Origin and Character of the Bible. "

32.'Asher Myers asked: "What is your relation to the Bible?"* ["*In English in the original"]. I [Herzl] said: "I am a freethinker, and our principle will be: Let everyone seek salvation in his own way. "'

[Theodor Herzl 1860 - 1904: "founder of the World Zionist Organization. "].

33. "in its [Bible] original languages much of it is opaque. "

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34. "it must always be kept in mind that the Bible is a collection of translations of alien literatures in alien languages from ancient and alien times. "

35. "It is futile also to try to distinguish what is "original" in the Bible, the authentic voices of its great prophetic and poetic geniuses, from the later accretions and corruptions sometimes alleged to surround them. The editors are too much for us: they have pulverized the Bible until almost all sense of individuality has been stamped out of it. "

36. "the Old Testament was forged....the readers were induced to believe that the events they described had actually happened....the fiction was represented as fact, and the authorship was concealed under a spurious name. "

37. "the Old Testament history has been discredited, and has only been confirmed in a few unimportant incidental statements; and that the books are a tissue of inventions, expansions, conflations, or recensions dating centuries after the events. "

38. "We now know enough of the character of the Old Testament to understand that a large number of the prophecies were written after the event. The prophets were "redacted," like all the other literature. Prophecies were forged during some hundreds of years. "

39. "Views would seem to be more authoritative appearing under the name of some famed figure of the past. This last practice was well enough known in antiquity. The Book of Daniel is a good example, purporting to be a series of narratives and visions of the sixth century B.C. but patently written in the second century [c. 165 B.C.E.] as an encouragement to the Jews under the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes. "

40. "Most accounts of Greek literature deal with the archaic and classical periods, and with the epic, lyric, and dramatic genres. In this book, on the other hand, the Hellenistic period ["330 - 30 BC"] --which begins with Alexander's conquest of the Orient -- is of central importance. That is when the Greek novel is 'born'".

41. "At last we are in a position to see the ancient novels in a different perspective. The extended romantic tales that underlie them go back at least to Sumerian times [c. 3500 - 2000 B.C.E.]."

42. "it is startling and profoundly moving when the words of the world's oldest surviving literature--the liturgies of Sumer, written around 3000 B.C.--correspond so closely to Christian cult that an actual historical chain of descent can be postulated. "

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43.'St. Augustine [354 - 430 C.E.] himself wrote (Retractationes 1.12.3): "The very thing which is now called the Christian religion existed among the ancients also, nor was it wanting from the inception of the human race until the coming of Christ in the flesh, at which point the true religion which was already in existence began to be called Christian. "'

44. "In the 'Tale of Sinuhe' (see 3) the protagonist despairs of returning to Egypt from his exile in Palestine. " ["3...The 'Tale of Sinuhe' is one of the supreme masterpieces of Egyptian literature. Five manuscripts are known from the Middle Kingdom" (c. 2081 - 1640 B.C.E.).]. [compare: Biblical "Exodus"].

45. "We seem to have five 'love-and-adventure' stories, as well as summaries and fragments of a number of others, stretching over a period from around the first century BC to the third or fourth century AD.5 In addition there are the two curious and picaresque narratives in Latin, Petronius' Satyricon and Apuleius' Golden Ass, from the first and second centuries AD respectively; and...various romanticized accounts of Christian apostles; and even the translation of an animal dialogue between Tefnut and Hermes from Egyptian Demotic. "

46. "It is not clear why we should have to wait till the first century BC or so for someone to think of putting two adolescents on a boat but effectively preventing their sexual union for most of the plot. " [Ephesian Tale (note early date) (early fragment?) (novels can have long history)].

47. "An Ephesian Tale, ascribed to a certain Xenophon with the by-name Ephesius ('of Ephesus'). Whether the author's name is a pseudonym alluding to the classical historian, who influenced both Chariton and 'the Ephesian', or whether the by-name has perhaps been given to him simply because the novel begins and ends in Ephesus (figure 7), are matters of speculation, and there are in the text itself no firm dating criteria. Generally one is inclined to put the novel in the second century AD, the great century of this genre. "

48. "Our next extract reminds us that the novel [Ephesian Tale, "second century AD"] takes place in the same Near East, governed by the Romans, as the New Testament".

