Christianism ("Christianity"), Etc.


2

A few references from my researches, which reflect my discoveries.

Subjects and results:

Bible (Old Testament. New Testament.) (was)is Fiction ("historical Fiction", etc.).
Jesus (was)is a Fictional character (not "historical").
Paul (was)is a Fictional character. Etc.

Some principal foci in this presentation:


Chronology (in context, the New Testament record approximates zero).
Epigraphy (in context, the early Christian record approximates zero).
Glyptography (in context, the early Christian record approximates zero).
Numismatics (in context, the early [first 3 centuries C.E.] Christian record is zero).
Propaganda
Heresy
Blasphemy
Persecution and Writing
Book Burning
Fiction in Antiquity. Etc.

Chronology

94. "SENCHONS TO ZENON" "July 256 BCE"

"To Zenon, greetings from Senchons ["sister of Chons", "Egyptian widow"]. I petitioned you about my ass which Nikias took. If you had written to me about her, I would have sent her to you. If it pleases you, command him to return her, in order that we may carry the hives to the pastures, lest they be ruined for you and be of no use to either yourself or the king. And if you examine the matter, you will be persuaded that we are useful to you. And I will send the foal of the ass to you. Therefore, I beg and entreat you, that you not put me off. I am a widowed woman. Farewell. " [See letter, in Greek].

95. "ESTHLADES TO HIS PARENTS" "130 BCE"

In this letter of a Greek soldier, written in Upper Egypt (Thebes), the writer informs his parents that his detachment of troops, loyal to Ptolemy VIII (Euergetes II [145-116 BCE]), is about to attack the town of Hermonthis, which was being held for Queen Cleopatra II. News has come that Paos, the governor (strategos) of Thebes, is about to bring a sufficient force to crush Hermonthis. The document vividly illustrates the internal strife of the royal family during this period. " [See letter, in Greek and English].

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96. "JULIUS APOLLINARIOS TO JULIUS SABINUS" "26 March 107 CE"

This soldier, who had recently joined the Roman legion at Bostra ["S Syria Roman fort". c. 90 (map) miles NE of Jerusalem], complains that his father has not been corresponding with him and, in particular, that his father has failed to inform him about his health. Julius Apollinarios wrote a letter to his mother a few weeks earlier...not included here, and the same kinds of family concern and sentiment came to expression: concern about his mother's health, a report on his favored status over the common soldier who performed hard labor...and his homesickness. He greets a large number of people in both letters. "

[See letter, in Greek and English].

[97.-100. refer principally to Egypt c. 270 B.C.E. - 3rd century C.E.]

97. "documents of an official or contractual/legal nature were usually dated. "

98. "Private documents are frequently not dated. But, if the papyrus either is found with, or turns out to belong to, a body of documents which are dated, its approximate date may also be established. " [plus other methods of dating].

99. "as social setting is concerned, Greek and Roman political structures were similar enough in Egypt and Palestine that the lot of the inhabitants was analogous. "

100. "The earliest papyrus letter which clearly was written by a Christian in Egypt, for example, is from the first half of the third century. "

101. "Precise dating of the events in the New Testament is impossible....Similarly, it is impossible to date with certainty the books of the New Testament. "

[Common Cambridge (etc.) Christian phraseology. Information + obfuscation ("smoke screen" ["Precise"; "certainty"; etc.]). See: 111., 112., 161., 184.].

102. "The sole firm date in the New Testament, the synchronism of Luke 3:1-2, provides only an approximate clue for chronology. It places the appearance of John the Baptist in the fifteenth year of Tiberius, that is 28/29 C.E. "

[History? No! Fiction!].

103. "Books of the New Testament, dates of the: The determination of the dates of the various books of the N.T. is beset with difficulties and uncertainties. In the first place, none of these works is explicitly and definitely dated by its author. Nor does any writing contain unmistakable references by which it might be accurately dated. Further, it is highly probable that most of the authors are unknown to us, save for Paul, for apart from his letters the books in the New Testament are almost without exception either anonymous, or, what is worse, pseudonymous. Finally, the external attestation to their authorship and date is meager and as a rule unreliable. " ["save for Paul"? No! Another pseudonym!].

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104.'He [Augustine 354 - 430 C.E.] recounts that he had to completely alter his own linguistic assumptions and his taste for the "stately prose of Cicero," in order to accommodate the seemingly vulgar, childlike language of Scripture.9 Are these not, he asks himself, simply "literary" fables like the "immoral stories" he and his fellow churchmen object to in pagan literature?'

[See: 55., 56., 60.-63., 87., 88., 90., 94.-96. (contrast), 174., 195., etc.].

• • •

105. "let us formulate a principle of justified belief called the Negative Evidence Principle (NEP). 'A person is justified in believing that p is false if (1) all the available evidence used to support the view that p is true is shown to be inadequate and (2) p is the sort of claim such that if p were true, there would be available evidence that would be adequate to support the view that p is true and (3) the area where evidence would appear, if there were any, has been comprehensively examined.'" [G. A. Wells].

106. "In general, the basic rule of burden of proof in reasonable dialogue is: He who asserts must prove. 11"

107. "if a negative claim is made and is correct, then there is the negative fact making it correct....For a person denying anything is making a claim, and is taking that claim to be correct. " [E. Toms].

108.'As for the famous: "It is impossible to prove a negative", that strikes me as incorrect (balderdash). If "it is impossible to prove a negative", every imagined negative [for example: The cow did not jump over the moon!] would have to be entertained as a possibility.'

109. "Negation in natural languages is an operation of exclusion of expectations. "

[F. Vandamme].

Epigraphy

110. "An immense number of inscribed stones and metals, written in Latin, Greek, and Semitic languages, has been preserved, in various degrees of mutilation, from the world in which primitive Christianity arose. Taken together they furnish a very great deal of valuable material for the reconstruction of the military, political, social, and religious history of the ancient world....The following non-Christian inscriptions all bear directly, though in different ways".

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Glyptography

111. "The non-existence of antique Roman gem-portraits of Christ, at first apparently so difficult to account for, is completely explained by the circumstances above passed under review. They may be briefly recapitulated thus. "

[Apologies! see Reference 126., etc.] [Common Cambridge (etc.) Christian phraseology. Information + obfuscation ("smoke screen" ["at first"; "completely explained"; etc.]). See: 101., 112., 161., 184.].

112. "Christian gems of the Roman period [dates?] are, as a rule, of very poor workmanship.