49. "These ["fragments of uncanonical Gospels"] may be only specimens of the religious romances which we know to have been popular among the early Christians for purposes of edification".

50. "the Alexander Romance next to the New Testament the most successful work of Greek literature, bar none, if success is to be judged by diffusion. "

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51.["Religious Fiction"] "Christian leaders of the second and third centuries, whether they held the standard or the schismatic type of belief, were alive to the values of fiction in religion. Not only was fiction useful in propagating their views of truth but it was valuable as a substitute for the romances current among Greeks and Romans. "

52. "The epistolary form as a literary fiction, van Manen remarks...did not need to be invented by the Christian writers, since it had appeared already among Jews, Greeks, and Romans. "

53. "Luke did for Paul what Artapanus had done for Moses. He is thereby revealed as a writer of historical fiction. "

54. "Most of our extant examples [Prose Fiction] belong to the first three centuries AD, by which time it is felt that Latin literature as well as Greek is well on the way to irreversible decline".

55. "This Gospel [Mark] is largely a collection of narratives that depict Jesus as being almost constantly active (a favorite word in Mark is "immediately," which occurs about forty times in sixteen chapters). "

[See: "Transitional Tags" in Gospel Fictions, Randel Helms, 26-27].

56.'Mark is in other words, not a biography; its outline of Jesus' career is fictional and the sequence has thematic and theological significance only. As Norman Perrin bluntly puts it, "The outline of the Gospel of Mark has no historical value. "6 Anyone can demonstrate this with a careful reading of Mark, watching the transitional tags between episodes. The following selection of them are translations from the New English Bible: ·"When after some days" (2:1); ·"Once more" (2:13); ·"When" (2:15); ·"Once, when" (2:18); ·"One Sabbath" (2:23); ·"One [On] another occasion" (3:1); ·"On another occasion" (4:1); ·"When he was alone" (4:10); ·"That [unspecified] day" (4:35); ·"He left that place" (6:1); ·"On one of his teaching journeys" (6:6); ·"On another occasion" (7:14); ·"There was another occasion about this time" (8:1); ·"Jesus and his disciples set out" (8:27); ·"On leaving those parts" (10:1); ·"As he was starting out on a journey" (10:17).'

57. "Part of the creative impulse of narrative fiction seems to have been diverted into Christian writings, where typical romance motifs occur in new systems of meaning....The relationship between fiction and religion is a highly significant and suggestive one. In a sense, they cater to the same need to reassure the individual of his personal worth and discover meaning in the tangled web of his daily experience. "

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58. "it is not surprising that Christianity, ultimately the most successful of the eastern mystery cults, also exploited the repertory of the romances, despite the very clear differences in its fundamental message. The barrier which academic disciplines have erected between the study of 'classical' and 'Christian' literature produced in the same culture is one that urgently needs to be broken down, and we hope that in a small way the inclusion of essays on Christian fiction in this volume will contribute to that end. "

59."And what is a parable? but a something represented to the imagination, which has no reality: it is a throw by the side, or apart from the line of truth, into the regions of fancy and fiction. There are forty-four parables in the course of the four gospels. Now what is the nature of a work that contains admitted parables, but evidently a work of fiction and imagination--a work in which one thing is said, and another thing is meant. "

60. "Christians have never been reluctant to write fiction about Jesus, and we must remember that our four canonical Gospels are only the cream of a large and varied literature. "

61."The Gospels are...works of art, the supreme fictions in our culture".

62."The first thing to be ascertained in matters of evidence is the character of the witnesses [Christian writers]; and witnesses more passionate and more fanciful, less informed, or less scrupulous as to matters of fact, can be hardly found. "

63. "Modern criticism stops before the barrier of the second century; the age, so it seems, of unbounded liberties with the text. "

64. "Dr. Hort's dealing with this and the other patristic evidence for this passage requires a word of comment. No one could feel greater respect, nay reverence, for him than the present writer; but his treatment of this variant, in making every piece of the evidence say the opposite of its true meaning, shows to what distortions even a great scholar may be driven by the urge to square the facts with an erroneous, or at least imperfect, theory. "

65."Like other Ecclesiastical Eras, the Christian Era has been much exaggerated--antedated. "

66.'Christianity is indeed but a "new form of Paganism"'.