The commonest subjects are Christ the good Shepherd, represented after [are?] the old pagan types of Hermes Psychopompos or Orpheus playing to the listening beasts--subjects which frequently occur among the early Catacomb paintings. The Christian monogram [see: Footnote A.] P, the dove [see: Footnote B.] and olive branch, and other symbols of this kind were very often cut on gems of the 4th and 5th century. "

[Common Cambridge (etc.) Christian phraseology. Information + obfuscation ("smoke screen" ["Christian gems"; "Roman period"; "very poor workmanship"; "early Catacomb paintings"; etc.]). See: 101., 111., 161., 184.].

[Footnote A. "In Egypt there have been found a whole series of signs which mark the transition from a handled cross, or cross ansata, to the chi-rho, or monogram of Christ [Egyptian symbol] (see fig. 14). " (Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 1961, Vol. IV, 326b)].

[Footnote B. "Among birds the dove was specially sacred to her [Ishtar (ISTAR): Mesopotamian. "Goddess of fertility and war. " Known period of worship c. 2500 B.C.E. - c. 200 C.E. (Encyclopedia of Gods, Michael Jordan, 119)], probably on account of its erotic temperament. It is figured with her on seals". (Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 1961, Vol. VII, 430a)].

[See: 19., 20., 21., etc.].

Numismatics

113. "It was the Greek genius that first devised the idea of coins as a symbol and guarantee of value. The coin of today is fundamentally the same as the coin that was struck in Greece in the eighth century B.C."

114. "It was in Ancient Greece [8th century B.C.E.] that coins began; it was there that they achieved perfection [Reportedly: 4th century B.C.E.]....two thousand cities in the Grecian Empire issued their own coins, and most of these cities struck a great number of differing types in the course of the ages".

[Reportedly: 120,000 types of Ancient Greek coins were struck].

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115. "The gods were honored on the earliest coins, and it was many centuries before the portrait of a man [Ptolemy I (Egypt) c. 300 B.C.E.] usurped the figures of the gods. "

116. "In about 300 B.C., Ptolemy I took the unprecedented step of using his own portrait on a silver tetradrachm, establishing a custom followed by monarchs and emperors down through the centuries. "

117. "The earliest types of Roman coins were essentially religious....It was not, however, until 44 B.C. that the first portrait of a living man [Caesar] appears on Roman coins. " [Roman portrait coins, 1st and 2nd centuries, are famous].

118.'The Emperor Constantine the Great [c. 280 - 337 C.E.] really started the use of Christian symbols on coins in A.D. 312 by showing on the reverse of his coins the labarum, the imperial standard, with a chrismon, and the inscription In hoc signo vinces--"By this sign thou shalt conquer"--which he saw in the sky surmounting a cross the night before his great victory.'

119. "The pagan gods disappeared from his [Constantine] coins in the course of 317 and immediately the first sign of Christianity is seen--the Chi-Rho on the front of the imperial helmet. " [Illustration 648].

120. "coins can serve as instruments of propaganda".

121. "The bust of Christ with the cross behind his head takes the dominant obverse position on gold solidi of Justinian II during his second reign (AD 705-711). Mint of Constantinople. " [Early coin representation of Christ].

122. "A gold solidus of Leo VI, the Wise (AD 886-912), has the Virgin Mary orans as the major obverse type; the emperor is relegated to the reverse. Mint of Constantinople. " [Early coin representation of Virgin Mary].

123. "A curious appendix to the history of Rhodian coinage [c. 408 - 43 B.C.E.] [principally silver coins] is that in the Middle Ages the radiate head of Helios was interpreted as the head of Christ in glory and the rose as the rose of Sharon; relics of such coins were sought after and treasured as the thirty pieces of silver paid to Judas Iscariot. " [the religious imagination--at work!].

124. "'The ancient world was dotted with cities and even the smallest of them has left us, in its precious coins, a record, if not of the whole course of art history, at least of some epochs of it....It makes me sad to think that in my youth my historical knowledge was limited to Palestine [The miserable (10x) culture imposition, of this barbaric, legendary, legacy!] [See ("imposition"): The Legends of the Jews, Louis Ginzberg (1873 - 1953), 7 volumes], which had no images [coins] at all, and Rome, which had far too many. Sicily and Magna Graecia have given me hope of a new life.'" [Goethe 1749 - 1832].

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125. "It is probably true to say that the vast majority of Western coin inscriptions are religious in content but talismanic in intention. " [Religions are "talismanic"!].

126. "the close consideration of coin evidence may shake the foundations of the literary narrative. This is because coins are produced with immediacy in response to events whereas the literary record is composed after the event, often much after, and can suffer from bias if not outright distortion or suppression of facts. "

[Why, no christian coins, 1st, 2nd, 3rd centuries C.E.? Because the "events", were literary events (Fiction!)--only!] [see Reference 126.].

Propaganda

127. "since religions of universalistic extent have come into being (endowed with spreading power beyond their original communities), also a religious propaganda has become common practice (proselytism). Ancient propaganda is best studied with reference to the Roman world".

128. "The term [propaganda] came from the Latin name of a group of Roman Catholic cardinals, the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide (Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith). Pope Gregory XV established the committee--called the propaganda for short--in 1622 to supervise missionaries. "

129. "Since the constitution of complex political entities (based on a differentiation of socio-economic roles and rewards), the ruling elites have always pursued political consent and social cohesion by adding the instruments of persuasion to those of repression".

130. "Propaganda. Propaganda, i.e., the deliberate (albeit mostly dissimulated) spreading of ideas, information, rumors, etc. in order to support one's own political (or religious) cause, to acquire more proselytes, and in the last analysis to gain more power".

131. "Propaganda appeals to its audience in three ways. (1) It calls for an action or opinion that it makes seem wise and reasonable. (2) It suggests that the action or opinion is moral and right. (3) It provides a pleasant feeling, such as a sense of importance or of belonging. "

132. "Baur offered a most radical opinion, namely, that the Gospels were propagandistic essays. " [F. C. Baur 1792 - 1860].

133. "He who acts in obedience to propaganda can never go back. He is now obliged to believe in that propaganda because of his past action....The man who has acted in accordance with the existing propaganda has taken his place in society. From then on he has enemies. "

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134. "Does anyone believe that pre-established attitudes will resist a real propaganda that surrounds the individual without pause from morning to night, from childhood to old age, in all that he reads, sees, hears, without giving him respite, a moment to pause, think, catch his breath?"

135. "we observe that people rarely know in advance what they want, and even less what they want to do....To control opinion one must be aware that there is an abyss between what a man says and what he does. "

136. "propaganda is undoubtedly the most formidable power, acting in only one direction (toward the destruction of truth and freedom), no matter what the good intentions or the good will may be of those who manipulate it. "

137. "The propagandist can mobilize man for action that is not in accord with his previous convictions. Modern psychologists are well aware that there is not necessarily any continuity between conviction and action1 and no intrinsic rationality in opinions or acts. Into these gaps in continuity propaganda inserts its lever. It does not seek to create wise or reasonable men, but proselytes and militants. "

138.'1Goebbels said: "We do not talk to say something, but to obtain a certain effect. " And F.C. Bartlett accurately states that the goal of propaganda is not to increase political understanding of events, but to obtain results through action.'

139. "As propaganda, the New Testament cannot be regarded as a reliable source of historical information on the Jews. "

Heresy

["The Gr. word occurs several times in NT" (Oxford Eng. Dict., 1989, 164)]

140.'Heresy--that is, choice of one's own belief1--was made "treason against God," as to which evidence could be elicited by torture, whether the accused was "bond or free"; here there was equality. Lastly, the schools of philosophy were closed, their endowments confiscated, and those who should "Hellenise" proscribed.'

141.'some students of religion have viewed heresy as creativity. A typical view was expressed by Robert Ingersoll (1833 - 1899): "Religion is like a palm tree; it grows at the top. The dead leaves are all orthodox while the new ones are all heretics. "'

142. "At the beginning, all Christians were heretics as far as broad-minded Roman Paganism was concerned. That Paganism was summed up by one classical author [E. Gibbon 1737 - 1794] who stated that all religions were equally true to the populace, equally false to the philosopher, and equally useful to the magistrate. "

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143.'He [Rossell Hope Robbins] quoted the inquisitor Eymeric de Campo...as lamenting in 1375, "In our days, there are no more rich heretics, so that princes, not seeing much money in prospect, will not put themselves to any expense; it is a pity that so salutary an institution as ours [in other words, the INQUISITION] should be so uncertain of its future. "' [see Reference 143.].

144.[Martin Luther 1483 - 1546] "But an heretic is one that introduces false opinions and doctrines against the articles of the Christian faith, contrary to the true meaning of Holy Scripture, and stubbornly maintains and defends them. The papists do not call me a heretic, but a schismatic; one that prepares discords and strifes. But I say, the pope is an arch heretic, for he is an adversary to my blessed Saviour Christ; and so am I to the pope, because he makes new laws and ordinances according to his own will and pleasure, and so directly denies the everlasting priesthood of Christ. "

145.'Luther [1483 - 1546] was, it should be remembered, thoroughly in accord with pope and with emperor in the belief that it was the duty of the faithful to destroy heresy. He only differed from the pope as to what constituted heresy. In 1525, we find him invoking the aid of the censorship regulations of Saxony and of Brandenburg for the purpose of stamping out the "pernicious doctrines" of the Anabaptists and of the followers of Zwingli.'

146.[Edward Gibbon 1737 - 1794] "During the ages of ignorance which followed the subversion of the Roman empire in the West, the bishops of the Imperial city extended their dominion over the laity as well as clergy of the Latin church. The fabric of superstition which they had erected, and which might long have defied the feeble efforts of reason, was at length assaulted by a crowd of daring fanatics [Heretics!], who, from the twelfth to the sixteenth century, assumed the popular character of reformers. The church of Rome defended by violence the empire which she had acquired by fraud [see 183., etc.]; a system of peace and benevolence was soon disgraced by proscriptions, wars, massacres, and the institution of the holy office. And, as the reformers [Heretics!] were animated by the love of civil as well as of religious freedom, the Catholic princes [compare: princes, and Martin Luther] connected their own interest with that of the clergy, and enforced by fire and the sword the terrors of spiritual censures. "

147. "the audacious suggestion of Hobbes [1588 - 1679], that what was originally meant by the sin against the Holy Ghost, which could never be forgiven, was resistance to the ecclesiastical power. "

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148. "The historian...will not be surprised to find that by far the larger number of Fatal Books deal with these subjects of Theology and Religion, and many of them belong to the stormy period of the Reformation. They met with severe critics in the merciless Inquisition, and sad was the fate of a luckless author who found himself opposed to the opinions of that dread tribunal. There was no appeal from its decisions, and if a taint of heresy, or of what it was pleased to call heresy, was detected in any book, the doom of its author was sealed, and the ingenuity of the age was well-nigh exhausted in devising methods for administering the largest amount of torture before death ended his woes....Liberty of conscience was a thing unknown in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries". [see 156.-169.].

Blasphemy

["Blasphemy was punished by stoning in the OT (Lev.24.16, 1 Kgs.21.10)"

(Oxford Dict. Christian Church, 1974, 179)]

149. "the Catholic Encyclopedia defines blasphemy as 'a mortal sin, the gravest that may be committed against religion'. "

150. "What is distinctive in Judaism and Christianity is their insistence on blasphemy as an act of language, spoken or written. "

151. "Blasphemy, then, is culturally relative. "

152. "Blasphemy is an orthodoxy's way of demonising difference in order to perpetrate violence against it. That is what it does, and all that it is for, assuring orthodoxy of its own identity. " [Power!].

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153. "America...1887, when Robert B. Ingersoll [1833 - 1899] defends Charles B. Reynolds against an allegation of blasphemy based on the ideas in Reynolds's pamphlet Blasphemy and the Bible....He [Ingersoll] tells the jury: 'The question to be tried by you is whether a man has the right to express his honest thought':

How has the church in every age, when in authority, defended itself? Always by a statue against blasphemy, against argument, against free speech. And there never was such a statute that did not stain the book that it was in, and that did not certify to the savagery of the man that passed it. Never. By making a statute, and by defining blasphemy, the church sought to prevent discussion, sought to prevent argument--sought to prevent a man giving his honest opinion. Certainly, a tenet, a doctrine, a dogma, is safe when hedged about by a statute that prevents your speaking against it. In the silence of slavery it exists. It lives because lips are locked. It lives because men are slaves.41

Ingersoll retaliates with the claim that there can be no blasphemy: 'No man can blaspheme a book. No man can commit a blasphemy by telling his honest thought. No man can blaspheme a God, or a Holy Ghost, or a Son of God. The Infinite cannot be blasphemed.'"

154. "'What we want is intellectual hospitality. Let the world talk.' [Robert Ingersoll]

What has been frightening is to have realized the extent to which a violent (and, one might have thought, discredited) discourse of blasphemy still functions in our world....In this book, I found it in the Bible and have taken it all the way to the wrestling ring and the theatre of war. These are not altogether surprising destinations. They are where I should like to leave blasphemy; they are where it has always belonged. " [End of text].