67. "the fourth century, the great age of literary forgery, the extent of which has yet to be exposed....And not until the mass of inventions labelled 'Eusebius' [c.263 - c.340 C.E.] shall be exposed, can the pretended references to Christians in Pagan writers of the first three centuries be recognized for the forgeries they are. "

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68.'It is true that in all pagan literature there is only one specific reference to the Bible... "God said"--what? "'Let there be light,' and there was light. 'Let there be earth,' and there was earth. "' [Longinus, from Caecilius of Caleacte].

69. "Down to the rise of printing [and after], says Hardouin, 'there was great facility for forgery and a great lust for it.'"

70. "De duplici martyrio is not Erasmus' ["1469" - 1536] discovery but his composition; it marks an effort to find the support of the early Church for his theology at the cost--which he elsewhere insisted must never be paid--of falsifying the records of that Church. The greatest patristic scholar of the sixteenth century forged a major patristic work.16"

71. "The reader will see by these extracts, that the authenticity of the books of the New Testament was denied, and the books treated as tales, forgeries, and lies, at the time they were voted to be the Word of God.20 But the interest of the Church, with the assistance of the fagot, bore down the opposition and at last suppressed all investigation. "

72. "Convinced that they know the truth--whether in religion or in politics--enthusiasts may regard lies for the sake of this truth as justifiable. "

73. "What harm would it do, if a man told a good strong lie for the sake of the good and for the Christian church [...]a lie out of necessity, a useful lie, a helpful lie, such lies would not be against God, he would accept them.

--Martin Luther cited by his secretary, in a letter in Max Lenz, ed., Briefwechsel Landgraf Phillips des Grossmüthigen von Hessen mit Bucer, vol. I. "

74. "The belief that the dogma itself is true, and that it is, moreover, beneficial for the convert, will seem to excuse a lie told to speed conversion. "

75. "But will it be pretended that these are only metaphors of speech, that the thing said is not the thing that's meant. Why, then, they are very ugly metaphors. And what is saying that which you don't mean, and meaning the contrary to what you say, but LYING?*

And what worse can become of the Infidel, who makes it the rule of his life 'to hear and speak the plain and simple truth,' than of the Christian, whose religion itself is a system of metaphors and allegories, of double meanings, of quirks and quiddities, in dread defiance of the text that warns him, that 'All liars shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone.' Rev. xxi.8. "

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76. "In his teaching Jesus [writers] made constant use of the O.T. At times he quoted it with approval. At times he interpreted it and gave to it a new and even opposite meaning as he treated it with his own authority. At times he drew upon the forms of O.T. wording to provide the framework of his instruction. In brief, the O.T. was without question constantly before him in all that he taught. He did not follow it slavishly but used it creatively and with a deliberate selectivity that was rooted in his own experience of God [themselves!]. "

77. "the O.T. is often treated freely with alterations, substitutions, omissions, additions, and new interpretations. " [New Testament use of the Old Testament].

78. "A plethora of writings was available to the earliest churches and a great many more were produced by them....many writings disappeared from or were discarded by later Christian communities in their construction of the Christian Bible. "

79. "What Taylor [Robert Taylor 1784 - 1844] thinks of the testimony brought forward by the Church historians can be seen in the following passage:--'The historians of the first three centuries of Christianity have taken so great a license in this way (inventing incidents and names, etc.), as that no one alleged fact standing on their testimony can be said to have even a probable degree of evidence. The most candid and learned even of Christian inquirers have admitted that antiquity is most deficient just exactly where it is most important; that there is absolutely nothing known of the church history in those times on which a rational man can place any reliance; and that the epoch when Christian truth first dawned upon the world is appropriately designated as the Age of Fable.'"

80."And just as the historical books of the Old Testament are not history, so the Gospels are not biography. "

81.'The New Testament, in short, claims to be, among other things, the key to the Old Testament, the explanation of what the Old Testament really means.... "In the Old Testament the New Testament is concealed; in the New Testament the Old Testament is revealed. "' [plagiarism + presumption!].

82. "Thus, for Paine [1737 - 1809], the books of the New Testament are as replete with fable and superstition as are the books of the Old Testament. Although the first Christians lived in a time when certain rays of the light of reason illuminated the Greek and Roman world, they (like the people of classical antiquity) were still the victims of priests in league with rulers, both of whom enforced the worship of idols and gods as a way of [creating and] sustaining their own very human power. "

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83. "when the New Testament was written, I might say invented, the art of printing was not known...the book was in the hands of very few persons, and these chiefly of the Church.

This gave an opportunity to the writers of the New Testament to make quotations from the Old Testament as they pleased, and called them prophecies, with very little danger of being detected. Besides which, the terrors and inquisitorial fury of the Church...stood sentry over the New Testament; and time, which brings everything else to light, has served to thicken the darkness that guards it from detection. "

84. "And it is characteristic of the mythological process that originally vague stories are later given an exact [relatively] setting in time and place. " ["Lietzmann"].

85. "Let us say that the best external test of the canonicity of a writing is, whether or not it was read in the public worship of Christian congregations".

86. "there is the extraordinary transformation of biography brought about by the notion of sanctity in the Christian churches. Though we still tend to believe that no life is like another life, ancient biographers--whether pagan or Christian--did not share our delusion. They modeled somebody's biography upon somebody else's biography. "

87. "The Christians' Bible is rich in miracles. Supernaturalism runs like a scarlet thread through the whole book from Genesis to Revelation. For centuries this phenomenon was contemplated with entire satisfaction by both laity and clergy. "

88."If all the O.T. influences were to be removed from the N.T., the latter would in many areas consist of little but meaningless shreds. Where the O.T. is not actually quoted, its content and ideas provide subject matter and structure for the Christian author. "

89. "The New Testament insists a great deal on what it calls faith and truth, but its guarantees for such things seem very strange...How do we know that the Gospel story is true? Because it confirms the prophecies of the Old Testament. But how do we know that the Old Testament prophecies are true? Because they are confirmed by the Gospel story. Evidence, so called, is bounced back and forth between the testaments like a tennis ball; and no other evidence is given us. The two testaments form a double mirror, each reflecting the other but neither the world outside.

The New Testament writers, then, regard the Old Testament as a source of anticipations of the events in the life of Christ. These are often explicitly alluded to, and the source given. "

90. "Well, then! will the believer say, what were all the miracles and prophecies of both the Old and the New Testament for? those unquestionable miracles, and clearly accomplished prophecies, if it were not that men should believe?"

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91. "The Age of Reason is not likely to be of much interest to the modern reader who, if he makes use of his reason, will find very little in either Testament that he is able to regard as literally true, except perhaps for some brutal and pathetic episodes in early Jewish history. What makes the position worse is that Paine, having rightly identified the Bible as primarily a specimen of mythology, does not go on to appraise it as a work of art. "

92. "You are firmly persuaded that the gospel is from Heaven? What of that! the more likely 'tis to be from that lying spirit, which spake by the prophets. Your faith is strong? What of that--the stronger your delusion. "

93. "I here close the subject. I have shown in all the foregoing parts of this work that the Bible and the Testament are impositions and forgeries; and I leave the evidence I have produced in proof of it to be refuted, if any one can do it; and I leave the ideas that are suggested in the conclusion of the work to rest on the mind of the reader; certain, as I am, that when opinions are free, either in matters of government or religion, truth will finally and powerfully prevail. "

[End of book ("Part First" and "Part Second")] [Thomas Paine 1737 - 1809].

REFERENCES

1. Blasphemy in Massachusetts Freedom of Conscience and the Abner Kneeland Case, Leonard Levy, ed., Da Capo, 1973, ix.

2.T. R. Glover, From Pericles to Philip, Macmillan, 1917, 181.

3.A Treatise on Toleration and Other Essays Voltaire [1694-1778], Tr. Joseph McCabe, Prometheus, 1994, 115.