Persecution and Writing

155.'"Persecution...gives rise to a peculiar technique of writing, and therewith to a peculiar type of literature, in which the truth about all crucial things is presented exclusively between the lines. That literature is addressed, not to all readers, but to trustworthy and intelligent readers only. It has all the advantages of private communication without having its greatest disadvantage--that it reaches only the writer's acquaintances. It has all the advantages of public communication without having its greatest disadvantage--capital punishment for the author. "['--From "Persecution and the Art of Writing"'].... "It is [Strauss's] thesis that few, if any, of the Great Books in philosophy and political philosophy...can simply be 'read,' no matter how vigorously....They have to be studied, and in a special way, for if they are truly great, it is probably their intention to conceal as well as to reveal.... "' ["--Irving Kristol, Commentary"].

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Book Burning

156.'Most of the thousands of books that were written in the ancient world did not survive into the Middle Ages, let alone into the modern world....The stationery of the period, usually papyrus but also parchment,1 was susceptible to rapid deterioration in humid weather [fire, etc.]....only those texts that enjoyed a lively readership or some sort of official sponsorship could remain "in print. "'

157. "this particular mode [book burning] of warring with the expression of free thought boasts its precedents in pre-Christian antiquity. "

158. "The [book burning] custom was of pagan observance long before it passed into Christian practice...Protagoras [c. 485 - 410 B.C.E. "Man is the measure of all things: of those which are, that they are; of those which are not, that they are not. "]....was the first avowed Agnostic, for he wrote a work on the gods, of which the very first remark was that the existence of gods at all he could not himself either affirm or deny. For this offensive sentiment his book was publicly burnt; but Protagoras, could he have foreseen the future, might have esteemed himself happy to have lived before the Christian epoch, when authors came to share with their works the purifying process of fire. The world grew less humane as well as less sensible as it grew older, and came to think more of orthodoxy than of any other condition of the mind. "

159. "The virtuous Romans appear to have been greater book-burners than the Greeks....It was the Senate's function to condemn books to the flames".

160. "Of all the books burnt for offence under the first head [i Religion (ii morals, iii politics)], the most to be regretted, from an historical point of view, I take to be Porphyry's Treatise against the Christians [Porphyry c. 232 - c. 300 C.E.], which was burnt A.D. 388 by order of Theodosius the Great [Emperor 379 -395 C.E.]. "

161. "His [Julian 331 - 363 C.E.] chief work, Kata Christianon, is lost [common euphemism for Burned]. "

[Julian borrowed from Porphyry (see 160.)]. [Common Cambridge (etc.) Christian phraseology. Information + obfuscation ("smoke screen" ["lost" = "destroyed" (see 166.)]). See: 101., 111., 112., 184.].

162.[Julian 331 - 363 C.E. (Emperor)] "V. Lost Works. The most important is...[Greek, for "Kata Christianon"], a refutation of the Christian religion, in seven books, according to Hieronymus, although Cyrill only speaks of three. These three books were directed against the dogmatical part of the Christian religion as contained in the Gospels".

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[163.-165. some surviving ("incendiary") writings of Julian]

163. "Yet Jesus, who won over the least worthy of you, has been known by name for but little more than three hundred years: and during his lifetime he accomplished nothing worth hearing of".

164. "they ["Jesus or Paul"] never even hoped that you would one day attain to such power as you ["Galilaeans" (Christians)] have; for they were content if they could delude maidservants and slaves".

165. "But if you can show me that one of these men ["Jesus or Paul"] is mentioned by the well-known writers of that time,--these events happened in the reign of Tiberius or Claudius,--then you may consider that I speak falsely about all matters. "

166. "All the copies of Julian's work which could be found were destroyed by order of the emperor Theodosius II. [Emperor 408 - 450 C.E.], and the whole would have been lost for ever but for Cyrill [Cyril of Alexandria 376 - 444 C.E.], who gives extracts from the three first books in his refutation of Julian. But these extracts are far from giving an adequate idea of the work. Cyrill confesses that he had not ventured to copy several of the weightiest arguments of the author. "

167.[Martin Luther 1483 - 1546] "The multitude of books is a great evil. There is no measure or limit to this fever for writing; every one must be an author; some out of vanity, to acquire celebrity and raise up by name; others for the sake of lucre and gain. The Bible is now buried under so many commentaries, that the text is nothing regarded....The aggregation of large libraries tends to divert men's thoughts from the one great book, the Bible, which ought, day and night, to be in every one's hand....Never will the writings of mortal man in any respect equal the sentences inspired by God. We must yield the place of honour to the prophets and the apostles, keeping ourselves prostrate at their feet as we listen to their teaching. "

168.'The letter to the Cardinal [from: Pope Pius X] ended:

"Assuredly, he [Alfred Loisy] is not asked to write no more, but to write in defense of the tradition, conformably to the words of St. Remy to Clovis: 'Adore what you once burned, and burn what you once adored.'"'

[Letter: Pope Pius X (Pope 1903 - 1914) to Cardinal Richard, and communicated to Alfred Loisy (1857 - 1940 [priest]) (apparently 1908). "sentence of excommunication (March 7, 1908)"].

169. "Has not the Church been careful from the first to suppress or destroy everything that might endanger its interests?"

[Compare: historical SUPPRESSION and/or DESTRUCTION, of PERSONS, BOOKS, ETC., critical of Christianism ("Christianity")].

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170. "Max Nomad wrote 'there are only two principles governing all politics. First--to get power by all means, even the vilest; and second, to keep that power by all means, even the vilest.'"

171. "After prolonged research on myself, I brought out the fundamental duplicity of the human being. Then I realized that modesty helped me to shine, humility to conquer, and virtue to oppress. " [--Camus, The Fall].

[compare: Christians, and other feigners (seeking advantage)].

Fiction in Antiquity

[172.-175. from: Lies and Fiction in the Ancient World]

172.[Julian 331 - 363 C.E.]

"but we must reject all the fictions...composed by writers of the past in the form of history... narratives of love...and all that sort of stuff.6 (Epistles 89·301b)

Julian here singles out the two defining characteristics of Greek novels...their content (erotic) and their form....It is not just that they are fictional. The problem is that novels are fictions couched in a form appropriate to and implying something else: factual history. What makes them dangerous is that they blur an essential dividing line between truth and untruth, that they invite a confusion between what it and what is not real. It is not difficult to see what characteristics might promote this confusion: the narrative mode shared with history, and the use of prose for fiction. " [J.R. Morgan].