4.Arthur Schopenhauer [1788-1860], How to Argue Logically The Art of Controversy, Little Blue Book No. 364, E. Haldeman-Julius, ed., Haldeman-Julius Publications, Girard, Kansas, [n.d.] [Essay traceable in The U. of California to 1890], 21.

5.Free Inquiry, Title of this issue: "Is Religion a Form of Insanity?", Summer 1993, "Viruses of the Mind", Richard Dawkins, 38.

6.Shirley Jackson Case, Professor of History of Early Christianity and Chairman of the Department of Church History in the University of Chicago, Experience with the Supernatural In Early Christian Times, Century, 1929, 3.

7.[Edwin Johnson 1842-1901] [published anonymously], Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins, London: Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1887, 181-182.

8.William Harwood, Mythology's Last Gods: Yahweh and Jesus, Prometheus, 1992, 293.

9.[Edwin Johnson 1842-1901] [published anonymously], Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins, London: Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1887, lii.

10.Paul Johnson [Oxford, etc.], Intellectuals, Harper & Row, 1988, 342.

11.G. A. Wells, Belief and Make-Believe Critical Reflections on the Sources of Credulity, Open Court, 1991, 61-62.

12.William Harwood, Mythology's Last Gods: Yahweh and Jesus, Prometheus, 1992, dedication page.

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13.Thomas Whittaker [1856-1935], The Origins of Christianity with An Outline of Van Manen's Analysis of the Pauline Literature, "3rd. " edition, Watts, 1914, xvi.

14.Arthur Schopenhauer [1788-1860], How to Argue Logically The Art of Controversy, Little Blue Book No. 364, E. Haldeman-Julius, ed., Haldeman-Julius Publications, Girard, Kansas, [n.d.] [Essay traceable in The U. of California to 1890], 23.

15.Origins of Christianity, R. Joseph Hoffmann, ed., "The Crucifixion Legend",

J. M. Robertson, Prometheus, 1985, 306.

16.William Harwood, Mythology's Last Gods: Yahweh and Jesus, Prometheus, 1992, 16.

17.Atheism from the Reformation to the Enlightenment, Michael Hunter and David Wootton, eds., "Atheism in Italy, 1500-1700", Nicholas Davidson, Oxford, 1992, 64.

18.Randel Helms, Gospel Fictions, Prometheus, 1988, 12.

19.Samuel Noah Kramer, Cradle of Civilization, Time-Life, 1967, 161.

20.Adolf Erman [1854-1937], The Literature of the Ancient Egyptians Poems, Narratives, and Manuals of Instruction, From the Third and Second Millennia B.C., Tr. Aylward M. Blackman, Blom, 1971 (1927), xxiii.

21.Margaret A. Murray [1863-1963], D.Litt., Fellow of University College, London, Egyptian Religious Poetry, John Murray, London, 1949, 23.

22.John L. White, Light from Ancient Letters, Fortress, 1986, 214.

23.See 22., 214.

24.Jaroslav Pelikan, The Excellent Empire The Fall of Rome and the Triumph of the Church, The Rauschenbusch Lectures, Harper & Row, 1987, 16.

25.Edward H. Davidson and William J. Scheick, Paine, Scripture, and Authority The Age of Reason as Religious and Political Idea, Lehigh U., 1994, 74.

26.Northrop Frye [1912-1991], The Great Code The Bible and Literature,

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1982 (1981), 206.

27.Robert Carroll, Wolf in the Sheepfold The Bible as a Problem for Christianity, SPCK, 1991, 9.

28.Northrop Frye [1912-1991] Twayne's World Authors Series Canadian Literature, Robert Lecker, ed., McGill U., 1988, 103.

29.Edgar J. Goodspeed, Famous "Biblical" Hoaxes Originally entitled, Modern Apocrypha, Baker, 1956 (1931), vi-vii.

30.Moses Hadas, Jay Professor of Greek Columbia University, Hellenistic Culture Fusion and Diffusion, Columbia U., 1959, 133-134.

31.Paul Blanshard, Personal and Controversial An Autobiography By Paul Blanshard, Beacon, 1973, 284.