173. "Novels exist for pleasure, and the foremost of their pleasures is vicarious emotional involvement. Readers want to experience from a secure imaginative distance situations and feelings which they are unlikely to experience in their real lives, indeed, which they would often go to great lengths to avoid....'We are affected only as we believe,' said Dr. Johnson; 'disbelieving I dislike,' said Horace.26 Even in these sophisticated days of post-modernism, the vast majority of readers want their fiction to be believable. "

[J.R. Morgan] [Dr. Samuel Johnson 1709 - 1784. Horace 65 - 8 B.C.E. "From his own lifetime till now Horace has had a popularity unequalled in literature. " (Cambridge Bio. Dict.)] [see Reference 173.].

174. "the reader's belief is itself part of the fiction, that, as part of the rules of the game, the reader undertakes imaginatively to believe what he knows to be fiction. " [J.R. Morgan].

175. "to play the deceitful game of fiction successfully, we need to be ignorant and wise simultaneously. " [D.C. Feeney] [End of text] [see Reference 175.].

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176. "It was an age [2nd century C.E.] which, as is abundantly proved from its literary monuments, habitually construed the past from the passionate ideals of the present. " ["fictionalized"!].

177. "Horace [65 - 8 B.C.E.] wrote an ode in honor of...Caesar Augustus which presents him as an incarnation of the god Mercury and outlines the typical pattern of mythical biography:

Which of the Gods now shall the people summon

To prop Rome's reeling sovereignty?...

Whom shall Jupiter appoint

As instrument of our atonement?...

thou, (Mercury), winged boy of gentle Maia.

Put on the mortal shape of a young Roman;

Descend, and well contented to be known

As Caesar's avenger,

Stay gladly and long with Romulus's people,

Delay thy homeward, skybound journey.3

Descent as son of a god appointed by the chief deity to become incarnate as a man, atonement, restoration of a sovereignty, ascension to heaven--a gospel indeed, and so like the pattern of the Christian Gospels!"

178. "If the outline of such soteriological ["salvational"] mythology is a culturally-conditioned fiction (incarnate descent, saving acts, return to heaven), what of the particular contents of mythical biography as we have them in the Gospel of Mark?"

179. "The wondertale [type of folktale (Propp, ix: "folk wondertale")] absorbed the social and ideological culture of earlier epochs. But the wondertale is certainly not the only successor [and progenitor] to religion. Religion as such has also changed [succeeded itself] and itself contains extremely ancient traits. All the ideas about the world beyond the grave and the fate of the deceased that were developed in Egypt, Greece, and later in Christianity arose much earlier. "

180.'we may mention the treatment the concept of laughter has undergone in Christianity. In Christianity it is death that laughs, the devils laughs [sic], and mermaids laugh [this clause?]; the Christian God never laughs. "Christ never laughed," the artist A.A. Ivanov remarked to Turgenev, while painting his Christ (Turgenev 1967, 88).2'

181. "The Christian creed in every form, even the kind of new Christianity which professes to have no creed at all, is based upon a falsification of history. The character of the peoples, religions, and moralities before the Christian Era is always, and generally grossly, misrepresented. "

PAGE 30



182. "the infinite varieties of superstition which the imagination, the piety, the fears, or the greed of man have invented since the dawn of civilization. "

183.["FORGERY IN THE CHURCH"] 'In the history of the Church there were many other forged "Donations" besides that of Constantine; there was, for instance, King Pepin's Donation of nearly the whole of Italy to the Pope; but all such attempts sink into insignificance by the side of the "Donation of Constantine," which, consisting as it does of only a few pages, has probably had more influence on the course of human history than anything else of human invention.' [See: 66., 67., 69., 70., 71., etc.].

184. "A foremost modern theologian, by no means of the radical school, has recorded his significant judgment that one of the main characteristics of apologetic literature is its lack of honesty; and no one who has studied theology can doubt that it has suffered more than any other science [sic!] from equivocal phraseology. " [Bluff and "Bullshit"!] ["Christian World", editorial, 8/20/1903].

185. "the conceit of race and the conceit of personal sagacity in combination make a rather bad soil for rational persuasions. "

186. "There is no opinion, however absurd, which men will not readily embrace as soon as they can be brought to the conviction that it is generally adopted. "

187. "the majority of men's errors of opinion proceed rather from wrong or insufficient information than from fallacy of inference. "

[overly optimistic? varies.].

188. "They ["men"] would sooner die than think. It is very curious that the universality of an opinion should have so much weight with people, as their own experience might tell them that its acceptance is an entirely thoughtless and merely imitative process. But it tells them nothing of the kind, because they possess no self-knowledge whatever. " [overly pessimistic? varies.].

189.'A shrewd statesman of two hundred years ago said that "If men would think more they would act less: the greatest part of the business of the world is the effect of not thinking"'.

190. "No real enthusiast ever admits that he has been deceived. He must needs fortify himself, and rise to still higher flights. "

191. "Beliefs, then, are due only in part to deduction from experience. In part they are due to deference to the authority of other people. "

PAGE 31



192. "In modern society we learn nearly everything from our tutors and are therefore dependent on our judgement of their reliability. We are naturally more credulous than our ancestors of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. "

193. "In the final analysis all theology, whether Christian or otherwise, is a marvelous exercise in logic [sic!] based on premises that are no more verifiable--or reasonable--than astrology, palmistry, or belief in the Easter Bunny. "

194.'Ultimately, belief in God may be a genetically determined characteristic of human beings. Sociobiologist Edward O. Wilson thinks that belief in God is a coping mechanism, fundamental to the very nature of our species: "Beliefs are really enabling mechanisms for survival. Religions, like other human institutions, evolve so as to enhance the persistence and influence of their practitioners. "6' [Homo sapiens--behavior!].

195. "To us Jews, the Gospels are not sacred. When we read them (if we do), we read them as literature, not as Scripture. "

196. "we must not surrender to our forefathers 4,000 years ago the exclusive copyright and founding-fatherhood right in fashioning and building Jewish civilization....a culture's evolution proceeds through the endeavors of men rather than through inexorable laws and inevitabilities, we must learn to regard ourselves not simply as guardians of our heritage but as its co-founders and co-creators. "

REFERENCES

94.John L. White, Light from Ancient Letters, Fortress, 1986, 46.

95.See 94., 77.

96.See 94., 165.

97.See 94., 5.

98.See 94., 8.

99.See 94., 18.

100.See 94., 19.

101.Clifford M. Jones, New Testament Illustrations Photographs, Maps and Diagrams, Cambridge, 1966, 166.

102.Hans Conzelmann, Acts of the Apostles, Tr. from the German, Fortress, 1987 (1963), xlviii.

103.An Encyclopedia of Religion, Vergilius Ferm, ed., Philosophical Library, 1945, 83.

104.C. Jan Swearingen, Rhetoric and Irony Western Literacy and Western Lies, Oxford U., 1991, 179.