32.The Complete Diaries of Theodor Herzl, Raphael Patai, ed., 5 vols., Herzl Press and Thomas Yoseloff, 1960, vol. 1, 283.

33.Robert Carroll, Wolf in the Sheepfold The Bible as a Problem for Christianity, SPCK, 1991, 11.

34.See 33., 9.

35.Northrop Frye [1912-1991], The Great Code The Bible and Literature,

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1982 (1981), 203.

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36.Joseph McCabe [1867-1955] [Former priest, phenomenal writer!], The Forgery of the Old Testament and Other Essays, Prometheus, 1993 (1926-1927), 25.

37.See 36., 44.

38.See 36., 46.

39.Propaganda and Communication in World History, Harold D. Lasswell, Daniel Lerner, Hans Speier, eds., 3 Vols., U. Hawaii, 1979, Vol. 1, 290.

40.Tomas Hägg, The Novel in Antiquity, U. California, 1983 (1980 Sweden), xi.

41.Graham Anderson, Ancient Fiction The Novel in the Graeco-Roman World, Croom Helm/Barnes & Noble, 1984, 1.

42.Marina Warner, Alone of All Her Sex The Myth and the Cult of the Virgin Mary, Knopf, 1976, 208. [See: "Chronology" 347-364].

43.Moses Hadas, Jay Professor of Greek Columbia University, Hellenistic Culture Fusion and Diffusion, Columbia U., 1959, 196-197.

44.R.B. Parkinson, Voices from Ancient Egypt An Anthology of Middle Kingdom Writings [Middle Kingdom: c. 2081 - 1640 B.C.E.], U. Oklahoma, 1991,

131; 36.

45.Graham Anderson, Ancient Fiction The Novel in the Graeco-Roman World, Croom Helm/Barnes & Noble, 1984, 2.

46.See 45., 3.

47.Tomas Hägg, The Novel in Antiquity, U. California, 1983 (1980 Sweden),

18-20.

48.See 47., 30.

49.Sir Frederic Kenyon, Sometime Director and Principal Librarian of the British Museum, The Bible and Archaeology, Harper & Brothers, 1940, 218.

50.Tomas Hägg, The Novel in Antiquity, U. California, 1983 (1980 Sweden), 124.

51.Edgar J. Goodspeed, A History of Early Christian Literature, Revised and Enlarged by Robert M. Grant, U. Chicago, 1966 (1942), 64.

52.Thomas Whittaker [1856-1935], The Origins of Christianity with An Outline of Van Manen's Analysis of the Pauline Literature, "3rd. " edition, Watts, 1914, 136.

53.Richard I. Pervo, Profit With Delight The Literary Genre of the Acts of the Apostles, Fortress, 1987, 135.

54.Graham Anderson, Ancient Fiction The Novel in the Graeco-Roman World, Croom Helm/Barnes & Noble, 1984, 1.

55.The New Oxford Annotated Bible, Herbert May and Bruce Metzger, eds., Oxford, 1977 (1965), 1213.

56.Randel Helms, Gospel Fictions, Prometheus, 1988, 26-27.

57.Greek Fiction The Greek Novel in Context, J. R. Morgan and Richard Stoneman, eds., Routledge, 1994, 8.

58.See 57., 8.

59.Rev. Robert Taylor, B.A. [1784-1844], The Devil's Pulpit: or Astro-Theological Sermons, Author of the "Diegesis," "Syntagma," & C., With a Sketch of His Life, and an Astronomical Introduction, Josiah P. Mendum, at the office of the Boston Investigator, Boston, 1873, 119.

60.Randel Helms, Gospel Fictions, Prometheus, 1988, 11.

61.See 60., 11.

62.[Edwin Johnson 1842-1901] [published anonymously], Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins, London: Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1887, xvii.

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63.G. Zuntz, The Text of the Epistles A Disquistion Upon The Corpus Paulinum, The Schweich Lectures of the British Academy 1946, Oxford, 1953, 11. [See chart: "An attempt at a graphic presentation of the 'Stream of the Tradition'"; 265].

64.See 63., 36.

65.[Edwin Johnson 1842-1901] [published anonymously], Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins, London: Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1887, xxxii.

66.Joseph Wheless, Forgery in Christianity, Knopf, 1930, 29.

[For impressive biography, see: THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY, University Microfilms, 1967, Vol. 39, 429-430].

67.[Edwin Johnson 1842-1901] [published anonymously], Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins, London: Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1887, 304.

68.Moses Hadas, Jay Professor of Greek Columbia University, Hellenistic Culture Fusion and Division, Columbia U., 1959, 247.

69.F. F. Arbuthnot, The Mysteries of Chronology, Heinemann, 1900, 23.

70.Anthony Grafton, Forgers and Critics, Princeton U., 1990, 45.

71.Thomas Paine [1737-1809], The Age of Reason, Citadel, 1974 (1948) (1794 Paris), 173.

72.Sissela Bok, Lying Moral Choice in Public and Private Life, Pantheon, 1978, 7.

73.See 72., 47.

74.See 72., 86.

75.Rev. Robert Taylor, B.A. [1784-1844], The Devil's Pulpit, Freethought Publishing Company, London, 1882, 5-6.

76.Henry Shires, Finding the Old Testament in the New, Westminster, 1974, 96.

77.See 76., 81.

78.Robert Carroll, Wolf in the Sheepfold The Bible as a Problem for Christianity, SPCK, 1991, 8.

79.H. Cutner [1881-1969], The Devil's Chaplain Robert Taylor (1784-1844),

The Pioneer Press, c. 1950, 49.

80.Northrop Frye [1912-1991], The Great Code The Bible and Literature,

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1982 (1981), 41.

81.See 80., 79.

82.Edward H. Davidson and William J. Scheick, Paine, Scripture, and Authority The Age of Reason as Religious and Political Idea, Lehigh U., 1994, 79.

83.Thomas Paine The Age of Reason Part Three Examination of the Prophecies, Edited and annotated by Frank Zindler, American Atheist Press, 1993 (1807), 66.

84.G. A. Wells, The Jesus of the Early Christians, Pemberton, 1971, 215-216.

85.The Apocryphal New Testament Being The Apocryphal Gospels, Acts Epistles, and Apocalypses With Other Narratives and Fragments, Tr. Montague Rhodes James, ed., Oxford, 1969 (1924), xvii.

86.The American Scholar, Phi Beta Kappa, " The Historians of the Classical World and Their Audiences", Arnaldo Momigliano, 1978, Vol. 47, 203.

87.Shirley Jackson Case, Professor of History of Early Christianity and Chairman of the Department of Church History in the University of Chicago, Experience with the Supernatural In Early Christian Times, Century, 1929, Preface.

88.Henry Shires, Finding the Old Testament in the New, Westminster, 1974, 15.

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89.Northrop Frye [1912-1991], The Great Code The Bible and Literature,

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1982 (1981), 78.

90.Rev. Robert Taylor, B.A. [1784-1844], The Devil's Pulpit, Freethought Publishing Company, London, 1882, 8.

91.[Sir] A. J. Ayer, Thomas Paine, U. Chicago, 1988, 141.

92.Rev. Robert Taylor, B.A. [1784-1844], The Devil's Pulpit, Freethought Publishing Company, London, 1882, 121.

93.Thomas Paine [1737-1809], The Age of Reason, Citadel, 1974 (1948) (1794 Paris), 190.

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

An Encyclopedia of Religion, Vergilius Ferm, ed., Philosophical Library, 1945.

Cambridge Biographical Dictionary, Magnus Magnusson, ed., Cambridge University Press, 1990 (1897).

Fischer, David H., Historians' Fallacies, Harper, 1970.

[See: 144, 258, 337-338, etc.].

Sparks, John B., "The Histomap of Religion", Rand McNally, 1955 (1943).

St. Onge, K.R., The Melancholy Anatomy of Plagiarism, Lanham, 1988.

The Encyclopedia of Unbelief, Gordon Stein, ed., 2 Vols. (reprinted 1 Vol.), Prometheus, 1985.

[A Classic!] [See: Thomas Paine; Abner Kneeland; Robert Taylor; etc.].

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