105.Michael Martin, The Case Against Christianity, Temple U., 1991, 46.

[See: "Introduction"; "Historicity of Jesus" (G.A. Wells); etc.].

106.Douglas Walton, Informal Logic, Cambridge, 1989, 59.

107.Negation, L. Apostel, ed., "Belgian National Center For Logical Research", Nauwelaerts, Belgium, ["1973"], 5.

108.Letter (paragraph): Lino Sanchez to TFE contributor, 11/7/94.

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109. Negation, L. Apostel, ed., "Belgian National Center For Logical Research", Nauwelaerts, Belgium, ["1973"], 98.

110. C.K. Barrett, The New Testament Background: Selected Documents

[No mention of coins], SPCK, 1958, 48.

111. C.W. King [1818-1888], Cambridge, Antique Gems and Rings, Bell and Daldy, 1872, 34.

112. J. Henry Middleton [1846-1896], Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, The Engraved Gems of Classical Times with a Catalogue of the Gems in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge University Press, 1891, 57.

[Book dedicated to C.W. King (see 111.)] [A Classic!] [See, another Classic: J.L. Myres (Oxford), "STONES (PRECIOUS)", Encyclopaedia Biblica, vol. IV, 1903, 4799-4812].

113. C. C. Chamberlain and Fred Reinfeld, Coin Dictionary and Guide, Sterling, 1960, 119.

114. See 113., 5.

115. See 113., 119.

116. Burton Hobson and Robert Obojski, Illustrated Encyclopedia of World Coins, Doubleday, 1970, 221.

117. C. C. Chamberlain and Fred Reinfeld, Coin Dictionary and Guide, Sterling, 1960, 189.

118. Joseph Coffin, Coins of the Popes, Coward-McCann, 1946 ("1943"), 1.

119. J.P.C. Kent, Deputy Keeper Department of Coins and Medals The British Museum, Photographs by Max and Albert Hirmer, Roman Coins, Thames and Hudson, 1978 (1973 German), 52.

120. Philip Grierson, Numismatics, Oxford, 1975, 72.

121. Kenneth Jacob, Coins and Christianity, Seaby, 1985 (1959), 49.

122. See 121., 50.

123. Colin M. Kraay, Photographs by Max Hirmer, Greek Coins, Harry N. Abrams, 1966, 359.

124. G. K. Jenkins, Keeper of the Department of Coins and Medals in the British Museum, Ancient Greek Coins, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1972, 285.

125. Philip Grierson, Numismatics, Oxford, 1975, 79.

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126.P. J. Casey, Understanding Ancient Coins An Introduction for Archaeologists and Historians, Batsford, 1986, 43.

From: Paul Corby Finney, The Invisible God The Earliest Christians on Art, Oxford, 1994.

"The following three rubrics summarize Klauser's interpretative framework:

1. As the child of Judaism, primitive Christianity was a religion simultaneously hostile to pictures in theory (iconophobic) and opposed to their use in practice (aniconic). " [10]

[The classical apology! A. I disagreed. B. Today, 3/27/95, I discovered ("serendipitously") this specialist author (Paul Corby Finney), who disagrees.].

"the absence not just of art but of all identifiably Christian material culture before 200 has become the basis of numerous broad-ranging generalizations and inferences, such as the portrayal of the earlier Christians as spiritual, antimaterialistic, and purely other-worldly persons who eschewed all contact with their physical environment.

My view of this subject is different....absence before 200 of distinctively Christian material culture (art included) says nothing about Christian attitudes toward art....

It is true that Christians were an obscure group for the first several generations of their history; it is also true that materially speaking they were an invisible community before the early third century. But both of these factors are the unintended consequences of circumstances that were largely beyond the control of the communities involved. Obscurity and invisibility were not goals that Christians pursued either actively or passively at the beginning of their history.

A much stronger case can be made for the opposite point of view, namely that from their earliest Palestinian beginnings Christians sought to put their religion on a public footing, to make it accessible and visible to outsiders. Part of this drive toward greater visibility involved the creation of a distinctive material culture, and art was one of its components. Admittedly, this development came relatively late [see 65.], as I have argued, almost certainly not before 200. But to repeat, this tardy arrival was an unintended consequence of political, social, and economic factors [see 65.]. " [291].

127.The Anchor Bible Dictionary, David Noel Freedman, Editor-in-Chief, Doubleday, 1992, Vol. 5, 474.

128.The World Book Encyclopedia, World Book, 1989, Vol. 15, 828-829.

129.The Anchor Bible Dictionary, David Noel Freedman, Editor-in-Chief, Doubleday, 1992, Vol. 5, 474.

130.See 129., Vol. 5, 474.

131.The World Book Encyclopedia, World Book, 1989, Vol. 15, 827.

132.Samuel Sandmel, Provost and Professor of Bible and Hellenistic Literature Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, We Jews and Jesus, Oxford, 1965, 60.

PAGE 34



133.Jacques Ellul, Propaganda The Formation of Men's Attitudes, Knopf, 1971 (1962 France), 29.

134.See 133., 281.

135.See 133., 28.

136.See 133., 257.

137.See 133., 28.

138.See 133., x.

139.Robert Carroll, Wolf in the Sheepfold The Bible as a Problem for Christianity, SPCK, 1991, 100.

140.Thomas Whittaker [1856-1935], The Origins of Christianity with An Outline of Van Manen's Analysis of the Pauline Literature, "3rd. " edition, Watts, 1914, 49.

141.Chas S. Clifton, Encyclopedia of Heresies and Heretics, ABC-CLIO, 1992, xi.

[See end papers: chart: "Heresies and Heretics"; "World Events"].

142.See 141., xii.

143.See 141., 134.

Mexico City, Parque Alameda (near the Palacio de Bellas Artes [Avenida Benito Juarez]) (1986?), talking with Mexicans about the Mexican Inquisition (a nearby plaque [on a building, west side of park] presented brief details) (the large, old trees in the park, reportedly, have been nourished by the bones of the victims of the Mexican Inquisition). With that great Mexican expressiveness (in this case, humor emanating from perspectives, experience, powerlessness, philosophy, etc.), they "told me" it was "strange"; the victims of the Inquisition were usually land owners and/or rich. [Lino Sanchez].

144.The Table Talk [Tischreden] of Martin Luther [1483-1546], Tr. William Hazlitt, ed., George Bell & Sons, 1883--my copy (1848), 217. [complex bibliography. Have seen part, traceable to 1529].

145.George Haven Putnam, The Censorship Of The Church Of Rome, And Its Influence Upon The Production And Distribution Of Literature A Study Of The History Of The Prohibitory And Expurgatory Indexes, Together With Some Consideration Of The Effects Of Protestant Censorship And Of Censorship By the State, Putnam's Sons, 2 Vols., 1906, Vol. 1, 244.

146.The Thinker's Library, No. II Gibbon On Christianity Being the 15th and 16th Chapters of Gibbon's "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire", Watts, n.d. [Introduction by The Rt. Hon. J.M. Robertson, 1929], 134-135.

147.Thomas Whittaker [1856-1935], The Origins of Christianity with An Outline of Van Manen's Analysis of the Pauline Literature, "3rd. " edition, Watts, 1914, 48.

148. P.H. Ditchfield, Books Fatal To Their Authors, Elliot Stock, 1895, 2-3.

[A Classic!].

149.David Lawton, Blasphemy, U. Pennsylvania, 1993, 6.

150.See 149., 5-6.

151.See 149., 4.

152.See 149., 202.

153.See 149., 134-135.

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154.See 149., 202.

155.Leo Strauss, Persecution and the Art of Writing, U. Chicago, 1988 Pb. (1952), back cover.

156.Steve Mason, Josephus and the New Testament, Hendrickson, 1992, 7.

157.James Anson Farrer [1849-1925], Books Condemned to be Burnt,

A.C. Armstrong & Son, 1892, 3-4. [A Classic!].

158.See 157., 2-3.

159.See 157., 3.

160.See 157., 5.

161.Cambridge Biographical Dictionary, Magnus Magnusson, ed., Cambridge University Press, 1990 (1897), 801.

162.A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, By Various Writers, [Sir] William Smith [1813-1893], D.C.L., LL.D., ed., In Three Volumes, Illustrated by numerous engravings on wood, AMS, 1967 (1890) ("1844"),

Vol. II, 649.

163.The Works of the Emperor Julian [331-363 C.E.], Tr. Wilmer Cave Wright,

3 vols., Heinemann, 1990 (1913), vol. III, 377 ["Against the Galilaeans"].

164.See 163., 377.

165.See 163., 377.

166.A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, By Various Writers, [Sir] William Smith [1813-1893], D.C.L., LL.D., ed., In Three Volumes, Illustrated by numerous engravings on wood, AMS, 1967 (1890) ("1844"),

Vol. II, 649.

167.The Table Talk [Tischreden] of Martin Luther [1483-1546], Tr. William Hazlitt, ed., George Bell & Sons, 1883--my copy (1848), 369.

[complex bibliography. Have seen part, traceable to 1529].

168.Alfred Loisy, Professor in the College de France, My Duel With The Vatican The Autobiography Of A Catholic Modernist, Tr. Richard Wilson Boynton, Greenwood, 1968, 42.

169.Arthur Drews [1865-1935], The Witnesses to the Historicity of Jesus,

Tr. Joseph McCabe, Watts, 1912, 57. [A Classic!].

170.Michael Grant, Ancient History, Harper, 1965 Pb. (1952), 186.

171.Sissela Bok, Lying Moral Choice in Public and Private Life, Pantheon, 1978, xv.

172.Lies and Fiction in the Ancient World, Christopher Gill and T.P. Wiseman, eds.,

U. Texas, 1993, 178.

173.See 172., 193.

The theme of Lies and Fiction in the Ancient World, is complicity [which includes, Denial!] between the reader, and the written fiction. The motivations? Auto-animal promptings, seeking stimuli, resolution, advantage, etc. (The origins of religions are auto-deceit. % genetic? % nurture? "Existential cannibalism"! [see 194., etc.]).

[Reference: musings of the Rt. Reverend, 3/5/95].

174.See 172., 193-194.

PAGE 36



175.See 172., 244.

"Pulling the wool" over one's eyes, to "pull the wool" over others' eyes; then to remove the "wool" from one's eyes--and, what opportunities! [Reference: musings of the Rt. Reverend, 3/15/95] [see 171., etc.].

From: The Criminal & His Victim Studies in the Sociobiology of Crime,

Hans von Hentig, Archon, 1967 (1948 Yale U.):

"That the victim is taken as one of the determinants, and that a nefarious symbiosis is often established between doer and sufferer, may seem paradoxical. The material gathered, however, indicates such a relation. " ["Foreword"].

'Churchgoers are in the opinion of inmates "usually the intellectually dull, the emotional, the provincial, and the aged," if there is a strong emotional urge toward religious expression.44 It is a prison tenet that sex offenders are fervently religious.45 Inmate observers add other categories: "Sex offenders, murderers, and embezzlers are in attendance at the service in much greater proportion that their share of the total population. "46' [342].

'For being a "regular church attendant" convicts have been recommended by their chaplain for an act of clemency. It is unfortunate that the first earthly thought of the prisoner is to be released. Going to heaven is only the second.' [342].

[Compare: The "1900" year old heinous fraud, destruction, nightmares, etc., of Christianism ("Christianity"). % "believers" complicity?].

[see 11., etc.].

176.[Edwin Johnson 1842-1901] [published anonymously], Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins, London: Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1887, 42.

177.Randel Helms, Gospel Fictions, Prometheus, 1988, 24-25.

178.See 177., 26.

179.Vladimir Propp [1895-1970], Theory and History of Folklore, Trs. Ariadna Y. Martin and Richard P. Martin and several others, Anatoly Liberman, ed., 1984, 122. [1928 Morphology of the Folktale ("I [Propp, ix] called it Morphology of the Wondertale. ")].

180.See 179., 136-137.

181.Joseph McCabe [1867-1955] [Former priest, phenomenal writer!], The Forgery of the Old Testament and Other Essays, Prometheus, 1993 (1926-1927), 121.

182.Henry Charles Lea, Materials Toward A History of Witchcraft, 3 vols.,

Thomas Yoseloff, 1957, vol. 1, xxvi.

183.J.A. Farrer, Literary Forgeries, Introduction by Andrew Lang, Longmans, 1969 (1907), 137.

184.Joseph McCabe [1867-1955] [Former priest, phenomenal writer!], The Forgery of the Old Testament and Other Essays, Prometheus, 1993 (1926-1927), 113.

185.J.M. Robertson [1856-1933], Letters on Reasoning, Watts, 1902, 243.

PAGE 37



186.Arthur Schopenhauer [1788-1860], How to Argue Logically The Art of Controversy, Little Blue Book, No. 364, E. Haldeman-Julius, ed., E. Haldeman-Julius Publications, Girard, Kansas, [n.d.] [Essay traceable in the U. of California to 1890], 22.

187.J.M. Robertson [1856-1933], Letters on Reasoning, Watts, 1902, 17.

188.Arthur Schopenhauer [1788-1860], How to Argue Logically The Art of Controversy, Little Blue Book, No. 364, E. Haldeman-Julius, ed., E. Haldeman-Julius Publications, Girard, Kansas, [n.d.] [Essay traceable in the U. of California to 1890], 22-23.

189.J.M. Robertson [1856-1933], Letters on Reasoning, Watts, 1902, 28.

190.Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, The Origins of Christianity, University Books, 1958 (1910 rev.) (1909), 44.

191.G. A. Wells, Religious Postures Essays on Modern Christian Apologists and Religious Problems, Open Court, 1988, 233.

192.See 191., 234.

193.Joseph L. Daleiden, The Final Superstition A Critical Evaluation of the Judeo-Christian Legacy, Prometheus, 1994, 386.

194.See 193., 390.

195.Samuel Sandmel, Provost and Professor of Bible and Hellenistic Literature Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, We Jews and Jesus, Oxford, 1965, 119.

196.Meir Ben-Horin [1918- ], Common Faith--Uncommon People Essays in Reconstructionist Judaism, Reconstructionist Press, 1970, 7.

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

[Chronology]

House, H. Wayne, Chronological and Background Charts of the New Testament, Zondervan, c1981.

Walton, John H., Chronological Charts of the Old Testament, Zondervan, 1980 (1978).

[Numismatics]

Classical Coins, Classical Numismatic Group, Inc., Post Office Box 479, Lancaster, PA 17608-0479, USA 1/717/390-9194. [catalogs, auctions, expertise, etc.].

Freeman & Sear ["A Numismatic Partnership"] P.O. Box 5004 Chatsworth, CA 91313-5004 USA 1/310/202-0641. [(classical coins) catalogs, auctions, expertise, etc.].

Great Jewish Portraits in Metal Selected Plaques and Medals from the Samuel Friedenberg Collection of the Jewish Museum, Daniel M. Friedenberg, ed., Published by Schocken Books for The Jewish Museum under the auspices of The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1963.

Madden, Frederic W., "Assistant in the Department of Coins and Medals, British Museum,and Honorary Secretary of the Numismatic Society of London", History of Jewish Coinage, and of Money in the Old and New Testament, Argonaut, 1967.

PAGE 38



Price, Martin Jessop and Bluma L. Trell, Coins and Their Cities Architecture on the Ancient Coins of Greece, Rome, and Palestine, Wayne State U., 1977.

• • •

Athanassiadi, Polymnia, Professor of Late Antique History at the University of Athens, Julian An Intellectual Biography, Routledge, 1992 (1981).

Bauer, Walter [1877-1960], Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity, Robert A. Kraft and Gerhard Krodel, eds., Fortress, 1971 (1964 German) (1934 German).

Carter, Nicholas, The Late Great Book The Bible, Truth Missions, 1985.

[Superb critical, courageous, writing!] [first saw this book 3/23/95] [See: 143, 199, 207, 218-220, etc.].

Celsus On The True Doctrine A Discourse Against the Christians [c. 178 C.E.],

Tr. R. Joseph Hoffmann, Oxford, 1987.

Malley, William J., S.J., HELLENISM AND CHRISTIANITY "The Conflict Between Hellenic and Christian Wisdom in the Contra Galilaeos of Julian the Apostate [Christian venomous epithet (compare: Anathema ["Voodoo", and/or physical death, sentence])] and the Contra Julianum of St. Cyril of Alexandria" Università Gregoriana Editrice, Roma, 1978.

[A book about competing, dominant, superstitions. Dominant primates (with troop support), struggling for dominance (Power!).].

Porphyry's Against The Christians The Literary Remains, Tr. R. Joseph Hoffmann, Prometheus, 1994.

Propaganda and Communication in World History, Harold D. Lasswell, Daniel Lerner, Hans Speier, eds., 3 Vols., U. Hawaii, 1979.

Robertson, J.M. [1856-1933], A History of Freethought Ancient and Modern to the Period of the French Revolution, 4th ed. [prefaced with appreciations of Robertson], 2 vols., Watts, 1936 (1969, 4th ed.) (1915 [my copy]) (1906) (1899 [my copy]). [A Classic!].

Robertson, J. M. [1856-1933], A History of Freethought in the Nineteenth Century,

2 vols., Watts, 1929 (1930, G.P. Putnam's Sons [my copy]). [A Classic!].

Stowers, Stanley K., Letter Writing in Greco-Roman Antiquity, Westminster, 1986.

[other "tools"]

Atlas of the Classical World, A.A.M. van der Heyden and H.H. Scullard, eds., Nelson, 1960 (c1959).

Book Catalogs (Used and New).

Books in Print (1995, "10" volumes).

Bufe, Chaz, and J.R. Swanson, The American Heretic's Dictionary, Sharp, 1992.

["As bitter as Bierce and as mordant as Mencken"].

Computers: example: The University of California computer system (MELVYL); 8 million + books (many duplicates--of course. Distinct books?). Access (not easy) to (for examples): Cambridge; Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries; Dartmouth; Harvard; Oxford; Stanford; Yale; etc.

PAGE 39



Cumulative Book Index (many volumes).

H.H. Waldo Bookseller, PO Box 350, Rockton IL 61072 1/800/66 WALDO

[Robb Marks: A. Tremendous source (help). B. Personally informed me of TFE, and encouraged me to subscribe.].

Interlibrary Loans.

Kramer, Samuel Noah, Cradle of Civilization, Time-Life, 1967.

[See: charts: "Ancient Near Eastern Cultures" (54); "Crossroad Civilizations Between East and West" (Appendix)].

Libraries: examples (San Diego, California): University of California San Diego; San Diego State University; University of San Diego ("Catholic"); San Diego Public Library (some rare books, not found in the other libraries); Point Loma Nazarene College.

The National Union Catalog, 754+ volumes.

OCLC (computer, subscriber access) ("nearly 30 million records").

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingstone, eds., Oxford U., 1974 (1957).

[See: Blasphemy; Heresy; Apostasy; Anathema; etc.].

The Oxford English Dictionary, 20 + volumes.

Prince, Gerald, A Dictionary of Narratology, U. Nebraska, 1987.

Sadigh Gallery, 303 Fifth Avenue Suite 1603, New York, NY 10016

1/800/426-2007. (Ancient Art. Catalogs. Buy or Bid Sales. Etc.).

Used Book Stores (examples of my search areas: San Diego, California; San Francisco-Berkeley-Oakland; a few stores in the Los Angeles area; Used Book Catalogs, via U.S. Mail.).

Wales, Katie, A Dictionary of Stylistics, Longman, 1989.

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